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1GenderEqualityinEducation:LookingbeyondParityAnIIEPEvidenceBasedPolicyForumUNESCOIIEP,Paris,France34October2011OUTCOMEREPORT2This document, not published by IIEP, is an outcome report of the Policy Forum onGenderEqualityinEducationheldonthe34October,2011inParis,FranceThe views and opinions expressed in this document are those of the author and do notnecessarily represent the views of UNESCO or IIEP. The designations employed and thepresentationofmaterialthroughoutthisdocumentdonot implytheexpressionofanyopinionwhatsoeveronthepartofUNESCOorIIEPconcerningthelegalstatusofanycountry,territory,cityorareaoritsauthorities,orconcerningitsfrontiersorboundaries.3Contents1. Introduction...............................................................................................................................42. ThePolicyForum.......................................................................................................................63. Forumcontent...........................................................................................................................84. InternationalEvidenceonGenderEquality...............................................................................95. Learningfromexperience:genderequalityinterventionandstrategies................................136. Methodologiesingenderrelatedstudies...............................................................................187. Lunchtimetalks........................................................................................................................238. Policy,Research,AgendaforAction,andPartnership............................................................259. Recommendations...................................................................................................................2810. References...............................................................................................................................3011. AnnexI.Agenda.......................................................................................................................3141. IntroductionGlobally, some 39million girls of lower secondary age are currently not enrolled in eitherprimaryorsecondaryeducation,whiletwothirdsoftheworlds796millionilliterateadultsarewomen.Onlyaboutonethirdofcountrieshaveachievedgenderparityatsecondary level.Theevidenceshowsthatsomethingneedstochange.The IIEP 2011 EvidenceBased Policy Forum onGender Equality in Education: LookingBeyondParity, aimed to reviewhow schools and the education system as awhole can functionproactively in the equal interests of girls and of boys,men andwomen.Much of the currentlyavailable research on gender equality in education has focused on gender parity in terms ofaccesstoprimaryandsecondaryschools(includinghowthisisrelatedtoengagementofwomenwithin the teaching profession and the education system more broadly). More recently,evidencehasemerged that looksbeyondaccess,examininggenderequality inmoredepth intermsoflearningachievement.In addition, there is a dearth of evidence that focuses on leadership patterns in educationalplanning andmanagement. Although there is increasing evidence in the private sector thatincreaseddiversityatsenior levelsofmanagementmakeseconomicsense, thishasso farnotbeentranslatedsystematicallytothepublicsector.Thisisdespitetheincreasedfeminizationoftheteachingprofessionatthelowerlevelsofeducation.Itisstillthecasethatinmostcountries,themostseniormanagementand leadershippositions ineducationareoccupiedbymen.TheevidencepresentedduringthePolicyForumexaminedsomeofthemultiplereasonswhythisisthecase.Therefore, thePolicyForumpresentedevidence relating to twoaspectsofgenderequality ineducation(thepresentationsandpapersareavailableinfullonline1):(a) at the school and classroom level analysis of gender differences in studentachievement in relation to classroom teaching, schoolenvironment,and local context;and(b) attheministryofeducationlevel(bothcentralanddecentralizedlevels)improvementofgenderequalityinrelationtoeducationalleadershipinplanningandmanagement.Genderequalityinlearningandteaching(attheschoollevel)IIEPhasconductedseveralstudies intheareaofgenderequalitythroughcooperationwiththe15ministriesofeducation inSouthernandEasternAfrica that form theSouthernandEasternAfrica Consortium forMonitoring EducationalQuality (SACMEQ). SACMEQ research has beenundertaken toexplorepossible crossnationalexplanations for thepresence, and absence,ofdifferencesbetweengirlsandboys in learningachievement.Thepotentialexplanations includefactorsrelatedto:(i)classroomteaching(e.g.,sexofteacher,curriculumgap,pedagogy,useofICT, textbooks), (ii) schoolenvironment (e.g., repetition, streaming,HIVandAIDSprogramme,1http://genderpolicyforum.wordpress.com5security, latrines); and (iii) home and community (e.g., gender of household head,motherseducation,householdtasks,familyinterests,extratuition).ThePolicyForumhighlightedsomeof the latestSACMEQ III resultsundertaken in2007whichindicated that the sizeand thedirectionofgenderdifferences in learningachievementat theGrade6 levelhasbeenverystableacrosstheperiod20002007,regardlessofwhether itwastheboysorgirlswhoperformedbetter.The resultshave led researchers toquestionwhetherpast genderrelated educational interventions have neglected the question of learningachievement(Saito,2010),especiallyinruralschoolsandlowsocioeconomicgroups.The aboveevidenceon genderequality in learning achievementwas a consequenceof IIEPscapacity building programmes on educational policy research in close collaboration withSACMEQ. The valuable trend information generated from over 120,000 pupils has providedinputstoevidencebasedplanningdecisionswithintheministriesofeducationinthesubregion.The results have been also used by publications such as theUNESCO EFAGlobalMonitoringReport, theUISEducationDigest focusingonGender,andUnitedNationspublicationson theAdvancementofWomen.Genderequalityandleadershipineducation(attheMinistrylevel)Todate, limitedresearchhasbeenconducted inthe fieldofgenderequalityand leadership ineducation.Although there isnothingunique in countrieswith lowparticipationofwomen inpublicpolicyascomparedwithotherareasofseniormanagementinthepublicsector;thereis,however,one feature thatsinglesoutministriesofeducation fromothersectors: their role ineducation iscrosscuttingandwideranging.Theyspan the formalsectorofeducationbutalsohave themandate of educating the public and the nation in general. They areministries ofeducationandnotministriesofschools.Theycanthereforebeexpectedtoleadineducatingthenation on all subjects of fundamental interest to the state and of intrinsic interest to theindividualcitizensofthestate,throughavarietyofmodesofdelivery.Oneofthetimehonouredmethodsofeducating isbyexampleandbymodelling. Further,pedagogical theories indicatethatcurriculumcontenttransmissionisnullifiedwhenteachersfailtopracticebyexamplewhattheyareadvocating(Obura,2011).During thePolicy Forum, IIEPpresentedpreliminary findingsof actionoriented researchwithministriesofeducation to reviewmechanisms that supporteffective leadershippractices andpromotegreateraccessforwomen inpositionsofauthority.Thisresearchwasfundedthroughthe generous contribution of the NetherlandsMinistry of Foreign Affairs, and conducted inArgentina, Kenya, and VietNam. It illustrated the obstacles and enabling factors that affectwomensaccessto,andexperiencesin,seniorlevelsofministriesofeducation.Thisresearchandtheoutcomes fromthe forumwillhelpto identifyspecificstrategiesthatsupportministriesofeducation tomodelpositive change at all levels so as topromote greater genderequality ineducationsystems.62. ThePolicyForumThePolicyForumwasopenedbyIrinaBokova,DirectorGeneralofUNESCO,whoemphasizedtheimportanceofthethemeoftheforumandtheneedtolookbeyondparity.EqualitysaidMs Bokova, is not a numbers game. Bydrawing attention to the 2011 EFA GlobalMonitoring Report, Ms Bokova painted apictureofwideningdisparitiesandchallengesto equality. Girls are getting lost along theway, falling out of education, saidMs Bokova. She called on the forum to examine theirstrategiesandpracticesandtorespondtothesechallengesinaclearandconstructivemanner,asthesedisparitiesstartearlyandrundeep.Theneedforeducationofqualityandequalityhasmade