gameful design: creating engaging experiences

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gameful design creating engaging experiences Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets) Northeastern University May 19, 2015 cb

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Page 1: Gameful Design: Creating Engaging Experiences

gameful design creating engaging experiences Sebastian Deterding (@dingstweets) Northeastern University May 19, 2015

cb

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<1> what?

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we are all game designers

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Story Rules, Challenge

Safe space Shared toys

Goals Feedback

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Gamification The use of game design elements in non-game contexts

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Appeared in 2010

Gamification

Serious Games

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… In business books …

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… and business media …

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health

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Sustainability

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Education

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work

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Life

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The blueprint (still)

points Tracking, Feedback

badges Goals, surprise

leaderboards Competition

incentives Rewards

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<2> why?

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A

B

from utility and usability …

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… to motivation

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Buy!new value chains

Upload!

Comment!

Tag!

Digg!Forward!

Invite!

Bookmark!Retweet!

Share!

Add friend!

Design!

Mark as Spam!

Like!

Answer!Vote!

Register Now!

Subscribe!

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new markets

health self-improvement green tech

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new productivity factors

Towers Perrin Global Workforce Study (2011)

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loyalty programs!

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210

extrinsic motivation

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Win 1,000,000,000,000 points

Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!)

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intrinsic motivation

http://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967

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what intrinsic motivation drives the most

passionate customers?

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Pop Quiz!

The product is awesome!

The company is awesome!

The experience is awesome!

A B C

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Pop Quiz!

I am awesome!D

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Better X

Better user of X** aka »competence«

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»Learning is one of the fundamental reasons games are so engaging. The more you learn, the better you are at something. The better you are, the more engaging it is. If you can help people have more of that feeling, they won't talk about how good you are – they'll talk about how much they kick ass. And that's a powerful formula for creating passionate users.«

Kathy Sierraupgrade your users, not your product (2005)

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Raph Koster

»Fun is just another word for learning.«

a theory of fun for game design (2005)

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»Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun. With games, learning is the drug.«

Raph Kostera theory of fun for game design (2005)

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Edward Deci, Richard Ryan

»An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.«

the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)

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»This pattern is what we call the progress principle: of all the positive events that influence inner work life, the single most powerful is progress in meaningful work.«

Teresa M. Amabilethe progress principle (2012: 76)

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Teresa M. Amabile

»Truly effective video game designers know how to create a sense of progress for players within all stages of the game. Truly effective managers know how to do the same for their subordinates.«

the progress principle (2012: 88)

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<3> how?

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1 competence

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Autonomy2

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relatedness3

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https://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203

design4

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1 competence

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Not fun Funhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/sulamith/1342528771/sizes/o/

http://www.flickr.com/photos/photonquantique/3364593945/sizes/l/

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Raph Koster

»Fun is just another word for learning.«

through interesting challenges

a theory of fun for game design (2005)

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Goals ...

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+ Rules ...

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= Interesting challenges

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+ Feedback ...

http://www.flickr.com/photos/bodgerbrooks/1315419080

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= Experiences of competence

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Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points

Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!)

feedback without challenge

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Danger

Stand in the user’s way

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Ticket

For ticket, drag red dot through labyrinth

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Level 2

Ticket

For ticket, drag red dot through labyrinth

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Core challenge of E-Mail?

• Maximum output?

• Correct, polite, actionable?

• Prioritized?

• Fast answers?

• Check less often?

• Inbox Zero?

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Prioritization

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Procrastination

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find the inherent challenge

Principle

#1

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“juicy” feedback

Principle

#2

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Autonomy2

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Danger

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Johan Huizinga

»First and foremost, all play is a voluntary activity.«

homo ludens (1938/1950: 7)

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Edward Deci, Richard Ryan

»An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.«

the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)

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Fun Voluntary

Voluntary Fun

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the undermining effect

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feedback

perceived as

controllingthwarts

autonomy

motivation

perceived as

informingsupports

competence

+

Deci & Ryan 2012

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… vs. Quality and Variety

Principle

#1

safe from consequence

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meaningful choice

http://ascottallison.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/p1030286.jpg

Principle

#2

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relatedness3

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»You look especially lovely tonight.«

http://www.flickr.com/photos/beigeinside/50122570/

»Now I feel like you’re just doing it for the points.«

Danger

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Donald T. Campbell

»The more a quantitative social indicator is used for social decision-making, the more subject it will be to corruption pressures and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor.«

assessing the impact of planned social change (1976)

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http://www.rasmusen.org/x/images/pd.jpg

reframing as strategic action

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creates myopic focus

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So you also played EcoChallengeTM?

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… vs. Quality and Varietycreates side effects

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what values underlie play?

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/docentjoyce/3138887652

exploration ...

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… mastery, ...

http://www.flickr.com/photos/paulgorman/1392988135

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/5709372593

… and mutual care.

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/iboy/5709372593

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»It is the nature of a fun community to care more about the players than about the game. ... We are having fun. We are caring. We are safe with each other. This is what we want.«

Bernie de Koventhe well-played game (1978: 19-20)

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Edward Deci, Richard Ryan

»An understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness.«

the what and why of goal pursuit (2000)

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/mrlerone/405730185/sizes/o/

What we usually design

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Who decides how this is used

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model the values you wish to see

Principle

#1

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http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2047684/Dangerous-drivers-silent-treatment-Venezuela-employs-mimes-traffic-police.html

“the spirit of the rules”

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work play

Other-determined Self-determined

Means to an end End in itself

Consequential Inconsequential

Regulated Open

Care for results Care for each other

Motivation serves function Function serves motivation

work play playful work

Other-determined Self-determined Autonomy-supporting

Means to an end End in itself Learning and quality-oriented

Consequential InconsequentialInviting risk-taking and

failure

Regulated Open Open, trust-based

Care for results Care for each other Socially oriented

Motivation serves function Function serves motivation Value-oriented

Principle

#2

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https://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203

design4

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the inherent-additive model of experience

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/8147452@N05/2913356030/sizes/o/

experience is emergent

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AestheticsMechanics Dynamics

Hunicke, LeBlanc & Zubekmda: a formal approach to game design (2004)

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Monopoly

aesthetic

Frustrating end game

mechanic dynamic

Slow poverty gap

+$ !+-$ !-

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the systemic-emergent model of experiencehttps://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203

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easily exportable surface features ...

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… instead of systemic architectures

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easily exportable surface features ...

points Tracking, Feedback

badges Goals, surprise

leaderboards Competition

incentives Rewards

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instead of …?

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your mission, should you choose to accept ithttps://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203

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A possible joint agenda • Government, enterprise, end users: explore

game design for well-being, productivity, learning, engagement, …

• Industry and university researchers: Identify and validate systemic architectures for motivation, methods for designing them

• Design agencies, software houses: Develop and deploy methods and tools

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in summary

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in an age of motivation ...

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/diego_rivera/4261964210

… move from extrinsic ...

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… to Intrinsic motivations ...

http://www.flickr.com/photos/areyoumyrik/308908967

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to create truly engaging experiences.

I am awesome!

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Earn 1,000,000,000,000 points

Score: 964,000,000,000,000 (You rock!)

Instead of shallow progress wars...

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build systems to master,

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… and a free space to play ...

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… that are truly meaningful.

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… vs. Quality and Varietydon’t just set up point systems:

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to model the values you wish to see.

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and this cake does need many bakers.https://www.flickr.com/photos/benimoto/2084853203