fundamentals of teaching-art & essentials

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  1. 1. Teaching Skills Research Methodology & Literature Sources Ashani Basu M. Pharm 1
  2. 2. Fundamentals of teaching & learning Art & Science of teaching Thesis writing Presentation work Citation of references 2
  3. 3. Great teachers are not born, they are made . . . . 3
  4. 4. . . . Fundamentals of Teaching & Learning 4
  5. 5. Objectives Active learning Learning Theories Effects of emotional factors Use Technology 5
  6. 6. Active Learning . . . 6
  7. 7. Cont. . . . 7
  8. 8. Learning theories . . . During past few decades educationists have proposed no. of theories that how the students learn. The information that is relevant & meaningful is easier to remember. The practice makes it easier to retain an idea. The prior knowledge or the key conceptions can hinder the future learning. The memory is context dependent. A recent development about learning theory is construstivism, which argues that learning is an active process in which individuals construst their own frame work. 8
  9. 9. Teaching Theories . . . An instructor conveys information & students are expected to synthesize new knowledge on their own. Transactional Teaching It is much more self conscious about objectives & methods. Its is basically a learner centered method rather than a instructor centered method. Transformational Teaching 9
  10. 10. The teacher must teach the key concepts and skills in multiple ways. The students need to develop a capacity to accurately assess & reflect upon their own learning. The students acquire deeper knowledge when they engage in authentic practice. A process of inquiry using a discipline- specific methods of research, analysis etc. Teaching can be didactic, emphasizing the transfer of information. It can be philetic, in which the teacher serves as a role model. It can be evocative where assisting students in discovery of the personal meaning of a topic. Teaching can be heuristic, which will engage students in a process of inquiry & discovery. Key points . . . 10
  11. 11. Learning & Cognition AttentionMemory Motivation 11
  12. 12. Cognitive Disequilibrium: Curiosity, deep questions, thinking which in turn lead to deeper learning. Cognitive flexibility: It will be increased when the student is aware of multiple viewpoints, perspectives etc. Cognitive load: Excessive information can make it difficult for students to process. Generation effect: Learning is enhanced when the learners produce answers rather than recognizing them. (e.g. MCQ) Mental modeling: Explanations consists of casual analyses of events, logical justification of claims & finally justify that what information is important & relevant. Spaced learning: Instead of teaching everything just in one single class, divide it into several periods. 12
  13. 13. Emotional factors affecting learning . . . Engagement: Intrinsic motivation are very important in this matter. It tends to be declined if the activity is motivated by the promise of a reward. Motivation is also reduced if the individual is involved in more than one work at a time. Regulatory fit: Learners have different styles which will influence the learning. A student with a prevention focus is very sensitive to negative outcomes & students with promotion focus is more sensitive ti positive outcomes. Learning is enhanced when there is a learning fit. Stereotype threat: Fear that ones behavior will confirm an existing stereotype of a group with which one identifies has a negative effect on student performance. Student learning styles: Various types of learning styles are used by the students. Global learners, visual learners, auditory learners etc. 13
  14. 14. The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery . . . Art of Teaching 14
  15. 15. According to the students the evaluation of the teacher is on the basis of, Presentations that are clear & understandable. Classes in which they feel that they have learnt something. Teachers who stimulate or boost their interests. The topics which have to be highlighted in this matter, 10 principles to enhance students learning Ensuring students to come to the class well prepared Leading stimulating class discussions Effective lectures Integrating active learning in your teaching 15
  16. 16. Build raport with students Connect Arouse student interest in your class topics Engage Formulate clear objective for your each session of class. Focus Present information in multiple ways Vary Involve all students in classroom activities Include Foster active participation Involve To give students ownership of course material Share Assign your assignments with your learning objectives Align Monitor student learning through the whole semster Assess Create opportunities for students Reflect 16
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  18. 18. . . . . Nowadays with the tap of a tablet or smart phone, a student can get access to the vast world of knowledge. One can easily found almost all the answers they will search for. This means memorization is no longer as necessary as it was once 100 years ago. With the help of these new science & technologies, student can study deeper sociological issues & can be taught the art of invention & creativity. 18
  19. 19. Some fundamentals a teacher should learn about teaching 19
  20. 20. Yes, I am an introvert 20
  21. 21. Research Methodology . . . Research problem Objective of scientific research study Research hypothesis: Researchers expectation regarding the work. Research Question Research methodology is further of two types. E.g. qualitative & quantitative The aim of qualitative research is to understanding the social phenomena. It should focus on why rather than how many. In quantitative method, standardized methods are mainly used to for collecting data. (descriptive, analytical.) 21
  22. 22. Review of Literature . . . To know what has & has not been investigated so as to design your own work. To understand potential concept of researchable hypothesis. To see how others have tried to do it. To identify data sources. How to do literature search . . . Primary source: Books Secondary source: Journal & articles Tertiary source: Internet searching 22
  23. 23. How to Write a Thesis . . . 23
  24. 24. . . . Writing a thesis is perhaps the most daunting part of masters education. A thesis or dissertation marks the culmination of thousands of hours of training, research & writing and it represents a person years after graduation. 24
  25. 25. Identify the purpose first . . . The thesis must show that the student is able to Identify the problems Generate questions Review & summarize the literature Apply appropriate methods Collect data properly Discuss the findings Produce publishable results Think & write critically & coherently 25
  26. 26. Understanding Originality & Significance . . . Original & significance are terms that often come up during the discussion about the thesis. An original contribution offers the a novel or new perspective. For achieving this goal one has to develop an original insight. 26
  27. 27. Significance . . . Significance of the thesis can be described as the usefulness & the impact of the journal which will make it publishable in the top- tire journals because it; Causes those inside & those outside , the community to see the things differently. Influence the conversation, research etc. At the highest level, significance is a function of the fields long term interest in the problem. 27
  28. 28. Aiming for excellence: Quality varies across the thesis. Research Design: A well planned & well designed project should be executed. Writing: A well written & organized thesis is highly expectable. One has to clearly explain the project & findings in writing. Practice academic honesty: Honesty is the key stone to academic work. Develop professional level writing skill: The quality of the writing does matter. Brilliant ideas & findings are lost in poor writing, not only in ones thesis, but also from the whole carrier. Improve the writing skill: This can be done by avoiding th grammatical mistakes, typographic errors etc. The writing must be thoroughly checked & revised more than once. Other Points . . . 28
  29. 29. . . .Presenting the work 29
  30. 30. Discussion . . . Clear & well explained presentation Proper body language Be confident Make it mostly pictorial & graphical Use less statements, more points Rehearse it in front of mirror & your peers Steady eye contact with the audience 30
  31. 31. Citation 31
  32. 32. Citation . . . A citation tells the reader where the information came from. In your writing, you cite or refer to the source of information. Reference . . . A reference gives the readers the details about the sources so that they have a good understanding of what kind of source it is & could find the source themselves if necessary. The references are typically listed at the end of the thesis or lab report. 32
  33. 33. Types . . . It can be classified into two types. Viz: 1. The name & year system & 2. The alphabet- number system 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. References M Steven. The fundamentals of College & University Teaching. The American Economist. Shriner J C. Teaching & learning Skill Development. College of Medicine, The University of Toledo. Weisman L D. An Essay on the Art & Science of Teaching. The American Economist. B Lovittis. Writing a Thesis or Dissertation. URL: res/res-citsandrefs.html 35
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