it necessary to examine both the academic and institutional levels, in terms of,respectively,theachievementofstudentsandtheplanningandconceptionofprogrammes.TheUnited Nations Economic and Social Council has already taken an important first step inaffirmingthekeyroleofeducationasafundamentalrightfortherealizationoftheMillenniumGoalsofDevelopment.MsBokovaalsospokeof the launchof theGlobalPartnership forGirlsandWomens Education,with the participation ofUnitedNations SecretaryGeneralBan KimoonandSecretaryofStateHilaryClinton,aswellaslargeprivateenterprisessuchastheJamesFoundation,Nokia,ProcterandGamble,Microsoft,and thePackardFoundation,whichwillbedevelopingfurtherpartnershipswithUNWomen.Theseinitiativesprovideasenseofhopethataroundtheworldsuccessfulstrategies,suchasinKenya,exist.MsBokovaconcludedthatastheprerequisites to these common goals, it is important to provide reliable analyses aswell asappropriateplanningpolicies.ThissentimentwasreiteratedbyCherylFaye,theExecutiveDirectoroftheUNGirlsEducationInitiative(UNGEI)whoemphasizedthateventhoughgreatstrideshadtakenplace,onlyone inthreecountriesaroundtheworldhadachievedparityinbothprimaryandsecondaryeducation.MsFayearguedthatgoodpracticeandan informedevidencebase isnecessarytoensurethatgendersensitiveinterventionsandclearpolicystrategiesaredevelopedandimplemented.The forum brought together over 100 people, from 35nations,2 committed to the topic ofgender equality in education (as outlined in Figure 1). Ministers of education from sevencountriesandotherseniorpolicymakers,expertsongenderequality,educationalplanners,andeducation specialists from donor agencies and international organizations, from around the2Visithttp://genderpolicyforum.wordpress.comforthefulllistofparticipants7world participated to discussways to promote gender equality in education. The eventwashostedwithsupportfromanumberofkeypartners.3Theforumalsoprovidedaspacefornetworkingandfurtherdiscussions.TheannualpracticeoftheIIEPPolicyForumengagesparticipantsfromacademia,educationinstitutions,withhighleveldecisionmakerstodeliberatetheroleofeducationinfindingsolutionstothechallengingissuesofourtimeThediversityoftheparticipants isfurtherdemonstratedbyFigure2,whichhighlightsthehighnumberofpolicymakerswhoattendedfromaroundtheworld.Figure1:RegionaldistributionofforumparticipantsFigure2:Distributionofforumparticipantsbyorganizationtype3AADialogue,AgaKahnFoundation,CONFEMEN,FAWE,FrenchMinistryofForeignAffairs,JICA,NetherlandsMinistryofForeignAffairs,OECD,SACMEQ,UNGEI,andUNICEF.83. ForumcontentTheforumwasstructuredinordertoreviewtheevidenceontheabovementionedthemes,andtoexploreexperiencesfromdifferentcontextsintermsoftheapproachestoenhancinggenderequality ineducationovertime.4This includedexaminingthe internationalevidenceongenderequalityatdifferentlevels,reviewingprogrammaticinterventionsandstrategies;andexaminingthemethodologiesforresearchinggenderrelatedstudies.Theultimateaimoftheeventwastodrawconclusionsandstrategies foraction fromthepresentationsanddiscussionsto lookatamoreconcreteagenda foractionandpartnershiponthetopic.SomeoftherecommendationsemergingfromthePolicyForumareoutlinedinSection9.WithinthetwothemesofthePolicyForum,participantswereaskedtodeliberateonanumberofkeyquestionsrelatedtotheresearchandevidencepresentedtothem:1. LearningandTeaching(attheschoolandclassroomlevel):a) What trends exist in regards to gender differences in learning (opportunities,processesand/oroutcomes?)?b) Howdoesgender inequality relate toclassroompractices,schoolenvironment,andcontext?c) Whatarethestrategiesforachievinggenderequalityinlearningachievement?d) Whatfurtherresearchisneededinordertoimprovegenderequalityinlearningachievement?2. EducationalPlanningandManagement(attheMinistrylevel):a) What isthepresentsituationofwomensparticipation indecisionmaking,bothgloballyandmorespecificallyinanumberofselectedcasestudycountries?b) What are the constraints and barriers to womens upwards mobility intoleadershippositionsineducation?c) Whatarethestrategiestoinstitutepositivechangeinplanningandmanagementofeducationsystemsandincreasetheparticipationofwomen?Eachofthedebateswasinitiatedbyakeynotespeaker.5ThefinaldebateaimedtoroundoffthePolicyForumbyidentifyingsomekeyissuesthatneedtobeaddressedthroughacommonvisionand agenda for action. This was conducted through a panel discussion and also includedcommentsfromsomeoftheministersofeducationwhowerepresent.4SeeAnnex1forfullagenda5http://genderpolicyforum.wordpress.com94. InternationalEvidenceonGenderEqualityKeynoteSpeakerNellyStromquistInherkeynoteaddress,MsStromquistreiteratedthatgenderequality inteachingandlearningandgenderequalityinleadershipandmanagementarecomplementary:Ifgirlsneversuccessfullypassthroughtheacademicsystem theywillneverbecome leaderswithin it.Themain thrustofheraddress focused on assessment. She emphasized that assessment ofstudents learning happens at four main levels: classroom, school,national, and international.The closer assessments are to students, thegreater thechance that theywill influence their learning.Andyet, littletimeisdevotedtostudentassessmentinteachertrainingprogrammes.She suggested thatdespite thebenefitsof internationalassessments, some results cannotbeused to improve learning in a specific classroom and tend to have a low impact on equalityissues.Byfocusingonabstractnumericaldata,welosesightoftheimportantcontextualfactors.For example,when presentedwith amean test score,we should also complementwith thefactors thatunderlie it.Whatwas the lengthof the schoolday?Did studentshaveaccess toregularmeals?Whatsocialexpectationsdidthestudentsface?Evenwithinasameinternationalassessment initiative, a scoreof 250 fromone country shouldnotnecessarilybe treated thesamewayasthesamescorefromadifferentcountry.Genderdifferencesinachievementvarybyregionandcountryandtendtodiminishascountriesachievehigher levelsof industrialdevelopmentanddemocraticpractice, indicatingthatgenderdifferencesarenotduetoinnatecognitivecapacity.Socialexpectationsalsoaffectperformanceincertainsubjects.However, large internationalstudiestendtofocusonmathematics,readingand science, with a limited view of quality. Furthermore, levels of social and personaldevelopmentareoften ignored in favourofcognitiveperformance.Psychologistshavealreadydevelopedanumberofscalestomeasureemotionaldevelopment,butqualitativedatacanalsobeusedtocapturearicherpicture.Teacherscanassistinthisassessmentbutmoreneedstobedoneregardingtrainingwithagenderperspective.Theissueofsexualharassmentineducationhasnotbeenfullyrecognizedandmustbefurtherresearched,withaqualitativeapproach.Greatergenderequalityinleadershipmaybeassistedbyfocusingonlocalrecruitmentofschoolleaderssothatwomenarenotdisadvantagedbynotbeingasmobileasmen.Ifyouwantanewequilibrium you have to allow for those who were let down by the previous system toparticipate,providingformsofsupportwhichallowthosetobecomemoreproficient.Wemustbe cautiouswhen appraising situationswith largenumbersof female teachers,asmenoftenavoid theprofessiondue topoor salariesandconditions.There isaneed to lookbeyond juststudentperformance,orenrolment,asschoolsareoftennotpositivenorneutralbutsometimescontributetothemarginalizationandrepressionofcertaingroups.In regards to women as school leaders and principals, limited comparable statistics acrosscountries exist, but there is a clear pattern showing that the proportion of female leaders10decreases the higher up the education system one goes. The main reasons for the lowrepresentationofwomenaseducationalleadersare: difficultiesbalancingworkanddomesticresponsibilities; internalizedmessagesoflimitedpoliticalcompetence; unsupportiveinstitutionalclimates; indeveloping countries, fewer girls graduatehigh school, aprerequisite forbecomingsecondaryschoolteachers.Havingfemaleleadersisimportantastheydemonstratedifferentleadershipstyles,providerolemodels for girls and illustrate the gender inclusiveness of educational institutions. Increasingaccesstoempoweringexperiencesandgenderrelatedknowledgecouldacceleratetheprocessofchangetowardsgreatergenderequalityineducationalmanagement.Steps now required include: recognizing the importance of noncognitive development;providingteachersandeducationalleaderswithmoreknowledgeregardingtheroleofgenderinsociety;andredefiningqualitytoencompassmoresocial,emotional,andcriticalskills.Issuesofgenderequality