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  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


    ' I .

  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


    More him two thousand five h u a cars ago, therelived in I d a , in the shodow of the Himalayas, a tribe

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    called the Sakyas. The chief of the tribe was Raja Shvddho-dhana and his queen's name was Mahamaya. Theircapital was the beautiful city Kapilavastu.

    One nigWMahamaya had a strange dream.Ske

    d-tthat four kings carried her up to a lovely lake on a silm mountain, where she was bathed, dressed in Frns clotbrr

    ~ , b r m r , r u r r r u ~ t o k r h r r ~ a * r O f

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    trees at Lumbini.Mahamaya now turned back and returned to Kapila-

    vastu. King Shuddhodhana received thementhusiasticallyand there was great rejoicing in the kingdom.

    Shortly afterwards mother and child were visited by thesage Asita. Taking the prince, who was hardly a day old,in his arms he exclaimed with joy, c'lndeedhe will be aGreat Che!" Then tears bega to trickle down Asita'scheek.

    King Shuddhodhanawas immediately filled with alarm." What

    d a n p r i s going to befall

    myson? " hc

    askedanxiously." I am not crying for the child, " raplied Asita, " but for

    myself. This child will one day bring dtliwrartce to theworld. I am old and will not live to me thrt day. So Icry. " Saying tbis the srs weat his way.


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  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


    All three palaces were surrounded with flower gardens a dlotus pools. And the guards were instructed to see thatonly the healthy and young would enter the palaces.

    Hqre Siddhartha lived in comfort and luxury. He neverwore anything except silk a& never we& out in t b h a t ,cold or rafn. Hundreds of servants attea8sd to his m r yneed. His playmates were his cousin Devadatta, andKaludayin, the son of a minister. Ha was the darling of the Sakyas, tha heir of their &id. The popk called blatGautama, because hs Won@ to tk Gautana claa.

    One dpv when he was strolhng m the p a w garaen

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    Siddhartha saw a flock of wild swans flying overhead. Just'then m arrow whizzed through the air and a bird fell,dying.

    S i d d b r t h ran up to it, pnt ly pulled out the arrow,&d its wound and tended it. Just then Davadatta

    arrived and demanded the bird. But Siddhartha refuaed toport with it.hva&t ta wmplriaed to ''I shot down

    the bird." bc said, "but Siddhartha refuses to live it tome."

    When Shuddhodhana questioned his son, Siddhartha

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    no r w dL apts

    grew up into a k d s o m eyoung maa. I ~ Bas pap&r, aimsiderate and courteous10 everyone. At a family g a t h e h g he met h ~ s ousin, the.beautiful Yashodhara and fell in lovewith)her.

    According to the custom of the tlme Yashodhara'sfather organised an archery contest to select a suitable

    husband for his daughter. Siddhartha decided to enter thecontest sund win Yashodhara for his own.But Yhshodhara had many suitors. Prmoe~ oam t r m

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    r t h ask& for n blow caHed Simhahanu's~bow w a s k

    se streag that n o W ya t t e m b t s now rm a d

    h k d oa expectw1y,w a d truag; it witla eaM. Tk. T b armw v m i s b d

    After this the other princes conceded defeat. One by m ethe all left and Sitkfhartha was M a r e d the ainller.Shuddhodhana was very happy. He was lnow sure that hisson would become a great conqueror and thought thatSidilhartha would never renounce the world or leave aWife as.beautifu2 as Yashodhara.

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    Siddhartha lived happily inhis Palace with his beautifulwife. Shuddhodhana was verycareful to always surroundhim with all that was beauti:ful and joyful. Siddhartha did

    not even know that there wassorrow and suffering in theworld.

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    However, Siddhartha naturally guessed that there was a

    world beyond the palace gates and wondered what it waslike. We would often wander off on his own, find a seclud -ed place and sit for hours, immersed in thought.

    One day h,t expressed the desire to see for himself theworld outside. When ShwldkPodhana heard of this, he didnot object. " Good, " saia bw, " it is time the prince saw hascountry and the people hs will bad one day. "

    Shuddhodhana gave orders that the city should be sweptand cleaned for Siddhartha's visit. Festive arches.were putup to welcome him and houses decorated with flowers andflags. Special instructions were issued that the sick and theold should keep out of the city. Shuddhodhana took everyprecaution not to expose his son to the sight of humansuffering of any kind.

