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    GenderEqualityinEducation:LookingbeyondParityAnIIEPEvidenceBasedPolicyForum

    UNESCOIIEP,Paris,France

    34October2011

    OUTCOMEREPORT

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    This document, not published by IIEP, is an outcome report of the Policy Forum onGenderEqualityinEducationheldonthe34October,2011inParis,France

    The views and opinions expressed in this document are those of the author and do notnecessarily represent the views of UNESCO or IIEP. The designations employed and thepresentationofmaterialthroughoutthisdocumentdonot implytheexpressionofanyopinionwhatsoeveronthepartofUNESCOorIIEPconcerningthelegalstatusofanycountry,territory,cityorareaoritsauthorities,orconcerningitsfrontiersorboundaries.

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    Contents

    1. Introduction...............................................................................................................................4

    2. ThePolicyForum.......................................................................................................................6

    3. Forumcontent...........................................................................................................................8

    4. InternationalEvidenceonGenderEquality...............................................................................9

    5. Learningfromexperience:genderequalityinterventionandstrategies................................13

    6. Methodologiesingenderrelatedstudies...............................................................................18

    7. Lunchtimetalks........................................................................................................................23

    8. Policy,Research,AgendaforAction,andPartnership............................................................25

    9. Recommendations...................................................................................................................28

    10. References...............................................................................................................................30

    11. AnnexI.Agenda.......................................................................................................................31

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    1. Introduction

    Globally, some 39million girls of lower secondary age are currently not enrolled in eitherprimaryorsecondaryeducation,whiletwothirdsoftheworlds796millionilliterateadultsarewomen.Onlyaboutonethirdofcountrieshaveachievedgenderparityatsecondary level.Theevidenceshowsthatsomethingneedstochange.

    The IIEP 2011 EvidenceBased Policy Forum onGender Equality in Education: LookingBeyondParity, aimed to reviewhow schools and the education system as awhole can functionproactively in the equal interests of girls and of boys,men andwomen.Much of the currentlyavailable research on gender equality in education has focused on gender parity in terms ofaccesstoprimaryandsecondaryschools(includinghowthisisrelatedtoengagementofwomenwithin the teaching profession and the education system more broadly). More recently,evidencehasemerged that looksbeyondaccess,examininggenderequality inmoredepth intermsoflearningachievement.

    In addition, there is a dearth of evidence that focuses on leadership patterns in educationalplanning andmanagement. Although there is increasing evidence in the private sector thatincreaseddiversityatsenior levelsofmanagementmakeseconomicsense, thishasso farnotbeentranslatedsystematicallytothepublicsector.Thisisdespitetheincreasedfeminizationoftheteachingprofessionatthelowerlevelsofeducation.Itisstillthecasethatinmostcountries,themostseniormanagementand leadershippositions ineducationareoccupiedbymen.TheevidencepresentedduringthePolicyForumexaminedsomeofthemultiplereasonswhythisisthecase.

    Therefore, thePolicyForumpresentedevidence relating to twoaspectsofgenderequality ineducation(thepresentationsandpapersareavailableinfullonline1):

    (a) at the school and classroom level analysis of gender differences in studentachievement in relation to classroom teaching, schoolenvironment,and local context;and

    (b) attheministryofeducationlevel(bothcentralanddecentralizedlevels)improvementofgenderequalityinrelationtoeducationalleadershipinplanningandmanagement.

    Genderequalityinlearningandteaching(attheschoollevel)

    IIEPhasconductedseveralstudies intheareaofgenderequalitythroughcooperationwiththe15ministriesofeducation inSouthernandEasternAfrica that form theSouthernandEasternAfrica Consortium forMonitoring EducationalQuality (SACMEQ). SACMEQ research has beenundertaken toexplorepossible crossnationalexplanations for thepresence, and absence,ofdifferencesbetweengirlsandboys in learningachievement.Thepotentialexplanations includefactorsrelatedto:(i)classroomteaching(e.g.,sexofteacher,curriculumgap,pedagogy,useofICT, textbooks), (ii) schoolenvironment (e.g., repetition, streaming,HIVandAIDSprogramme,

    1http://genderpolicyforum.wordpress.com

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    security, latrines); and (iii) home and community (e.g., gender of household head,motherseducation,householdtasks,familyinterests,extratuition).

    ThePolicyForumhighlightedsomeof the latestSACMEQ III resultsundertaken in2007whichindicated that the sizeand thedirectionofgenderdifferences in learningachievementat theGrade6 levelhasbeenverystableacrosstheperiod20002007,regardlessofwhether itwastheboysorgirlswhoperformedbetter.The resultshave led researchers toquestionwhetherpast genderrelated educational interventions have neglected the question of learningachievement(Saito,2010),especiallyinruralschoolsandlowsocioeconomicgroups.