ineducationalmanagementneed tobeaddressedatmicro,meso,andmacrolevelsandwithsocioculturalaswellascognitiveinterventions.EvidenceongenderequalityinlearningachievementAs reported in Saito (2011) and Byamugisha (2011), theevidence suggests that the improvement in access inenrolment has not beenmirrored in an improvement ingender equality in performance. Concerns about genderdifferences in education have focused primarily on thedisadvantageandunderachievementofgirls,butrecentlytheunderachievementofboysinreadinghasbecomethefocusof somepolicyattention. In thePISA2009 readingassessment, girls outperform boys in every participatingcountrybyan averageof39PISA scorepoints roughly theequivalentof an average schoolyearsprogress(BorgonoviandJakubowski,2011:2).These gaps vary considerably from country to country and are closely related to genderdifferencesinstudentattitudesandbehaviour.Gendergapsinachievementinmathematicsarequitesmall,butatthehigherlevelboystendtooutperformgirls.Theseresultsechothosefoundin Saito (2011),where again girls significantlyoutperformedboys in readingbutwereunderrepresentedatthehighestcompetencylevelsinmathematics.Worryingly,thedirectionandthemagnitudeofthesegenderdifferences in learningachievement inreadingandmathematics inSouthern and Eastern Africa have not changed over time. This has led to a hypothesis thatgenderrelated interventions inthesecountriesmighthavefocusedtoomuchonschoolaccessandparticipation,ratherthanoneducationalquality(Saito,2011:2).Thegendergapinfavourofboysinmathematicsismorepronouncedinevidencefrom11FrancophoneAfricancountries,withGrade5boysperformingsignificantlybetterin7ofthecountriesstudied(Sy,2011).InmanySACMEQcountries,theimprovementwasofteninparticipation,withlittlechangeregardinggenderdifferencesinlearningachievement,proportionoffemaleteachers&leaders,andtoiletratio.M.Saito,A.Byamugisha11Analysing gender differences at thenational level often obscure differences that existwithindifferentpopulationsubgroups,forexamplestudentsfromlowsocioeconomicbackgroundsorstudents in ruralareas (Saito,2011).Sy (2011) found that the ruralsettingaffectedbothboysandgirlsnegativelyat thebeginningofprimary schoolbutonlygirlsby the latergrades; thereasonmaybethatinruralareasasgirlsgrowup,moredemandsaremadeonthemtoperformhousehold tasks.Ruralgirlsare lessencouraged topursue theireducationand in some caseshave to prepare formarriage (earlymarriage is still practised in some country areas) (Sy,2011:7).Differences instudentachievementhoweverdonotaccountcompletelyforgenderdifferencescareer choices.Across theOECD countries,girls tend tobemoreambitious,butboysare stillmuchmorelikelytooptforcareersincomputingandengineering,andgirlswhooptforacareerinhealthandmedicineoutnumberboys,withoutexception(BorgonoviandJakubowski,2011:18).Thissuggests thatachievementfocusedpolicieswillnotchangetherelativedisadvantageofwomeninlabourmarkets(BorgonoviandJakubowski,2011:23),andthatwhatisneededareschoollevel campaignsattracting girls to these areas, combinedwith supportiveemploymentandfamilypolicies.Participants in the concluding discussions of this session suggested that boys need to beencouragedtoread.Althoughresultsweregenerallyconsistentacrosssocioeconomicgroups,gapswerewiderbetweenboysandgirls,asdisadvantagedboys, for instance,didnotexcel inreading,whereasgirlsinOECDcountriesreadmuchmoreforpleasure.Studentcareerambitionswerealsoagoodguidetopotentialcareers,howeverchoiceswerenot linkedtoperformance.Forexample,highperforminggirls inmathematicsstillavoidedengineering.Thesediscussionspointedoutthatpoliciespromotingdifferentcareerpathsproducedsmallergenderdifference,for example, in former Soviet states. Inmany SACMEQ countries, there has been a drop instudent achievement,whichmaybedue to a reduction in communityparticipation after theintroductionoffreeprimaryeducation;thebestperformingstudentswerefoundinschoolswithhigh community participation. This needs to be addressed in policies, and trends should beplottedseparatelyforruralandurbanareas.EvidenceofgenderequalityineducationalplanningandmanagementEvidence presented from the EFA GMR 2011 (UNESCO, 2011) demonstrated how, althoughmoving in the right direction, progress towards gender parity in primary schools has variedgreatly. Inaddition, significantgender imbalances remainand tend to increaseas the levelofschoolingincreases,culminatinginlargegenderimbalancesinlabourmarkets.Theseimbalancescanbepartlyexplainedbythefeweryears ineducationthatwomentendtohave,but labourmarketsthemselvesoftenreinforcegenderdisparitiesthroughsocialbarriers,culturalpractices,and discrimination (UNESCO, 2011: 8). Governments which tolerate high levels of genderinequality ineducationarenotonly ignoringthebasichumanrightsofhalfthepopulation,butalso sacrificing gains in economic growth and productivity as there is clear evidence thateconomicreturnstofemaleeducationareveryhighand,atthesecondary level,higherthanforboys.(UNESCO,2011:8).12Unfortunately evidence from several developing regionssuggests that progress towards gender equity has been farslower in labourmarkets than in school systems (UNESCO,2011:8),andthreebroadcausesofdisparitycanbeidentified: genderdifferencesinskillsandexperience, socialnormsgoverningwomensrolesineconomiclife, segmentationanddiscriminationinthelabourmarket.Thereappearstobenodifference inthe levelsofgenderequality ineducationalplanningandmanagement and other senior management positions. However what is different is thatministriesofeducationhaveamandatewhich incorporatesnotonly the formalschoolsystembut also the education of the public and the nation as a whole and therefore have aresponsibilitytoactasanexampleinthisregard(Obura,2011).Unfortunatelyglobalexperiencesuggests that the rateof increase in theproportionofwomen in leadership is slow, sporadic,subjecttoreversalandrequiresstimulustoattainthegoalofequity.(Obura,2011p.5).Thetwomajorproblemsaffectingwomensadvancementinministriesofeducationare:Thepipeline,thesupply of sufficiently qualifiedwomen at each level of authority in order to ensure genderequalityatthemostseniorlevels;andtheLabyrinth,themyriadofobstaclestowomenscareeradvancement.Theglassceilingmetaphorappearstohavebeenreplacedbythelabyrinth,whichincorporatesbothinstitutionalandsocietalbarriers.Gender imbalances in educational planning andmanagement are not limited to developingcountries;globallywomenarenotaccessingseniorpositions inthepublicorprivatesectors inthenumbersexpectedgiventheirincreasededucationandworkexperience(Wallace,2011:1).Although there have been large and significant shifts in terms of policies and legislation,governments often lack the financial resources and political will to implement them andprogress is slow (Wallace, 2011: 2). This is compounded by the often externally imposeduniformlanguageandnatureofpolicieswhichareoftendevelopedwithouttheengagementofthewomentheyaffect.Interestingly,similarpolicieshaveledtoverydifferentoutcomesacrossandevenwithincountries,oftenwithruraland loweconomicgroupsthemostdisadvantaged.Greatvariabilityexistsamongthebarriersaffectingwomensadvancement,asitdoesintermsofthe enabling factors found to support women, such as access tomentors and supervision,tailored training, flexible working hours, the possibility of having a good work/life balance,havingsupportnetworks,goodpolicyandlegislativecontexts(Wallace,2011:14).Duringconcludingdiscussionswithparticipants, itwasnoted thatalthough therearemultiplepathwaystoleadershipforbothmenandwomen,thereappearstobefewerobstaclesformenin relationship to theirpersonaland social responsibilitieswhen findinga career.Womenareactorsandarenotpassiveandneed to seekoutorganizationalalternatives that complementtheirmultiple role. This can be supported by findingmentors, networking, seeking training,findingtheirvoiceindifferentfora.Itwasalsonotedduringthediscussionthatalthoughquotasystems have worked in some countries (e.g. Norway, where now 50 per cent of allparliamentariansarewomenand thequotasystemcannowbeabandoned), it isnot theonlyanswertoensuringanorganizationalculturethatsupportswomenasleaders. Genderimbalancestransmittedtojobmarket. Insomecasestudies,levelsofunemploymentincreasedwithlevelsofeducation.UNESCO,2011135. Learningfromexperience:genderequalityinterventionandstrategiesKeynotespeakerOleyDibbaWadaMs