    The chariot was drawn by four gleaming, white horses.

    Siddhartha took his seat and Channa, the charioteer,drove him slowly through the city. The people linedup onboth sides and cheered their prince.

    Siddhartha received their greeting with folded hands." The people are happy, " he thought. " The world is indeeda happy p w . "

    But he wanted to sss more. " Let us go that way,?' he

    told C h a ~ .So C b n ~ a u r d the chariot into a bylane.There the people were not expacting Siddhartha. Therewarc no welcoming banners and the streets were dustymd crowded. An old man, with bent bock came hobblingalong, supported by or stick.

    "WBo is thot?'eenclaimed Siddhartha in surprise.

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  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


    across an ascetic in yallow h. he man looked calmd eaceful." Who is that man?' he

    " A sadhu," replied Charma. "He &a renounced theworld, and is i ad i ffe re~ tto m o w and suffering. He is atpew% with the world, q u k l y soard ing f ~ rthe eternaltruth. " This gave Siddbarth some hope. Skidharthaw a a u to be like him. He too decided to renounce theworld aa d become an a m t i c .

    While he was still thinking deeply about these matters, ason was bow to him. The baby was named Rahula. Whilerejoicing at the birth of his son, the restless prince decidednot to be diverted from his purpose. He was deterniinedthat he should renounce the world without further delay.

    Siddhartha was then twenty -nine years old. He woke upin the dead of night while his wife Yashodhara was fastasleep, with one hand lying on Rahula. Siddhartha wanted

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  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


    Sdw. Ia his wa

    to find t b tm

    the most powerfuI kin- of the time. There he joined .a famous school run by a great sdh dar Wdraka. Gautamawas i m p r e w d by Udraka's vast learning but soon feltthat mere learning could mot bad oae to truth. He left theschool to continue his search.

    Would a life of severe penance lead one to truth ?Gautama thought he should try this ancient method of &esages. He was joined by five ascetics who asked to becomehis disciples. With these five disciples he retired into theforest and began a period of penance. He put his body tohardships of many kinds and almost died from fasting,but still found that he was no nearer to the truth. He C O B -cluded that severe penance was useless and gave it up. Hisfive discipks toqk this as a sign of his having gone back to the worldly life and left him.

    Siddh ar tL wentto a nearby river, Niranjana, and bath -ed. He was so weak, however, that he was almost c a m 4away by the current. With great difficulty he came ashore.Sujata, a young woman who lived in the neighbourhood

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    F d l y . b r t h i d 4 that thc way to truth lay indeep meditation. He cbow a ahuraing girot oa tbe d i r t sof Gap and 8as down cross-lcw llBdBT a pupui m ." I will aot rise from this ssrt tig I 1lMbrsbnQ t8s m B , -be V Q W ~

    While thus immersed h meditation it is hid that Siddh-

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    artha bad to f w may t loas. T b evil spirit,Marii,was afraid tW e to know the truth, he

    w* a vision of hislittle SOR Rahula

    o be tempted and

    k k i t sent violent stormswas not d0&ryu:t&. As a last mrt Mam sent his threedaughters - Wire, Pleasure, and Passion-to dancebefore Siddhartha and tempt him. But they too had noeffect on him. He continued to be lost in deep meditation.

    nth day he realised the truth. He becameE n l i h t e a d Cine. The tree under which

    attained eapli$Irtemmmt w s thereafter called

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  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)



    Siddhartha, now the Buddhawanted to teach the peoplethe truth he had discovered.He knew that the world wassteeped in ignorance andwickedness. " Would it everlisten to him, " he wondered.He knew that the task wasdifficult but his compassionfor maakind was so infinite

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  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


    the Buddha in his erst sermon at Sarnath.The eightfold path that the Buddha preached enjoins:right views, right aspirations, right speech, right behaviour,right living, right effort, right thoughts and right contemp -lation. This is the D h a m , the law of righteousness. TheBuddha urged all men to follow this law and be saved frommisery.