    The aboveevidenceon genderequality in learning achievementwas a consequenceof IIEPscapacity building programmes on educational policy research in close collaboration withSACMEQ. The valuable trend information generated from over 120,000 pupils has providedinputstoevidencebasedplanningdecisionswithintheministriesofeducationinthesubregion.The results have been also used by publications such as theUNESCO EFAGlobalMonitoringReport, theUISEducationDigest focusingonGender,andUnitedNationspublicationson theAdvancementofWomen.

    Genderequalityandleadershipineducation(attheMinistrylevel)

    Todate, limitedresearchhasbeenconducted inthe fieldofgenderequalityand leadership ineducation.Although there isnothingunique in countrieswith lowparticipationofwomen inpublicpolicyascomparedwithotherareasofseniormanagementinthepublicsector;thereis,however,one feature thatsinglesoutministriesofeducation fromothersectors: their role ineducation iscrosscuttingandwideranging.Theyspan the formalsectorofeducationbutalsohave themandate of educating the public and the nation in general. They areministries ofeducationandnotministriesofschools.Theycanthereforebeexpectedtoleadineducatingthenation on all subjects of fundamental interest to the state and of intrinsic interest to theindividualcitizensofthestate,throughavarietyofmodesofdelivery.Oneofthetimehonouredmethodsofeducating isbyexampleandbymodelling. Further,pedagogical theories indicatethatcurriculumcontenttransmissionisnullifiedwhenteachersfailtopracticebyexamplewhattheyareadvocating(Obura,2011).

    During thePolicy Forum, IIEPpresentedpreliminary findingsof actionoriented researchwithministriesofeducation to reviewmechanisms that supporteffective leadershippractices andpromotegreateraccessforwomen inpositionsofauthority.Thisresearchwasfundedthroughthe generous contribution of the NetherlandsMinistry of Foreign Affairs, and conducted inArgentina, Kenya, and VietNam. It illustrated the obstacles and enabling factors that affectwomensaccessto,andexperiencesin,seniorlevelsofministriesofeducation.Thisresearchandtheoutcomes fromthe forumwillhelpto identifyspecificstrategiesthatsupportministriesofeducation tomodelpositive change at all levels so as topromote greater genderequality ineducationsystems.

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    2. ThePolicyForum

    ThePolicyForumwasopenedbyIrinaBokova,DirectorGeneralofUNESCO,whoemphasizedtheimportanceofthethemeoftheforumandtheneedtolookbeyondparity.EqualitysaidMs Bokova, is not a numbers game. Bydrawing attention to the 2011 EFA GlobalMonitoring Report, Ms Bokova painted apictureofwideningdisparitiesandchallengesto equality. Girls are getting lost along the

    way, falling out of education, saidMs Bokova. She called on the forum to examine theirstrategiesandpracticesandtorespondtothesechallengesinaclearandconstructivemanner,asthesedisparitiesstartearlyandrundeep.Theneedforeducationofqualityandequalityhasmade it necessary to examine both the academic and institutional levels, in terms of,respectively,theachievementofstudentsandtheplanningandconceptionofprogrammes.TheUnited Nations Economic and Social Council has already taken an important first step inaffirmingthekeyroleofeducationasafundamentalrightfortherealizationoftheMillenniumGoalsofDevelopment.MsBokovaalsospokeof the launchof theGlobalPartnership forGirlsandWomens Education,with the participation ofUnitedNations SecretaryGeneralBan KimoonandSecretaryofStateHilaryClinton,aswellaslargeprivateenterprisessuchastheJamesFoundation,Nokia,ProcterandGamble,Microsoft,and thePackardFoundation,whichwillbedevelopingfurtherpartnershipswithUNWomen.Theseinitiativesprovideasenseofhopethataroundtheworldsuccessfulstrategies,suchasinKenya,exist.MsBokovaconcludedthatastheprerequisites to these common goals, it is important to provide reliable analyses aswell asappropriateplanningpolicies.

    ThissentimentwasreiteratedbyCherylFaye,theExecutiveDirectoroftheUNGirlsEducationInitiative(UNGEI)whoemphasizedthateventhoughgreatstrideshadtakenplace,onlyone inthreecountriesaroundtheworldhadachievedparityinbothprimaryandsecondaryeducation.MsFayearguedthatgoodpracticeandan informedevidencebase isnecessarytoensurethatgendersensitiveinterventionsandclearpolicystrategiesaredevelopedandimplemented.

    The forum brought together over 100 people, f

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