DibbaWada opened her presentation by arguing that despite theprogress beingmade in terms of parity and overall enrolment, qualityremains amajor concern. The drive and focus on enrolment associatedwithEducationForAll risks reversingachievements ingenderequality ineducation. It is estimated that over 200 million children enrolled inprimaryschool learnsolittlethattheystruggletoreadevenbasicwords.Qualityeducationiscrucialfordevelopment.Curriculumcontentmustbegenderresponsiveandsoshouldthetrainingof thosewho deliver it.Often the school learning environment and theattitudesof teachersserve to reinforce, rather thanchallenge,prevalentstereotypesand injustices.Anexampleofgoodpractice is FAWEsGenderResponsive Schoolmodel,wheretheacademic,socialandphysicalenvironmentsoftheschoolandlocalcommunityrecognizethespecificneedsofbothboysandgirls.Allstakeholders,frompupilstocommunityleaders, understand and practice gender equality. Academic delivery, materials, classroominteractions,andmanagementprocessesareallgenderresponsive.AnotherimportantelementofFAWEsGenderResponsiveSchoolmodelisthedevelopmentofgenderresponsivepedagogy,which focuses on lesson planning, language use, classroom interactions, and the role ofmanagementinsupportinggenderresponsiveapproachesinschools.Ittargetspracticalskillsaswellasthetrainingofschoolmanagementteams.Ms Dibba Wadda identified that the key lessonslearned from FAWEs gender equality interventionsandstrategieswere: holistic Approach: Policy level, schoolenvironment and community, and classroominteractionsmustallbetackledsimultaneously; gender equality means equality in terms ofcompletionrates,performanceandlifeopportunities; partnershipsandnetworksbetweenministries,teachers,parents,andlocalcommunitiesare vitalinordertotransformeducationsystems; evidencebased advocacy is a critical factor in influencing governments to integrategenderintonationalframeworksandpolicies; female role models, particularly in leadership positions in schools, are important inencouragingtheenrolmentandretentionoffemalestudents.14MsDibbaWaddahighlighted verymovinglyhow she, as a femaleeducationalist, is forced tofightherdemonsregularlywhensheleavesherchildrentomeettheheavytraveldemandsofher job.Shenotedthatculturalandstructuralchanges,withregardstowomensattitudesandroles,areneeded toaddress this issue,andwomenneed tobepartofa solution rather thanprojecting themselves as victims.We need to focus on guidance and counselling, as genderequality in educational leadership is often an issue of capacity development. Furthermore, ifmen dominate leadership,we should seek them as allies and gain their support for greatergenderequality.However,althoughgenderequality ineducationalmanagement is important,morewomeninpositionsofpowerdonotnecessarilyguaranteegreateropportunitiesforgirls.ExperiencesofgenderequalityinlearningachievementGirls from low socioeconomic backgrounds in moreremoteareascontinuetobethemostdeprivedintermsofbasic education. Parental motivation and societalpressures are critical factors for achieving EFA goals, inthiscontext,community,aswellasfamilyneeds(includingsocialandeconomicconstraints)shouldbeaccountedforinschoolmanagement (MizunoandKobayashi,2011:2).In Yemen JICA developed a framework andmechanism for participatory school planning andimplementation based on an analysis of the physical, social, and cultural obstacles to girlseducation. By involving mothers, community leaders, and religious leaders in advocacycampaigns and in the running of schools they hoped to lessen the psychological distancebetween community and school so that community ownership and commitment to schooleducationcanbeenhanced(MizunoandKobayashi,2011:3).Thiswasfoundto increasegirlsenrolmentandwassuccessfulinreducingobstaclestogirlseducation,includingtheshortageofteachers,classrooms,andfemaletoilets,withsolutionsimplementedundertheSIP(MizunoandKobayashi, 2011: 13).Although social norms and traditionalmindsets are difficult to changeover short time periods, the collaborative efforts involving stakeholders beyond educationshould be encouraged and sustained for continued progress towards gender equality in thesociety(MizunoandKobayashi,2011:13).SouthernandEasternAfricaistheregionhardesthitbyHIVandAIDS,withyoungwomeneighttimesmore likely to contradict thedisease than youngmen,meaning that relatededucationinterventions and programmes are extremely important. The findings from the SACMEQcountriessuggestedthattherewasgenderequalityintermsofknowledgeaboutHIVandAIDS,butthatthelevelofknowledgewasworryinglylow.Thisindicatesanurgentneedtoimprovethegeneral level of HIVAIDS knowledge among boys and girls and to review the educationprogrammesandespeciallytheschoolcurriculaonHIVandAIDS(Dolata,2011:6).Therewasnogenderdifference inregardstotheknowledge leveloftheteachers,whichwasquitehigh.Theproblem lies in the transfer of that knowledge to pupils. There was no significant genderdifference instudentspreferencesofsourcesof information,butelectronicmediawasby farthemostpopularmechanismforbothboysandgirls. YemensprojectongirlseducationsawimprovementsinGPI,PTArelations,andcommunityinvolvement.K.Mizuno,M.KobayashiJICA15Despite many policies and interventions targeting the promotion of female school headteachers, there remains considerable bias in the allocationof schoolmanagerial positions infavourofmalesfor12SACMEQschoolsystems(Hungi,2011:1),asseeninFigure3.Thisbias ismostmarked in ruralareas.Thiswidespread inequalityhas twomain implications:first, female teachersmay become demoralized by the lack of opportunity for professionaldevelopment,andsecondlypupilsaregiventhe impressionthatfemaleteachersare incapableofbeing leaders.Thewayforward inthisarea istoopenup informeddialogueamongthekeystakeholders in theprocessofmanaging thecareerprogressionof teachers (staffingdivisions,theinspectorate,teacherunions,etc.)(Hungi,2011:3),whichisfocusedonsettingandagreeingonfeasibletargets.The summary discussions with participants of the forum revealed that JICA is currentlydevelopingunifiedguidelinessothatalldonorsoragenciesworkingineducationcanimplementthe lessons learned. It was also suggested that SAQMEQ should initiate complementaryqualitative studies toanalyse teachingprocessesandwhybothgirlsandboysperformbetterwithfemaleteachers.Whilemorequalitativestudiesareneeded,theyareofteninstigatedandmotivatedbytheresultsoflargequantitativestudies,suchasSACMEQ,whichrarelygetbacktothepeoplewhorunsystemsandcanaffectrequiredchange.Therefore,there isalsoaneedtoensurethatfindingsfromquantitativestudiesaretranslatedintoalanguagethatcaninfluencedecisionmaking.Figure3:PercentagesofFemaleSchoolHeadsandFemaleTeachers16ExperiencesofgenderequalityineducationalplanningandmanagementInArgentinaquotalegislationhasbeeninplacefor20yearsandhasledtosomeprogress,e.g.afemalepresidentsince2007and37.7%womeninnationalcongress.However,problemssuchasalackofgeneralconsensuspromotinggenderequalitystillremain.Middleandsenioreducationmanagers interviewedmadereferencetomotherhoodandtheirextradomesticpressures,butinterestingly none of the persons interviewed spontaneously mentioned public policies asnecessary to provide strategies to overcome the obstacles and difficulties posed by familyresponsibilities (Gheradi, 2011: 9). Instead these matters were viewed simply as privatenegotiationsbetweenpartners.InVietNamthegovernmentrecognizestheroleofwomeninthehomethroughawardsandcertificates,butdoesnotrecognizeorencouragemens contributions (Kelly,2011:4)withparental leaveassociatedwith thecareofanewborn baby or sick child only available to mothers.Interventionshavenot targeted theconstraintsplacedonmothers by traditional norms, and understandably therehas been little progress in the share of householdworksince2004(Kelly,2011).InKenyaanewconstitutionhasbeenestablishedwherenomore than twothirds of any leadership/management positions can be of one gender, andpresently42percentoftheseniorofficersintheMinistryofEducationarewomen;and22percent intheMinistryofHigherEducation. (Oburaet.al,2011:3).Despitehigh levelsof femaleteacherstherearevery low levelsoffemaleheadteachers. Intheministries womencomprise27percentof those reportedly involved in the totalityof thepolicydecisionmaking, shapingand originating processwith the highest concentrations