    The sermon at Sarnath was only the beginning. For the

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    The Buddha's tenchin@ were very simple an d could be

    easily understood. The Buddha bclicval in the doctrine of karma according to which he pointed out that mw'a soulwqs imperishable and after death wouid be r e b 0 r ~ dcorn back to life. In each birth man n b r i t s the r e d t s of the actions of his previous life.

    The ultimate goal of life is Nirvana, the escape fromthe cycle of births and rebirths. This can be attained by a

    life of virtue and goodness, following the knowledge andMiddle Path taught by the Buddha.The Buddha was a great prophet of @hi#, n o n - v i o b a o ~

    To him life v&s sacred and his followers we@ en j shed natto kill. This was not to be taken in the narraw literal sensebut included any type of violence inflicted by word or deed.

    The first step was for man to discipline himelf . Withoutproper self -discipline it was impossible to lead a virtususlife. The Buddha says, " He who does not ~ o u s e imsekf

    Eves S II boy his oolapr

    rail, v l a b e q i s to bo mrt by n o n - v i o h r, 'u k t d s to bc nct by bvr: "Never in this work4d c u r W c u u w l U k t r . d , btrwlcaarc~ kr@ h e . "

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    Following the sermon atSarnath, the five former dis -ciples became followers of the Buddha, the first monksor bhikhus of the order of

    Buddhist monks called theSangha. In course of time asthe Buddha's teaching spread,more people joined theSangha. '

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    At that time them lived in Varanasi a,wealthy younglrrra named Yam. Yasa was dissatisfiedwith life and oneday L left home with no particular aim o r destination inm i d . Fortunately he met the Buddha and was attracted byhis divine perm nlit y. The Buddha advised him to foEbwthe Noble Path and Y a w was converted. He e a

    monk, slnd joined the Sangha.Yasa's father came in starch of his son. He toomet the

    Buddha and became his follower. But he did not leave hishome and family. He remained a lay disciple. Later theBuddha visited Yasa's house and taught the Noble Path toYasa's mother and his wife. They became his women laydisciples.

    The Buddha did hot insist on all his followers becomingmonks and nuns. He believed that only a few had the tem -perament and inclination to renounce the world. Most

    people he expected to live ordinary lives according to themoral code he had taught. They were his lay disciples. TheSangha, the Buddha and his teachings or the Dhommawere to be their guides.

    The Buddha took great interest in the development ofthe Wphn. He organised it into a disciplined band &me*,tr to explain and spread his teachings to all

    The Buddha met many am t i c s and won than over tothe Middle Path. One of the early converts was tbworshipping Brahmin p r k t Kashyapa, af le tw m b h o w 8as M a h a W l y a p a , who s d the Buddha to thebod-skip of tbe %a*.

    With K a s i ~ p p a ve h d r e d of his cihipIcs pi& thm

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    thrae hundred and two h d r &%&a grew aBd the f a m of

    d ver t k cwntrv.S o a ~ ttarwords, tha Buddha vfsited Rajegriha, the

    al, accompwded by t k monks who were%ma was then the ruler of Magadha

    and when he heard of the Buddha's visit he came with his

    nobles to pay his respects to the holy man..The Buddha received them kindly and preached the lawof righteousness to them. The king and his nobles becamehis followers. So pleased was the king with the teachingsof the Master that he exclaimed, " I have now been blessedwith everything. Even more than my kingdom I value theseteachings. " And he requested the teacher, " Great sage; Ishall consider it an honour if you and the reverend monkswould come and have a meal at my palace. " The Buddhaaccepted.

    King Bimbisara made elaborate preparations for them.He gut welcome arches a k n g the route the B u d d h a n dhis diwipks were to take a d himself came down to the

    te to receive t our& guests and lad themratad hall. The a was seated on an elevated

    plafforxn. The king sewed him with his own hands.Aftar the d, he king said, " As a sign of my devotioa

    I w i d to &a a gift of th s Vefuvma h f k to t L solsrcqwJt that this Bumbk gift be accepted."

