fundamentals of game design game play

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Presented at the University of Winnipeg, Canada. Just E.T.C for Business, Education, and Technology Solutions. Fundamentals of Game Design Game Play. Sayed Ahmed BSc . Eng. in CSc . & Eng . (BUET) MSc . in CSc . (U of Manitoba) http://sayed.justetc.net http://www.justETC.net. Topics. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Fundamentals of Game DesignGame PlaySayed AhmedBSc. Eng. in CSc. & Eng. (BUET)MSc. in CSc. (U of Manitoba)http://sayed.justetc.nethttp://www.justETC.net

Presented at the University of Winnipeg, Canadasayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.netJust E.T.C for Business, Education, and Technology Solutions11TopicsDefinition of GameplayHow we make games funSome things that you need to be aware ofPrinciples you need to observeImportant ideas related to gameplayHierarchy of challengesThe concepts of skill, stress, and difficultyTypes of challenges that games offerHow you might present themMistakes you should avoidHow to adjust their difficulty

sayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net22TopicsActionsCommon types of actions found in gamesWhen and how to save a gameSummarysayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net33Making game funThrough gameplayThrough storyExecution matters more than innovationAvoid things that reduces funAspects of game development that contribute to funAvoiding elementary errorsTuning & polishingImaginative variations on the Games PremiseTrue design innovationsayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net44Aspects contributing to funAvoiding elementary errorsAvoid bad programming, bad music and sound, bad art, bad user interfaces, and bad game designTuning & polishingPay attention to details, get everything perfectImaginative variations on the Games PremiseTake basic elements of the game and construct enjoyable experienceLevel designers may helpTrue design innovation5% of fun, games original idea and subsequent decisions

sayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net55Finding the Fun FactorGame play comes firstGet a feature right or leave it outDesign around the playerKnow your target audienceAbstract or automate parts of the simulation that are not funBe true to your visionStrive for harmony, elegance, and beauty

sayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net66Finding the Fun FactorGame play comes firstFun things to doGet a feature right or leave it outDont ship games with broken featureBetter leave that featureDesign around the playerExamine every decision from the players point of viewIf you lose sight of the player, you lose funKnow your target audienceHard to make games that appeal to mass marketFind a niche, and know what they want, and what they think is fun

sayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net77Finding the Fun FactorAbstract or automate parts of the simulation that are not funRacing games casual gamer -Changing a tire is not fun (provide abstraction)Hardcore racing fan may be changing tire is funBe true to your visionBe stick to your original idea and goalIf you are making sailing simulation dont add power boatsStrive for harmony, elegance, and beautyAbsence of Aesthetic qualities diminish the fun to some extent

sayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net88Handling and presenting challengesHierarchy of challengesHow the hierarchy affects the players experience and what that means for game designInforming the player about challengesAtomic, highest level, and the intermediate challengesSimultaneous atomic challengesSkill, stress, and absolute difficultyIntrinsic skill, Stress, Absolute Difficultysayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net99Hierarchy of ChallengesAtomic challengesSub missionsMissionsUltimate goalLowest level challenges are called atomic challengesAtomic challenges make up sub-missions, sub-missions make up missions and missions make up the ultimate goalDesign your gameCreate the hierarchyDecide what challenges the player will face

sayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net1010Informing the player about challengesExplicit challengesImplicit challengesIn general, games give explicit instructions onTopmost level : victory condition, may be for each levelBottommost levelLeave intermediate levels for her discoveryTutorial levelsHow to meet those atomic challengesIn story telling gamesYou may want to keep the outcome a surpriseDetective storiessayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net1111Intermediate challengesKeep these to be explored by the playerProvide multiple ways of victory

sayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net1212Simultaneous Atomic ChallengesAs a designer, you shouldDesign the hierarchy of challengesDecide how many of them the player will face at onceVertically upBottomMore simultaneous atomic challenges with time pressureThe more stressful will be the gameThe more different levels of challenge, he will have to think at onceThe game becomes more complex and mentally challenging Example: Simcity, action gamessayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net1313Skill, stress, Absolute difficultyIntrinsic skillsUnlimited amount of timeStressWhen the challenge includes time pressureQuick reflex, quick mindTetris stressfulPhysical stressModerate themTime to restSome player like thisAbsolute DifficultyComplex skills requiredTremendous time pressuresayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net1414Commonly used challengesPhysical coordination challengesSpeed and reaction timeAccuracy and precisionIntuitive understanding of PhysicsTiming and rhythmCombination movesLogic and Mathematical ChallengesFormal logic puzzlesMathematical ChallengesRaces and time pressureFactual knowledge challengesMemory challengessayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net1515Commonly used challengesPattern recognition challengesExploration challengesSpatial awareness challengesLocked doorsTrapsMazes and illogical spacesTeleportersFinding hidden objectsConflictStrategyTacticssayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net1616Commonly used challengesLogisticsSurvival and reduction of enemy forcesDefending vulnerable items or unitsStealthEconomic challengesAccumulating resourcesAchieving BalanceCaring for living thingssayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net1717Commonly used challengesConceptual Reasoning and Lateral Thinking PuzzlesConceptual reasoningLateral thinking

sayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net1818ActionsActions for GameplayGive Limited number of actionsTo reduce UITo reduce large number of animationsDefining your actionsActions that Serve other functionsUnstructured playActions for creation & self expressionActions for socializationActions to participate in the storyActions to control the game softwaresayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net1919Defining your actionsDefine the actions that you will implementThink about what the player will do in the gameDrive a carFiner details: press accelerator, shift gearsThe challenges he will faceStart with atomic challengesAllowed actions to overcome those challenges for each atomic challengeThink about intermediate and higher level challengesCan those be over comed with the challenges that you have definedConsider actions unrelated to games

sayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net2020Actions that serve other functionsUnstructured PlayInclude some fun to perform actions that dont address any challengesMove around, horn beep for car racingActions for creation and self-expressionCustomizing the avatarConstruction games creative play than game playActions for socializationPlayers of the multiplayer games need to chatActions to participate in the storyInteractive dialogs take part in the storyMay not address any challengeActions to control the game softwareAdjust the virtual cameraPause and save the gamesayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net2121Saving the gameSave the GameSnapshot of the game world and all the particularsEven customizations made by the player Reasons for Saving a GameAllowing the player to leave the game and return to it laterMost important reasonLetting the player recover from disastrous mistakesFor example, death of the avatarArcade games multiple life (sometimes console action games)Role playing and adventure just reload the game (one life)Encourage the player to explore alternate strategiesStrategic games, save, try a different strategy, come back if the strategy does not worksayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net2222Immersion and storytellingConsequences for Immersion & storytellingSaving games is not always beneficial to the players experienceThe saving act takes him out of the game worldHarms the players immersionHarms the illusion that the player inhabits a fantasy worldWhen you allow the player to repeat the pastYou acknowledge the unreality of the game world

sayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net2323Ways of saving a gamePasswordsSave to a file or Save slotQuick-SaveAutomatic Save & checkpointssayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net2424Ways of saving a gamePasswordsAt the end of a level, give the user a password to start next levelHe can decide to play the next level at a later timeNo saving in the middleSave to a file or Save slotAllow saving using the file systemPrevents immersionSalvage the immersion by referring the file system as journals and provide appropriate UI kept in a bookQuick-SaveFast games offer quick savePress a button and save does not harm immersion a lotSingle button press to reload as wellDisadvantagesOne slot, can be overcomed by numbered slots

sayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net2525Ways of saving a gameAutomatic Save & checkpointsAutomatically save the player when the player exitsDoes not harm the immersionBut no way to recover from a recent or past disasterGames save when the player passed a checkpointMay or may not be visible to the playerLess disruptive than quick-savingThe player may be able to recover a disaster provide that the disaster happened after the most recent checkpointWorse than quick save: considering player centric [though provides better immersion]You may offer optional checkpointsSaving at will is preferable

sayed@justetc.net Www.JustETC.net2626To Save or Not to saveSome designers dont allow to save the gameAt certain region/pointOr dont allow saving a lotThe logic behind this is:The player is winning the game not because of his/her skills but with trial and errorIt allows the user to avoid undesirable random eventsIt prevents the immersion of the gameOther designers argue thatPreventing to