occurring at themiddle rather thanlowest levels(Obura et. al, 2011: 4). Increased female visibility in senior positions reportedlyraises themoraleof femalestaff in theMinistrybut,so far,hasnot led tostrategicactionbywomenoranyoneelsetomaintainpositivechange.Womensaythatcurrentlythereisnogenderaffirmation(Oburaet.al,2011:6).SignificantstructuralchallengeswithintheMinistryremainwithmaledominationofofficerpositionsandofthepublicservicecommissionwhichcontrolsrecruitmentandpromotions.Additional support strategiesare required including thosewhichempowerwomentoovercometheeffectsofsocietalandstructuralbarriersandassistthem inbeingmoreproactiveintheirowncareerprogression(Oburaet.al,2011).Interventions and strategies need to address the various levels of enablers and barriers towomen becoming valued educational leaders: (1) body politics, (2) sociocultural values andattitudes, and (3) institutional conditions. Body politics refers to assumptions and beliefs onwhatwomenandmencanandshoulddo.Socioculturalvaluesandattitudesreferstohowmenandwomen are valued areperforming certain roles and/or tasks and theeffectsof steppingoutside of societal norms (Kelly, 2011). Institutional conditions includes those laws, policies,organizationalguidelinesor institutionalstructuresthatenableorhinderwomens(andmens) WomenareoftengivenjobsinMoEthatrelatetocaretaking. Qualitiesassociatedwithappropriateleadersaredeemedinappropriateforwomen. Bylaw,womenretire5yearsearlierthanmen.Kelly,201117abilitytotranslatebodypoliticsandsocioculturalvaluesandattitudesintothesocial,politicaloreconomiccapitaltheyneedtoadvancetheircareers.(Kelly,2011:4)Participantsnoted inconcludingdiscussions thatdespite thehighnumbersofhighlyeducatedwomen in many countries which could feed into education systems, women are stillunderrepresented at the very apexof leadership. It is important tohave laws andpolicies inplace,butalsotobeawarewho is inchargeandhowtheybehave.Women inMoEsmayhavebothapositiveandnegativeeffectongenderequality,and future studiesmayexaminehowwomeninhigherpositionsviewgenderequalitywithineducation.Ingeneral,womeninmiddlemanagement welcome having other women in higher positions, although some participantsrecognizedthattherearesomesituationsinwhichseniorwomendonotencouragetheirfemalecolleagues.186. MethodologiesingenderrelatedstudiesKeynotespeakerElaineUnterhalterMs Unterhalter emphasized the need to recognize the great policy andpractice achievements made since 2000: increasing enrolment andprogression, decreases in the number of outofschool children, theenormousdemandforeducation,thehighprofileofgenderandeducationin international agreements and national education plans, and theDakardeclarationonacceleratinggirlseducationandgenderequality.However,howweviewgenderalsodeterminesourtacklingofgenderinequality,beitsimply counting boys and girls, examining the relationships of power, ordecodingdifferenttypesofbehaviour.Lookingbeyondparityisvitalduetothemanyproblemsassociatedwithsuchanarrowindicator: aggregation problem: by focusing on national or regional levels, schools and theintersectionsofinequalityareoftenignored; multidimensionalityproblem: inequalitiesarenotexamined inrelation to those in thewidersocietiese.g.inthehome,inareasofwork,etc. aspirationproblem:thereisnomeasurewheregenderisadimensionofaspiration; implementationproblem:measuringwhatiseasyratherthanwhatisimportant; gamingproblem:byaimingtocrossthresholdsthosewhoareinmostneedofassistanceareignoredinfavourofthoseclosesttotheline.However, it is important to note that composite indicators are available. These include theUNESCOGMRDeprivation andMarginalization Index,TEGINTGenderProfile,and theTEGINTGenderManagementProfile.TheTEGINTGenderProfileuses schooldata to createweightedprofiles based on gender parity in enrolment, attendance, progression, and attainment. TheTEGINTGenderManagementProfilemeasureshowproactiveschoolmanagementcommitteesareinpromotinggenderequality.ResultsfromastudyofschoolswithpoorfacilitiesinareasofpovertyTanzaniaandNigeriawerepresented.Girls, inbothcountries,were foundtobemorelikelytovoiceconcernsoverschoolfacilitiesandpregnancy incasesofhighGenderProfiles. InTanzania, but not Nigeria, higherManagement Gender Profileswere associatedwith higherGenderProfiles.Educationalists need to look beyond their domain in order to combine educational data andapproacheswith larger,genderfocuseddata sets, like theEuropeanGenderEquality IndexortheEquityAdjustedMDG Indicators. Inorder tocreatea richerpicture,whichmovesbeyondabstract figures, qualitative and quantitative research methods must to be combined. Thecomplexityof important factors suchas teacherapproaches, socialdistance,and reactions toviolenceinsideandoutsideofschoolscanonlybeunravelledthroughqualitativestudies.19Developingstrategicindicatorsonrightsandequalities,byselectingaspectsofqualityassociatedwith gender equality, is another important element in conducting genderrelated research ineducation.Thosewhoengageinmethodologiesmustengageinselfcriticism,participation,andcomplementary approaches. Improved methodologies are stepping stones towards greatergenderequalityineducation.Althoughtheywillnotleadtopolicychanges,theywillcreatethenecessaryconditionsforimprovingpolicies.When conducting genderrelated education studies,researchmethodsshouldbeinclusiveandshouldaddressthe intersectionsof various factors. Invariably,problemswillexistwithbothquantitativeandqualitativedata,andhence, inorder toensurequality,studiesmustallow forpeerreviewandexternalexamination.Although indepthqualitativestudiesrequiretimeandexpertise,theyareavital in shifting thinking in the education sector beyondgenderparity.Methodologies to assess gender equality in learningachievementInorder tomovebeyondparitywemust focusmoreongenderequality in learningoutcomesand in the effects of school resources, understanding the reasons for differences in studentperformancemightbe considered the first step fordesigningeffectiveeducationalpolicies toaddress quality and equity concerns (Nguyen and Griffin, 2011: 1). It has been argued thatrecentshiftsinteachingapproachesmayhaveincreasedgenderdifferencesinachievementandthat because of the differences in how girls and boys learn, it can be difficult to createeducationalenvironments thatare suitable forbothgroups (ZuzeandReddy,2011:17). It istherefore crucial that we have a clear understanding of the factors influencing studentachievement.Intermsofimprovingthisunderstandingthedevelopmentanduseofproficiencylevelsalongsidemeanscoresareimportant(ZuzeandReddy,2011).Theyprovidegreaterinsightintothenatureofthegenderdifferencesandmayfacilitatedifferentiatedteachingtomeettheneedsofmaleandfemalestudents(NguyenandGriffin,2011:2).Student level variables (Zuze and Reddy, 2011; Nguyen and Griffin, 2011) are also of greatconcernasgenderdifferencesareoftenmoremarkedincertainpopulationsubgroupssuchasinruralcommunitiesorchildren from low scoioeconomicbackgroundsandmustbeanalysed inconjunctionwithschoollevelvariables(ZuzeandReddy,2011;NguyenandGriffin,2011)andthefindings used to direct future interventions and policies. Current findings suggest thatmalestudentsneedextrasupporttocopewiththetransitionbetweenprimaryandsecondaryschool(Nguyen and Griffin, 2011) and that in South Africa boys and girls benefit equally from theprovisionofschoollibraries.Futureresearchongenderdifferenceshouldgobeyondcomparingoutcomesandshouldfocusmoreonthe learningprocesswiththeaimof linkingtheresultstoteacherprofessionaldevelopmentandteachinginterventions(NguyenandGriffin,2011). GirlsincreasinglyoutperformingboysinreadinginSouthAfrica. Stronglinkbetweenmaterial&humanresourceswithregardsachievement. ChallengehowtoensureresourcesinvestedsothatbenefitsextendtoboysliteracyeducationL.Zuze,SACMEQ20The feministmissionofpromoting the rights and theempowermentofwomen andgirls andchallenging their oppression is often portrayed as being unAfrican and a threat to theconstructionofAfricanmasculinities.Gender researchhoweverhas the potential to increasetheshiftofemphasisinfeministscholarshipawayfromwomenpersetogenderrelations(menandwomen) (Chege and Sakurai, 2011: 9), thus allowing it to contributemore freely to thediscussionon the social constructionofmasculinities and femininities in a relationalmanner.Feministgender researchnowhas the theoreticalandconceptual tools forenhancinggenderequalityanderadicatingwomenssubordinationthat isfoundedonresearchbasedknowledge(ChegeandSakurai,2011:9).Effective feministgender researchusesabottomup,participatoryapproachwhichempowersbothmenandwomenand involves doingresearchwiththepeople.Bycentringtheresearcharound boys educational experiences the researchers are employing feminist thought in acriticallightthatraisesawarenessofthepossibilitiesofsideliningboys(meninthemaking)inasocialprocessthatmayresultintheirfuturesubordinationinsociety.