generations of computers.15

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  • 1. Generations of computers. 1

2. Objective:On completion of this period, you would beable to know:The generations of computers. 3. Generations of computers The first generation computers The second generation computers The third generation computers The fourth generation computers The fifth generation computers 3 4. The First Generation Computers. The digital computer using electronic device(vacuum tubes) is known as the first generationcomputer. The first generation computer used vacuum tubeas a CPU component. 4 5. The first generation computers (contd): Vacuum Tube is the main technology Acoustic delay lines were used for memory These are costly but slower devices Larger in size Produced more heat Maintenance was needed Highly unreliable. 5 6. The first generation computers (contd): They used fixed-point arithmetic Examples : IBM 700 series IBM 701, IBM 704,IBM 709, EDVAC and UNIVAC. 7. The second generation computers The second generation computers usedtransistors as CPU components Ferrite cores for main memory and magneticdisks and tapes for secondary memory. 7 8. The third generation computers The third generation computers used ICs (SSIand MSI) as CPU components. These used magnetic core memory, but later onsemiconductor memories. 8 9. The third generation computers (contd) Semiconductor memories were LSI chips. Concept of Cache memory was introduced. 9 10. The third generation computers (contd) Micro programming, parallel processing, multiprocessing, multi user system and time sharingsystem etc were introduced. Examples:IBM/370 series (1970),CDC 7600(1969), CDCs CYBER-175 and STAR-100,etc 10 11. The fourth generation computers Fourth generation computers use VLSI chips forCPU, memory and supporting chips. They use microprocessor as CPU (32 bit or 64bit). 12. The fourth generation computers (contd) They also contain many other essentialcomponents such as FPU (Floating Point Unit),MMU (Memory Management Unit), first level andsecond level cache memory etc. Examples of latest microprocessors :Pentium IIand Pentium III, Power PC ,DECs Alpha, SUNsULTRASPARC ,AMDs K-6,K-7,etc 12 13. The fifth generation computers (contd) : The fifth generation computers are underdevelopment stage. These computers will use ULSI (ultra large scaleintegration) chips. 13 14. The fifth generation computers (contd) : ULSI chips contain millions of components into asingle IC. The input and output information for thesecomputers will be in the form of speech andgraphic images 14 15. The fifth generation computers (contd) : The computer will understand natural languageslike English , Japanese , etc. The programmers will not have to learnprogramming languages. 15 16. The fifth generation computers (contd) : They will be able to speak commands or keyinformation in their mother tongue Vision system will also be incorporated. 16 17. GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERSGenerations Components Advantages DisadvantagesExamplesusedFirst (1946-Vacuum tubes Machine Language Costlier, more IBM700,ENIAC,1954) space, excessEDVACpowerSecond(1955-TransistorsLess expensive, less Used AssemblyIBM7090,1964)power, Language IBM7094 I, Cheaper & small inIBM9094 II sizeThird(1965- Integrated circuits, Smaller, Faster,IBM/370 series,1974) Semi conductor Cheaper-Cyber175memoryFourth(1975-VLSI chips Faster, Less power Uses one or more CRAY Y_MPC,1984)consumptionmicroprocessorsWIPRO LANDMARK 860Fifth(1985- ULSI Very high-Windows 2000,present) performance, Easy Xp, Linux access, Multiprocessing 17 18. SummaryIn this class, we have learnt about Generations of computers 18 19. Frequently Asked Questions Explain different generations of computers? 19 20. Quiz1. The third generation computers useda. vacuum tubesb. transistorsc. ICsd. LSIAnswer: c 20 21. Quiz2. The second generation computers used a. vacuum tubes b. transistors c. ICs d. LSIAnswer: b 21 22. Quiz3. The first generation computers useda. vacuum tubesb. transistorsc. ICsd. LSIAnswer: a 22


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