    Tbc Buddha Boccptd the gift. At Vehvana W k , ju84on thc outskirts of the city, he founded the first Vihara or

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    monastery. The Viharas were to serve him and his monks

    T b s e thrse months theykltU@. p d k

    n r d e spaC tW r ta in tkQ Vihams.It wm dmingtkis Visit to RajaSriha &at flie b & h a con -

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    renounced tbe world in search of the trulle. T h yb i d e d tbat the .e wwko fir& c a m to k~ the truthwould t d it to t4e &r.

    h e day, Sariputra in his wanderings came across Assa-ji, one of the first five disciples of the Master. Sariputrawas impressed by Assiiji's noble bearing. He asked, " Whois your teacher, brother? Whose Dhamma do you follow? "

    " I follow the s a p of the Sakyas," answered Assaji.

    ''What docP he teach?"Assaji t L r w p explained to him the Dhanrma that

    the %uddhr psc.cBed." This is the truth that I have been searching for, "

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    exclaimed Sariasp*.We Burrid to tell l&s f h d Mog&ann. To Y

    went to the Buddha and were received into th

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    he will cbme to me me. "

    S b u d d M a n a told the Buddha,"

    The seven years youwere away, Yashodhara led a life of renunciation. She cutoff her hair and dressed in yellow robes. Indeed, she haslived like an ascetic. "

    The Budltha at once went to Yashodhara's room.~ a s h o d h a i afell at his feet aad wept. The Buddha praisedher &votion and gave her his blessings.

    TBe Buddha's son Rahula was then seven years dld. Theboy had no knowledge of his father and, had been underthe impression that he had no father other than Shuddho-dhana. On the seventh day after the Buddha's arrival inKapilavastu, Yashodhara dressed Rahula as a prince andsent him to his father to ask for his inheritance. Whenthe boy approached asking for his inhreritance the Buddhatufned to his disci ple ~ a r i p u t r aand said, " Admit him intothe Sangha."

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  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)



    From Kapilavastu the Bud -dha again set out to preachhis new knowledge. Whereverhe went a big crowd gatheredto listen to his sermons.

    Both high and low castesfound refugc in the Buddha.

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    There is the stsry pf h sKosala. Once, hasenajit was

    shown by the Master.Another famous cunrert was An&

    outlaw who wore a d l a c c d m a nthe h d s of his victims! To this vbeapltcompassionate Buddha, unarmed and unattended. Thedecoit was impressed by the courage of this man of ah imaand was converted. He became a prominent member of the Sangha.

    Vishakha was a famous woman convert. She was thedaughter of Dhananjava. a rich banker of Shravasti, thecapital city of Kosala. Asa girl she had become a,iollowTr

    ,of the Buddha along with her father and his entire house -hold. When she grew up, Vishakha was married tofirnavarthana, the son of another rich banker, Migara,also of Shravasti.

    m was not a follower of the W h a . He was, infact, a Jain and was not even sympathetic to the B d d h a

    and his teachings. When the Buddha came to Shravasti,Vishakha wanted to invite him to the house.But Migara would not agree. ''pon't you know that he

    has made many youn~ men renounce the world a dbecome mnks . I ndad he has broken many homes a dnow you w a ~ thim to come to our home."

    " That is a rumour his en'cmies have spread, " Vishakha

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    orly.pcwe a d

    As expected, Migtra waa so moved by the words of thecompassionate Buddha that he was converted.

    Vishakha never missed asermon given by the Master inShravasti. Once, on entering the hall where the Buddhawas preaching, she removed her jewelled headpiece and'kept it aside. She forgot about the jewel and went' homeafter the sermon without it.

    n e enarabls monk b n & , a Biscipb of thefou&that itsew-.

    BIct Virbrdrha wou

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    a was a rich merchant of Shravasti. Hisa but bemuse of his m a y deeds of

    &ven the t i tk Anmthpin$iSra, m a n -igg tk giwr d s to the unprotected.

    -6, o il a VU to sib on btlsiaess, hc stayedwith his sister. He elaborate preparations were

    being m& to watconzc A nmh u & t &at it m w t be th kkghimselfthat his brother-in-law wasexpecting.