(ChegeandSakurai,2011:10). The approach employs twomain sources of data: documents and subjects/participants.Documents include literaturereviews,programmesobjectives,programmeevaluations,reportson best practices, etc. Subject/participants supply data through survey questionnaires, openendedinterviews,focusgroupdiscussions,photographyanddrawing,etc.,allowingforrichandindividualizeddatatoemerge.Duringtheconcludingdiscussions,participantssuggestedthatthereweresomeresourceswhichbenefited girls andboys, though girls stillbenefited themost. Itwasnoted that gender gapsdevelopearly:forexample,boysthinkthatreadingandlanguagearenotimportantasschoolingdoesnotcorrespondwiththeexpectedroleofmanhood.Boysoftenwantabasiceducationtoentermanual jobsearlierandearnmoneyquickly.Participantsproposed that thereshouldbegreaterfocusonthefirstyearsofschoolbytrackingachievementandattitude,implementingahalfhouraday readingperiod andpoliciespromoting libraries. It is important thatplans arecontextualized and incorporate local needs and wishes. In Guatemala, for instance, a studyfound that female teachersdidnot think thathousewivesneeded aneducation. In this case,training teachers should incorporate a gender perspective. Pilot schools led bywomen oftenreflectedincreasedperformance,enrolment,andwillingnessofgirlstodiscuss,althoughsimilarresultswerenot shownwithmale students. In lightofpreferential treatment shown to girls,therehavebeencasesofanger,frustration,andthreatsofviolencefromboys.MethodologiesofgenderequalityineducationalplanningandmanagementParityofrepresentationisstillseenastheprimarygoalofmanyorganizationsandnationsandisthemain framework formuch gender research,however the approach isnow seen asbeingdiscredited in that itessentialiseswomen and ignores greatdifferences in theexperienceofwomen as mediated by personal, social and geographic characteristics. (Lumby, 2011: 1).Representationineducationplanningandmanagementreducestheissueofgenderequalitytoamathematical relationshipwhichhasnumerousmethodologicalandsubstantive issuessuchas21 Wespendtoomuchtimecountingandmeasuringratherthanchangingpolicy. Itisimportanttoagreeonaprocessofanalysisastowhengenderservesasabarrieroranenabler.Lumby,2011the choice of a comparator population and determining what constitutes progress (Lumby,2011).Intersectionalityappearstoofferaresponsetothecrisisofthelimitsoffocusingonrepresentation(Lumby,2011:2).Inaddition, thecausesof theunderrepresentationofwomenin educational leadership are not uniform across culturesand education systems. Rather, they are the product ofcomplex interactions between cultural understandings ofgender roles, national policy and organizational structures,and pressure from the international community that arehighly context specific (Sperandio, 2011: 11). It is the nature of these interactions andinterrelationships and how they change in different contexts that should form the focus ofresearchandshouldprovideanincreasedunderstandingofcurrentsituationsandtheeffectsofproposedchangestothem(Sperandio,2011).Race,class,andgendermustallbeconsideredinordertounderstand inequality,andas individualscharacteristics donotfunctiondiscretelytocreate advantage or disadvantage they cannot be simply investigated separately and thenadded together and analysed; a leap in methodologies is required. The challenge is toinvestigate adequately and understand the effects of gender as moderated not only byindividuals other characteristics, but also as mediated by the context within which theyfunction(Lumby,2011:3).Onecannot rely thereforeoneverexpandingmatricesofquantitativedatabut ratherexpandthesourcesofdatato includethosewhich illuminatethe intersectionsandwhichfocusonthecomplex and individual nature of the experiences that influence career choice. Qualitativetechniquessuchasinterviewsandtherecordingsoffocusedpersonalnarrativesarepowerfulintheir ability to give insights into aspects of personal psychology, life patterns and workexperiences that influencewomens choices and aspirations towards educational leadership(Sperandio,2011:2)whilealsoprovidinganopportunity forthevoicesofwomen tobehearddirectly in thedata.Similarly narrativeandethnographicapproachesmayofferdata thatarerich enough to pursue analysis of how particular characteristics and contextsmoderate selfperceptionand the responseofothers; interpretationbecomesnot themathematicsof socialjustice,butlisteningtothedissonantmusicofinequality(Lumby,2011:3).Despite the fact that there isnowacriticalmassofwomenwhoqualify tobe leaders inbothprimaryandsecondaryschools,very feware inspired toapply for leadershippositions.At theuniversitylevel,topacademicandadministrativepositionsaredominatedbymen.Inthe1990s,the governmentofUganda introduced affirmative actionpolicies intended toboostwomensparticipation in educational leadership. These included: the Government White Paper onEducation,theUgandanconstitutionof1995,the1.5points6awardedtogirlstofacilitatetheirentryintouniversity,policiesofexpandingtertiaryinstitutions,introducingeveningprogrammes6Thereareaspecificnumberofpointsrequired foruniversityentrance.Theaffirmativeactionpolicyallowsmoregirlstheopportunitytoobtaintherequirednumberofpoints22atpublicuniversities,initiatingdistanceprogrammes,andmanyothers.Thesepolicieswerealsointendedtobringaboutgenderparity ineducation,whichhasalmostbeenachieved.Howeverthis has not translated into gender parity in educational leadership. Leading causes for thisimbalance are male domination in recruiting agencies, womens selflimitation, fear ofresponsibilities,andlackofselfesteem(Kagoda,2011).During the concluding discussions of this session, participants suggested that quality is oftenjudgedby systemswhich arebasedonmale leadership styles andenvironments thatbenefitmen.Notonlydoeducationsystemsneedtobemoregendersensitive,butmenalsoneedtobeliberatedsotheycancontributetogenderequality.Mainpolicychangesshouldincludepreandpostappointmentmentoring,internationalandnationalmonitoring,antidiscriminationtrainingfor those controlling promotions, and trainingwomen in applying forhigher positions.Otherfactorsthatpreventwomen fromenteringseniorpositionsrelatetoselflimiting issues,wherewomenoftendeliberatelychoosenot toenter intocompetition for themostseniorpositions.The reasons for this are often cited as the gendered nature of the work world, whereconnections, patronage, and networks appear to be more important than qualifications orexperience. Inaddition,thenatureofmanyorganizationalculturesdonotsufficientlycaterforandoftenignoretheneedformenorwomentocareforothers.237. LunchtimetalksAGlobalCompactonLearning:TakingActiononEducationinDevelopingCountriesCenterforUniversalEducationatBrookingsInstitutionEvidence indicates that although progress has beenmade inmany areas of enrolment andgenderparity there remain significant gaps in termsof learning achievement. The scope andscaleofthecrisisinlearningisonlygraduallyemergingfromthemorerecentfocusonlearningattainmentglobally.Thisstudyhighlightsthedoublejeopardymoreoftenfacinggirls intermsof learning(althoughrecognizingthat insomeareasthere isalsoan issuefacingboyswhoareforcedintoearlyemployment),whereifgirlsfallbehindduetotheirdomesticsituation,theyaremorelikelytodropoutandthereforenotlikelytoprogressintofurthereducationandthereforeachievetheirfulllifepotential.TheGlobalcompactsuggeststhreepriorities:1. Support quality early childhood development and learning opportunities for girls andboys.2. Buildfoundationalskillsinliteracyandnumeracyinthelowergrades.3. Support transitionsbetweenprimaryand secondary school,and secondaryand labourmarketsbyensuringrelevantpostprimaryeducation.Theeducationcommunityneedstomove forwardby:enhancingthecoordinationofadvocacyefforts,developingasharedresearchagenda,formingmultistakeholdercollaborations,andnewgoals, targets