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Nervous System

Advantage and Disadvantage of Genetically Modified Foods


Group Kazi Sami Bin EamdadID: 1120003030 Ahmed Imran KabirID: 1030698030 Nabil HasanID: 1120332030 Nahian Al FerdousID: 1030685530

Course: BIO103 Section: 11


IntroductionGenetically modified foods are foods derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Genetically modified organisms have had specific changes introduced into their DNA by genetic engineering techniques. These techniques are much more precise than mutagenesis (mutation breeding) where an organism is exposed to radiation or chemicals to create a non-specific but stable change. Other techniques by which humans modify food organisms include selective breeding; plant breeding, and animal breeding, and somaclonal variation.



Genetically Modified Foods were first put on the market in 1996.Animal products have also been developed although as of July 2010.In 2006, a pig was engineered to produce omega-3 fatty acid.Researchers have also developed a genetically-modified breed of pigs that are able to absorb plant phosphorus more efficiently.Historically man has selectively bred food plants to produce bigger and better crops. This was achieved by deliberately cross-pollinating plants with desirable features.


History (Cont.)Genetic modification (GM) takes selective breeding a step further. Scientists are learning how to identify genes and recognize which genes control the development of which characteristics.They are now able to breed offspring by transplanting the desirable genes from one plant to another. The U.S. is the largest producer of genetically modified crops. More than a dozen countries around the world have latched on to the technology, including Argentina, Canada, China, Australia, India, and Mexico.


MethodGenetic modification involves the insertion or deletion of genes.In the process of cogenesis, genes are artificially transferred between organisms that could be conventionally bred.In the process of transgenesis, genes from a different species are inserted, which is a form of horizontal gene transfer.To do this artificially may require transferring genes as part of an attenuated virus genome or physically inserting the extra DNA into the nucleus of the host using a micro syringe, or as a coating on gold nanoparticles fired from a gene gun.


Method (cont.)However, other methods exploit natural forms of gene transfer, such as the ability of Agro bacterium to transfer genetic material to plants, and the ability of lent viruses to transfer genes to animal cells.The method to introduce new genes into plants requires several important factors such as specific promoter, cordon usage of the gene and how to deactivate the gene. The specific promoter must pertain to area that we want the gene to express.


Reasons to genetically modifyingBy genetically modifying plants in the laboratory it is possible to have stricter control over the genes.

In nature all the genetic material from the parent plants is mixed.

With GM the desirable genes can be separated from the undesirable genes.

Reasons to genetically modifying (cont.)In nature recessive genes often "skip" several generations.

It is also possible by GM to cross species that would not breed together naturally.

Advantages of GM FoodsInsect and pest resistanceDisease resistanceCrops that can withstand environmental stressHerbicide toleranceImproved nutritional valueBiopharmaceuticals


Advantages of GM Foods (cont.)

Sturdy plants able to withstand weather extremes Better quality food cropsInexpensive and nutritious food, like carrots with more antioxidants Foods with a greater shelf life, like tomatoes that taste better and last longer Food with medicinal (nutraceutical) benefits, such as edible vaccines for example, bananas with bacterial or rotavirus antigens


Advantages of GM Foods (cont.)Better quality food crops Higher nutritional yields in cropsInexpensive and nutritious food, like carrots with more antioxidants Foods with a greater shelf life, like tomatoes that taste better and last longer Plants such as poplar trees have been genetically engineered to clean up heavy metal pollution from contaminated soil


Disadvantages of GM Foods (cont.)Environmental:-Harm to other organisms.

Cross-pollination with traditional, organic plants

Spread of new, more resistant "super weeds.

Spread of new, more resistant "super pests".


Disadvantages of GM Foods (cont.)Economical:-Major trading countries that obtain most of the benefit from the production and trade of genetically modified crops. As the USA is the biggest producer of GMO crops, their exports may rouse more anti-American feelingGMOs are made because it is possible to make them, not because consumers feel their need. Possible creation of new kinds of weapons; genetic food and beverage weapons.Widening corporate size gaps between food producing giants and smaller ones.


Disadvantages of GM Foods (cont.)Larger companies might have more political power.

Human health risks:-Allergenicity may have developed life-threatening allergies to peanuts and other foods.


Genetically-modified foods have the potential to solve many of the world's hunger and malnutrition problems.Genetically-modified foods have the potential to help protect and preserve the environment by increasing yield and reducing reliance upon chemical pesticides and herbicides. Yet there are many challenges ahead for governments, especially in the areas of safety testing, regulation, international policy and food labeling.Conclusion


Conclusion (cont.)Many people feel that genetic engineering is the inevitable wave of the future and that we cannot afford to ignore a technology that has such enormous potential benefits.

we must proceed with caution to avoid causing unintended harm to human health and the environment.