    But his brother -in- law said, " Lord Buddha is comingwith his monks. "

    " Where is he? " enquired Ananthapindika eagerly." Just now he is in Sitavana, " said his brother -in-law,

    indicating a park not far from the city.

    Ananthapindika wanted to goat

    once and-meet theBuddha. But his bro6ber-in-lawstopped him. "It is too

    rose .sd set offfm! tb s f ~ ~ t t h t B u d d h P w

    nurt to ~ c a I I ~ ~ y r i C h a n d ~ a ~ n k i~ ~ ' 'c srik

    " There is nothing wrong in being rich, " said the Buddhr.

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    " What is wrong is undue attachment toone must be willing to use one's weal&good. "

    "Many *nd on me for their livina" said Amntka-pindika.

    "Than how u n p u renounce the world and let them@ uagry?" asked the . "It is not essentialfor 6ncto give up tlte w s n h .The Me you are e it?'

    A nan thap indik rejoicedat the words of the sage. Heoffered to buiM a monastery at Shravasti for the monks'retreat during the rainy season. The Buddha accepted.


    Ananthapindika took Sariputra, a prominent diwiple of the Buddha, to help him select a good site for the monas -tery. They found a suitable place, not far from the citywhich was quiet for meditation and prayer. But now a


    b e ~ u s eprince Jeta, who owned it, refusedto sell it.Whan Aaanthapindika insist&, the prince tried to put

    him ofT szyho-rr, " You can buy it only if you can cover' it,

    ka at o m b t o q h t large w a m n s ladenwith rdd wins and er tbc d a c e w

    ' P l k - t o t r r r yk h d b w o t l y j o t i y .

    !%ma tky oodd not wee, tho was reformi to a~ w I W ~ " h r b . p r t ~ ~ a r ; u w l r i . j r

    T l w p r i . c a h bdt47)utrirlitkarit..

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    c a w to know MBlt a monastery for Buddhistto be Mlt t h e , ha k s wry happy and

    w s d to coatribute towards it. We toot only bif of thegoM, saying, " The land is yours, but the trees are mine. Iwill offer my share t o the great teacher. "

    The monastery built there came to be known as theJ h v a n a Vihara. It.became one of the favourite retreats of the M'aster and many of his discourses were given there.King Prasenajit accompanied by his nobles came hereseveral times to pay homage to the Teacher of Righteousness. The Buddha advised him on many matters.On his kingly duties the Buddha said, " Regard yourpeople as men do an only son. Do not oppress them, buthelp them to follow the law of righteousness. Comfortand befriend the poor and suffering. "

    Once the Teacher was staying there with his favourite

    disciple Ananda. Asw a s

    his practice, Ananda got up early,and, taking his bowl, went into. the city to beg for alms.On his way back to the Vihara he felt, thirsty and wedt toa nearby well. There Be saw an outcaste CBandah #Idraw iap w ater.

    ''Give SIC SOm6 Wa t s l , &fW, I W b h tO &hkT iC+WSwA

    "Doa't you know thlt I ant a' die ask& in

    rprpriw." I & B O ~ sk, sister, for your funily or a*. If youh v c u y wUcr kpt, #w some to w . I wish to driolt,"rurll ti.tA..s6rrplid.

    Tba Brddh did not 1ux)rpDirra tho division of BOCW

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    Many stories are told aboutthe Buddha. One such tellsof him in the role of peace -maker. His kinsmen, theSakyas and theKholiyas wireat the point of war over thewaters of the riverRohini.Thetwo armies naa aSSemblea onthe battlefield, when between

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    than appeared the compassionateBuddhPinhisyellowro~a."Tcll me whether these waters are valuable in themselves

    or for the benefit they give your peoples, " the B u d t l kasked gently.

    Both kings replied that they were only useful in asmuch as they h e f i t & t b pwple.

    " But if you wage war many of your people will beslain, " said the Buddha. " Therefore you must decide

    whether you value the waters more than the peopk forwhose use you want them. " The two parties comprodlisedand war was averted.