and benchmarks which will shift the focus from access to improved learningopportunitiesandoutcomes.Figure4belowsummarizestheapproachsuggestedbytheGlobalCompactonLearning.Figure4:ElementsoftheGlobalCompactonLearning(Source:BrookingsInstitution,2011)24Gender violence in schools as a factor in schooldropout rates in subSaharan FrancophoneAfricaFrenchMinistryofForeignAffairsInMay2010,aworkinggroupwassetupby theFrenchMinistryofForeignAffairs,GenreenAction, Forum forAfricanWomenEducationalists (FAWE),Plan France,UNESCO,UNICEF,andl'OrganisationinternationaledelaFrancophonie(OIF)withtwomainobjectives:toidentifyandhighlight genderbased violence in schools and its impact on the schooling of girls, and toadvocatetheeradicationofthisviolenceandpromoteuniversaleducation.Theactivitiesofthegroupcanbebrokendownintofourareas:1. activemonitoringoftheissueofgenderviolenceinschools;2. synthesisreportingofstudiesaswellasupdatinganddeepeningofpreviouswork;3. researchworkandpilottestingofenhanceddatacollectionmethods;4. tacklinggenderviolenceasafactoringirlsprematureleavingofeducation,andforminga threeyear working group with all members making explicit indicatorbasedcommitments.Thedocumentwhichformsthebasisoftheirapproachwas developed through a participatory process inDakar and has three themes: best data collectionpractices,thelegaltreatmentofgenderbasedviolenceinschools,andpreventativeactionsandmanagementstructures. Different forms of genderbased violencehave been found, including sexual, physical, andpsychological violence. Gender violence is often ameans by which boys assert their masculinity anddeterminetheirsocialidentities.Furthermore,genderbasedviolenceoften involvespowerrelationsandcanthereforebe influencedby thedominantplayerswhocontrol power structures. Violence occurswithin andon the way to schools, and often involves pupils, teachers, bus drivers, and communitymembers. It is difficult to quantify the impacts of genderbased violence, but it can amplifyalreadyexistingdiscriminationagainstgirls,discouragegirlsfromattendingschool,andincreasethelikelihoodofearlypregnanciesorSTIsandHIV/AIDS.Nosingle regionaldefinitionofgenderbasedviolencecurrentlyexists,andalthough therearenational and regional laws protecting the rights ofwomen and children, they are often notupheldat the localand community levels.Thus, three criticalelementsmustbeaddressed inorder toensurea significant change regarding genderbased violence, including:breaking thesilencesurroundinggenderviolence,addressingthe issueofthe impunityofperpetrators,andimplementingpreventativemeasuresandtreatmentsinschools.Thereisaneedforstrongpoliticalactionandeducationalreformssothatschoolscancreateconditionsforsocialchange.Intheabsenceofsignificantinvestmentintheeliminationofgenderbasedviolenceinschools,women'sempowerment,asafactorinpovertyreductionandsocioeconomicdevelopment,cannotbeguaranteed.FrenchMinistryofForeignAffairs258. Policy,Research,AgendaforAction,andPartnershipThepaneldiscussionforthissessioncomprisedalloftheKeynoteSpeakersandwaschairedbyJoshuaMuskin from the Agha Khan Foundation. Inaddition, this session invited the ministers ofeducationpresentat thePolicy Forum toprovidesomefinalcontributionstotheproceedings.GenderequalityisnotjustaboutnumbersThroughout the Policy Forum,many speakers emphasized the focus of the forum lookingbeyond parity.While there has undoubtedly been progress towards gender parity inmanycountries, this has not necessarily translated to equality in learning outcomes aswell as lifeopportunities.Forexample,girlscontinue to significantlyoutperformboys in reading inOECDcountries and the gender gap is widening. Similar findings were reported in Viet Nam andSACMEQ countries where boys tended to outperform girls inmathematics. In addition, thedirection andmagnitude of gender differences in achievement have remained the same inSACMEQ countriesevenwhen therehavebeen improvements in genderparity. The focusofgenderbasedinterventionsneedstomoveawayfromgenderparitytowardsthewiderissueofeducationquality.Thecontextofwhatliesbehindthenumbersandtheinequitiesunderlyingthesestatisticsisnotalwaysconsidered.Forexampleagirlachievinganaboveaveragescoreinmathematicslivinginapoorruralvillagehasmanymorechallengestoovercomethanagirllivinginarichhouseholdinanurbanareawhoobtainedthesamescore.WeneedtobroadenourperspectiveandnotjusttalktoourselvesAseducatorsweoften just talk toourownsectorand fail toreachout tootherorganizationsworkingonsimilarissues.Itwasrecognizedthatsomeveryinterestingworkongenderequalityliesoutsideofeducation, including inareassuchasthecorporatesector,whereargumentsarebeingmaderegardingthepowerofdiversityinmanagement.Insteadofcreatingmoredatasets,weshouldadvocatefortheinclusionofeducationinsomeofthedatacollectionandanalysesofother agencies such as the EuropeanGender Index,OECDGender Index,GlobalGenderGapReport,ILOdecentwork indices,etc.Thiswasaconcreteactionpointthattheorganizerswereurged to take forward when discussing with agencies and advocating for education to beincludedaspartofbroaderanalyses.Itwassuggestedthataworkinggrouporconsortiumcouldbemandatedwithcreatingmoreeffectivecollaborationbetween thedifferentactorsworkingongenderequalityissuesatdifferentlevels.26There need for interventions at different levels (macro, meso, and micro): (i)international/nationalgovernmentlevel(ii)organizationallevel(iii)personallevelVarious interventions at different levels (macro, meso, and micro) were suggested. Suchinterventions include: organizational development of ministries to ensure the genderresponsivenessofministriesorganizationalcultures;comprehensivegenderresponsivetrainingfor educators at all levels; the development of theoretical frameworks that consider theintersectionalityofgenderwithrace,ethnicity,religion,andeconomicandsocialstatuses.Participants at the Policy Forum also recognized that interventions need to also occur at apersonal level.Wemust change our daily conduct, within our schools, work environments,and/orhouseholdstochallengegenderrolesascribedbysociety.Wemustvieweducationasamechanismforopeningmindsets,supportingemotionalandsocialdevelopment(viacurricula),andatool forselfempowerment.Personalandorganizationalworkpracticesthatcounterthepossibleprogressionofcaretakers,whether theyaremenorwomen, isalso important. Itwasnotedbysomespeakersthatthereisanemotionalpricetobeingsuccessful,whichisparticularlyprominentamongprofessionalwomen,manyofwhomarealsocaretakersofchildren.Multisectoralinterventions(education,health,labour,andwomensaffairs)Veryfewofthemajorissuessurroundinggenderequalitycanbetackledwithineducationalone.Hence,othersectorssuchashealthorlabourshouldbeincludedinouractionsmovingforward.TheWorldBank reported that theyarecurrently reevaluating theirefforts ingenderequalityandarealsomoving towardsamoreholisticapproach thatworksacross sectors.Weneed topromotegenderresponsiveorganizations,andengageincomprehensivegendertrainingbeyondjust teachers.Genderequality isnot a collateraloutcome; itmustbedirectly addressed andfocusedupon.Thediscussionongenderequalitycutsacrossallsectors,ministriesofeducation,andother lineministries.Menandwomengloballyneedto leadbyexample,toworktogetheracrossboundariesandbecometherolemodelsfortheyoung leadersofthefuture.Weshouldbe inspired by the readiness of younger generations to break traditional barriers whenconceptualizinginnovativeinterventions.InclusionWemust recognize issues of inclusion, and acknowledge that several key areas of theworldwerenotrepresentedinthePolicyForum,includingArabstatesandSouthAsia.Wealsoneedtosupportandeducateboys inordertoachievebettereducationalopportunitiesforallstudents.Thenextgenerationwillbecrucialactorsinthemovementtowardsgenderequality,andhence,bothgirlsandboysmustbe included inall interventions.Wemustalsoconsiderhowotherssuchasteachersandadministratorswhoworkdailyintheeducationsectorcanbesupportedinimplementingnecessarychanges.UsetheexistinglegalframeworkstoensurepolicybecomespracticeProgresstowardsgenderequalityhasbeenmaderegardingenrolmentandtextbooks,andmustnowbefocusedtowardsreducinggendergaps ineducationalquality. Itwasproposedthatwe27must link our findings and policies to national gender plans. There already exist manyframeworksdesigned topromote greater