gap model of service quality.pdf

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service management


  • The conceptual framework: The GAPS Model of Service

    Quality Prof. Rupali Rajesh

  • Introduction

    The effective services Marketing involves different strategies, skills, and tasks.

    Execution of service organization is confused about how to approach in organized manner.

    Viewing services in a structured, integrated way is called Gap model of service quality.


    Perceived Services

    Expected service



  • Contd

    The customer gap is the difference between customer expectations and perceptions.

    Customer expectations are standards or reference points that customer brings into the service experience, whereas customer perceptions are subjective assessments of actual service experiences.

    Customer expectations often consist of what a customer believes should or will happen.

    E.g: Visit to an expensive restaurant, you expect a high level of service, one that is considerably superior to the level you would expect in a fast-food restaurant.

  • The Provider GAPS

    The gaps occur within the organization providing the service and include:

    GAP 1: The Listening Gap

    GAP 2: The Service Design and Standards Gap

    GAP 3: The Service Performance Gap

    GAP 4: The Communication Gap

  • GAP 1: Not Knowing What Customers Expect

    Customer Expectations

    Inadequate marketing research orientation

    Insufficient marketing research

    Research not focused on service quality

    Inadequate use of market research

    Lack of upward communication

    Lack of interaction between management and customers

    Insufficient communication between contact employees and managers

    Too many layers between customers rather than relationship customers

    Insufficient relationship focus

    Lack of market segmentation

    Focus on transactions rather than relationship customers

    Focus on new customers rather than relationship customers

    Inadequate service recovery

    Lack of encouragement to listen to customer complaints

    Failure to make amends when things go wrong

    No appropriate recovery mechanisms in place to service failures

    Company perceptions of customer expectations

  • GAP 1: The Listening Gap

    The difference between customer expectations of service and company understanding of those expectations.

    A primary cause in many firms for not meeting customers expectations is that the firm lacks accurate understanding of exactly what those expectations are.

    Many reasons exist for managers not being aware of what customers expect: they may not interact directly with customers, they may be unwilling to as about expectations.

  • Contd..

    Listening gap is lack of upward communication. Frontline employees often know great deal about customers; if management is not in contact with frontline employees and does not understand what they know.

    Formal and informal methods to capture information about customers expectations must be developed through marketing research.

    Customer interview, survey research, complaint systems and customer panels must be used to stay close to the customer.

  • GAP 2: Not having the Right service quality designs and standards

    Customer- driven service designs and standards

    Poor Service Designs

    Unsystematic new service development process

    Vague, undefined service designs

    Failure to connect service design to service positioning

    Absence of customer-driven standards

    Lack of customer-driven standards

    Absence of process management to focus on customer requirements

    Absence of formal process for setting service quality goals.

    Inappropriate physical evidence and servicescape

    Failure to develop tangibles in line with customer expectations

    Servicescape design that does not meet customer and employee meets

    Inadequate maintenance and updating of the servicescape

    Management perceptions of customer expectations

  • Gap 2

    Managers are responsible for setting standards, believe that customer expectations are unreasonable or unrealistic.

    Also believe the degree of variability inherent in service defies standardization and therefore that setting standards will not achieved goal.

    Technology changes and improvements are particularly helpful in closing the gap

  • GAP 3: Not delivering to service designs and standards

    Customer- driven service designs and standards

    Deficiencies in human resource policies

    Ineffective recruitment

    Role ambiguity and role conflict

    Poor employee- technology job fit

    Inappropriate evaluation and compensation systems

    Lack of empowerment, perceived control and teamwork

    Customers who do not fulfill roles Customers who lack knowledge of their roles and responsibilities

    Customers who negatively impact each other

    Problems with service intermediaries

    Channel conflict over objectives and performance

    Difficulty controlling quality and consistency

    Tension between empowerment and control

    Failure to match supply and demand

    Failure to smooth peaks and valleys of demand

    Inappropriate customer mix

    Overreliance on price to smooth demand

    Service delivery

  • Gap 3 Discrepancy between development of customer driven service standard and

    actual service performance by company employees.

    Standards must be backed by appropriate resources (people, systems, and technology)and must be enforced to be effective,

    Employees must be measured and compensated on the basis of performance along those standards.

    Performance of the standards accurately reflect customers expectations, if company fails to provide support for those standards.

  • Provider Gap 4: The Communication Gap

    Service Delivery

    Lack of Integrated Marketing Communications

    Tendency to view each external communication as independent

    Absence of interactive marketing in communications plan

    Absence of strong internal marketing program

    Ineffective management of customer expectations

    Absence of customer expectation management through all forms of communication

    Lack of adequate education for customers


    Overpromising in advertising, personal selling or through physical evidence cues.

    Inadequate horizontal communications

    Inadequate communication between sales and operations, advertising and operations.

    Differences in policies and procedures across branches or units.

    External Communications to customers

  • Gap 4

    Promises made by the company through its media advertising, sales force, and external communications may potentially raise customer expectations.

    Broken promises can occur for many reasons: overpromising in advertising or personal selling, inadequate coordination between operations and marketing, and differences in policies and procedures across the service outlets.

  • GAP model of service quality

    company perceptions of

    consumer expectations

    Customer-driven service

    Designs and standards

    Service Delivery External








    GAP 2

    GAP 3

    GAP 5

    GAP 4



    GAP 1

  • Delivery of Quality Service

    Service employees and HR practices that facilitates delivery of quality services.

    GAP 1: Between management perceptions and consumer expectations. Not knowing what customers except

    Gap 2:Between management perceptions and service quality specifications. Not selecting the right service designs and standards

    Gap 3: Between service quality specifications and service delivery. Not delivering to service standards

  • Gap 4: Between service delivery and external communication. Not matching performance to promises.

    Gap 5: Between expected service and perceived service.

  • Service performance gap

    GAP 3- There is service performance gap in the service quality framework. Due to employees frequently deliver or perform the service, HR issues are a major cause of gaps

    By focusing on--- Critical role of service employees, developing strategies will lead to effectives customer oriented service delivery will helps to close gap 3.

  • Thank You


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