    Once, while the Buddha was on his daily round for alms,a foolish young man abused him without reason. TheMaster remained calm and asked him,, " Son, if a mandeclines to accept a gift made to him, to whom would it.belong ? "

    " In that case it would belong to the man who offeredit, " answered the young man.

    " You have abused me and I decline to accept the abuse, "=id the Buddha. " As the echo belongs to the sound andtbo shadow to the substance, evil overtakes the evil docr."

    At times to make his point clear he spoke in parables.One such parable was the story of a king of Varanasi. The

    kin8 of Varanasi was a powerful monarch. Once seeing*waalrness of the smaller neighbouring kingdom of KO&,he attacked it. The king and queen fled and took refuprirb a potter in Varadasi where their son, Dighavu, was

    born.When Dighavu was still a boy, the identity of the

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    i e * c c r r t k r u a

    the dwire fer life lasts. Whm the Q l e is dwstroyed, tbbodily existence is broken up and scattered. The soul thenattains Nirvana. "

    Once the Buddha was on his way to Shravasti when awoman, Kisa Gautami, brought to him a dead child. Thepoor woman had beern told that the Buddha would 6% ableto %wivehim by his divim po*ws.

    ,she h.r lost b.r mres!'" o* b q m

    help. At last an oid Wevet&the he$ of the M h r . He is a holy man who is srld to

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    hastgniqg away when the Buddha added,"

    r, it mu& be from a h s e where no one haschild, hu&md, parmt or friend.''mi went from house to hou9e i n search o f t h e

    handful of mustard geed. But in each house, in everyfamily, in answer to her query, " Has a son or daughter, afather or mother, a friend or relative died in this house-hold? " the answer was always the same, " Alas, the livingare few but the dead are many! We have lost many a dearone."

    a m m i went to every house in Me city withouta bad been no death. At lost she r

    t*p to tell b. 'Dasth iat d at hst.

    s o a i u d Wo B t b . c L t o t 8 t


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    d o n g the routs the was eqectthl to tab. But *ent b Bvddha came in sight, the archers wen so a W by hisdivine appG.rszttx thtt they fell at his feet andthat they were there to kiU him. The compassionate B d a aforgave thhn, and sent them bock to DevadPtta.

    The f a i h n o f the archers made Devadatta all the moreangr)t. He wakehtd the movements of the Mastercaref~l ly,hoping to get another chance to put his plan in action. O=

    day, while the Buddha was meditating at the foot of a hill,known as Vulture Peak, Devadatta went up to the top andhurled a huge stone at him. The stone rolled down withtremendous force, but on its way it hit a hard rock andbroke into many pieces.

    Devadatta was now more determined than ever to p&an end t o the Buddha. He approached the keepers of ~ a l a -giri, the fiercest elephant of Rajagriha. He gave the keepersa handsome amount in gold and said, " When the ~ u d d 6 acomes this way tomorrow, let loose your elephant at him. "

    The next day the Buddha came into the city to beg foralms as was his custom. When the keepers saw himfheylet loose Nalagiri. The raging elephant, trunk raised,charged at the B d h a angrily.

    Ananda, the faithful disciple, seeingthe ek ph m t iushing

    forward, stood in front."

    Let She elephant kill me first,"

    htsaid.But by t k t time the elephant had become calm. One

    look from the Lord, full of l o v i n ~kindness, was enoughto pacify the f i q a Nalagiri. Nalagiri put down his trunk and stood before the Lord, like an obedient child. The

  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


    L M T a AV S

    'The Buddha was getting oldand he needed somebody tolook after him. The monksvied with one 'mother toserve the Master. " I shaU

    attend on you, Master,"

    offered Sariputra.

  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)


    wk'bh i s a syri&bol of theI Ah& his dmth the

    ' b ~ ~. India, m a i ~ ? ybe@@& 6f the' attri of Ashoka. They spread in the @st to Burma and Indo-In the so.&h Buddhism. became the religion of. Sri

    r spread in the north .and * s t to Tibet, Chi la ' a d

    %mi large arms echoedwlthtL

    sacrd hyyian:


  • 8/8/2019 Gautam Buddha (Gnv64)