genderequality. Forexample,national actionplansandshadowreportsofCEDAWcouldbeusedmoreeffectivelyforadvocacypurposes.Nationalframeworks, constitutions, and policies can also provide a backdrop by which greateraccountabilityforensuringgenderequalitycouldbepromoted.MenandwomeninleadershippositionshaveanimportantroletoplayItwasacknowledgedbymany thatmenhaveacritical role inpromotingwomens leadership;men, like women, can be strong agents of change. As his Excellency Nath Bunroeun, theCambodianSecretaryofStateforEducationnoted, menneedtoopentheirhearts.Bothmenandwomenneed to recognize their responsibilitieswhen theyarepolitical leaders toensurethatpoliticalwill topromotegenderequalityatall levels is sustained.Furthermore,menandwomen at all levels need to lead by example and be effective rolemodels personally andprofessionallyinwaysthatpromotegenderresponsiveness.WeallhavearoletoplaySome members of the Policy Forumpersonallycommitted to takingaction topromote gender equality in education.Theactionsvaried fromcommitmentstoreach out more forcefully to the Arabstatesthatwereunderrepresentedintheforum, to ministries of educationcommittingtomakinggenderequalityanissueatthehighestpoliticallevels.289. RecommendationsConductqualitativeresearchIn order to go beyond the numbers game of gender parity we need research which goesbeyondthemeasurementofnumbersandparityinlearningoutcomes;researchwhichprovidesaway tomeasure andunderstand gender from amultidimensional perspective.Hencemorequalitativeresearchthatlistenstothelifehistoriesandvoicesofthoseweclaimtorepresent.TakeaholisticapproachParticipantsarguedthatresearchandpracticeinrelationtogenderequalityneedtotakeamoreholisticapproach,to lookateducationfromearlychildhoodthroughtoadulteducation.Inthisregard,andinrelationtoresearchspanningotheragegroups,thePolicyForumfor2012wouldmost likelyaddress the issueofplanning foryouthengagement,whichwillalsohaveastronggenderdimension.Inaddition,approachestogenderequalityneedtoaccountforthefactthateducationandgenderdonotexistinisolationfromothersectorsandthatweshouldlearnfromtheresearch,policy,andpracticethathasbeenundertakeninboththeprivatesectorandotherdevelopmentsectors.EnsureongoingcollaborationMany of the participants expressed appreciation of the forum as an opportunity to bringtogetheranumberofactorsfromseniorpolicymakerstoacademicsworkingongenderrelatedissues.Thecomplementarityandcollaboration thatemergedasa resultof theexchangeswasfelttobevaluable,anditwassuggestedthatthesecouldbemoreformalized,eventotheextentof utilizing each others data items for greater synergies for example between PISA andSACMEQ. Similarly, collaboration on different research agendas could enrich both qualitativeand quantitative research programmes. In this light itwas suggested that the Policy Forumshouldnotbe the end of the exchange, and participants expressed awish to continue theexchange in some form, so that others who were not able to attend the event could alsoparticipateintherichdiscussions.Asaresult,IIEPisconductinganonlineforuminMarch2012,whichwillcontinuethedebatevirtually.EnsurethatinternalprocessesandexternalsupportaregendertranformativeParticipantsnoted that IIEP (aswith allorganizations)needed also to look at itspolicies andpractices toensure that theyarenotonly gender responsivebut also gender transformative,whetherinthetrainingofministryofficialsatIIEPandincountry,aspartofitsongoingresearch,orwhen implementing technicalassistanceprogrammes.There isaneed toensure that IIEPsworkwithministriesofeducationactivelypromotesgenderequality inallrespects.While IIEPhasmadesomekeyefforts inthisregard,there isstillmuchtobedone,andacomprehensivemappingofthegenderrelatedactivitiesthatIIEPisundertakingorplanningtoundertakewillbeconducted in2012.Aspartof theongoing research into the two strands featuredduring thePolicy Forum, there will be further qualitative research conducted into gender equality inlearningachievementinanumberofcountries,whichwillbeconnectedtoidentifiedstrategiestoimprovegenderequalityinplanningandmanagement.3010. 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AnnexI.AgendaMonday,3October20118:009:30 Participantsregistration9:3010:15 Inauguration of the Policy Forum in the presence of Irina Bokova (DirectorGeneral,UNESCOOpeningremarksbyCherylGregoryFaye(Head,UNGEI)OpeningremarksbyKhalilMahshi(Director,IIEP)10:1511:15 PlenarySession#1:InternationalEvidenceonGenderEqualityKeynote Speech: Professor Nelly Stromquist, International Education,UniversityofMarylandChair(s):ElaineUnterhalter11:1511:30 Coffee/teabreak11:3013:00 WorkingGroupsinSession#1 Stream 1: Gender equality inlearningandteachingChair(s):ElaineUnterhalterStream 2: Gender equality ineducationalplanningandmanagementChair(s):NellyStromquist What can we learn fromPISA on gender equality ineducational achievement?(FrancescaBorgonovi andMaciejJakubowski) Gender and learningachievement in FrancophoneAfrica:Studyontheperformanceof pupils in primary cycle(VanessaSy) Trends of genderdifferences in learningachievement in Southern andEasternAfrica(2papers)(i)AlbertByamugisha(ii)MiokoSaitoInternational issues affecting genderequality in educational planning andmanagement UNESCOGlobal MonitoringReport Gender overview of progresstowards gender parity and equality(PaulineRose) A global review of genderequality in educational planning andmanagement(AnnaObura) Conceptualising genderequality in educational planning andmanagement: a comparative analysis(TinaWallace)13:0014:30 Lunch Brown Bag Lunch Centre for Universal Education, BrookingsInstitution14:3015:30 PlenarySession#2:LearningfromexperienceofgenderequalityinterventionsandstrategiesKeynoteSpeech:OleyDibbaWadda,ExecutiveDirector,FAWEChair(s):JacquesKi,DirectorGeneral,CONFEMENandHon.MinisterOngeriofKenyaMinistryofEducation3215:3016:00 Coffee/teabreak16:0017:30WorkingGroupsinSession#2 Stream 1: Gender equality in learningandteachingChair(s):MayRihani,FHI360Stream 2: Gender equality ineducationalplanningandmanagementChair(s):OleyDibbaWadda,FAWE Promoting gender equality:Lessons from a JICA technicalcooperation project in basic educationin Yemen (Keiko Mizuno and MiyakoKobayashi) Gender dimension of HIV andAIDSprogramme(StephanieDolata) Genderbalanceof teachersandschool heads in SACMEQ countries(NjoraHungi)Can women circumvent the glassceiling in educational planning andmanagement? Evidencebased casestudiesfromfourcountries: Argentina(NataliaGherardi) Kenya(AnnaObura) VietNam(KristyKelly)17:3020:00GroupPhotoReceptionhostedbyIIEP33Tuesday,4October20118:309:45 Participantsregistration9:4510:45 PlenarySession#3:MethodologiesforGenderrelatedStudiesKeynoteSpeech:ProfessorElaineUnterhalter,Educationand InternationalDevelopment,InstituteofEducationChair(s):ProfessorNellyStromquist,UniversityofMaryland10:4511:15 Coffee/teabreak11:1512:30 WorkingGroupsinSession#3 Stream 1: Gender equality inlearningandteachingChair (s): Jane Freedman,UNESCOStream 2: Gender equality ineducational planning andmanagementChair(s):JaneHodges,ILO Literacy and the GenderGap in South African Schools:Applicationofmultilevelanalysismethods(LindaZuze) Gender differences instudent learning outcomes inViet Nam: Application ofstructural equation modelling(CucNguyen) Feminist research andboysschooling:Genderequalityand construction of Africanmasculinities:An example studyofAfricaAsiauniversitydialoguenetwork (Fatuma Chege andRihoSakurai)Approaches to promoting genderequality in leadership positions ineducation Creating and supportingwomens leadership in education:Charting the effects of international,national and organizational cultures(JillSperandio) Methodological Issues andIntersectionality in Gender Studies(JackyLumby) Assessing theeffectivenessofaffirmative action on womensleadership and participation inUganda(AliceKagoda)12:3014:00 LunchBrownBagLunch MinistredesAffairestrangreseteuropennes14:0015:30 PlenarySession#4:Policy,Research,AgendaforAction,andPartnershipPaneldiscussion:RecommendationsforpolicyandpracticeChair(s):JoshuaMuskin,AgaKhanFoundationPanellists:OleyDibbaWadda,Nelly Stromquist, ElaineUnterhalter, CherylGregoryFaye15:3015:45 Coffee/teabreak15:4517:00 ClosingCeremonyClosingRemarksbyKhalilMahshi(Director,IIEP)ClosingRemarksbyJaneFreedman(GenderEqualityDivision,UNESCO)34

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