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Industrial Hygiene


  • 5 T H E D I T I O N






    The National Safety Council Press Occupational Safety and Health Series is composed ofmaterials written to help readers establish and maintain safety, health, and environmentalprograms. These books contain the latest information on establishing priorities, collectingand analyzing data to help identify problems, and developing methods and procedures toreduce or eliminate illness and incidents, thus mitigating injury and minimizing economicloss resulting from these events.

    Accident Prevention Manual for Business & Industry4 volume set 1. Administration & Programs2. Engineering & Technology3. Security Management4. Environmental Management

    Study Guide: Accident Prevention Manual for Business & Industry: Administration & Programs and Engineering & Technology

    Occupational Health & Safety Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene Study Guide: Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene

    In addition to the Occupational Safety and Health Series, some recent NSC Press addi-tions include: Authentic Involvement Pocket Guide to Safety Essentials Injury Facts (formerly Accident Facts) published annually Safety Culture and Effective Safety Management Safety Through Design On-Site Emergency Response Planning Guide Safety and Health Classics Lockout/Tagout: The Process of Controlling Hazardous Energy Supervisors Safety Manual Out in Front: Effective Supervision in the Workplace


    Barbara A. Plog, MPH, CIH, CSPEditor in Chief

    Patricia J. Quinlan, MPH, CIHEditor

  • Editor-in-Chief: Barbara A. Plog, MPH, CIH, CSPEditor: Patricia J. Quinlan, MPH, CIHProject Editor: Jodey B. SchonfeldAssociate Editor: Patricia M. Dewey

    NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL MISSION STATEMENTThe mission of the National Safety Council is to educate and influence society to adopt safety,health, and environmental policies, practices, and procedures that prevent and mitigate humansuffering and economic losses arising from preventable causes.

    COPYRIGHT, WAIVER OF FIRST SALE DOCTRINEThe National Safety Councils materials are fully protected by the United States copyright lawsand are solely for the noncommercial, internal use of the purchaser. Without the prior writtenconsent of the National Safety Council, purchaser agrees that such materials shall not be rented,leased, loaned, sold, transferred, assigned, broadcast in any media form, publicly exhibited orused outside the organization of the purchaser, or reproduced, stored in a retrieval system ortransmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording orotherwise. Use of these materials for training for which compensation is received is prohibited,unless authorized by the National Safety Council in writing.

    DISCLAIMERAlthough the information and recommendations contained in this publication have been com-piled from sources believed to be reliable, the National Safety Council makes no guarantee asto, and assumes no responsibility for, the correctness, sufficiency, or completeness of such infor-mation or recommendations. Other or additional safety measures may be required under par-ticular circumstances.

    Copyright 1971, 1979, 1988, 1996, 2002 by the National Safety CouncilAll Rights ReservedPrinted in the United States of America05 04 03 02 01 5 4 3 2 1

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataFundamentals of industrial hygiene / edited by Barbara A. Plog (editor in chief ), Patricia J. Quinlan (editor).-- 5th ed.

    p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-87912-216-1 1. Industrial hygiene. I. Plog, Barbara A. II. Quinlan, Patricia, 1951-

    RC967 .F85 2001 613.6'2dc21


    2.5M 1201 NSC Press Product Number: 15148-0000


  • vForeword viiPreface ix

    Part I History and Development1 Overview of Industrial Hygiene 3

    Part II Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology2 The Lungs 353 The Skin and Occupational Dermatoses 514 The Ears 835 The Eyes 99

    Part III Recognition of Hazards6 Industrial Toxicology 1237 Gases, Vapors, and Solvents 1498 Particulates 1699 Industrial Noise 20710 Ionizing Radiation 25711 Nonionizing Radiation 28112 Thermal Stress 32713 Ergonomics 35714 Biological Hazards 419

    Part IV Evaluation of Hazards15 Evaluation 48716 Air Sampling 52317 Direct-Reading Instruments for Gases,

    Vapors, and Particulates 561

    Part V Control of Hazards18 Methods of Control 58519 Local Exhaust Ventilation 60720 Dilution Ventilation of Industrial Workplaces 63121 General Ventilation of Nonindustrial Occupancies 64322 Respiratory Protection 667


    bellingaForeword viiPreface ixPart I History and Development1 Overview of Industrial Hygiene 3

  • Part VI Occupational Health and Safety Professions23 The Industrial Hygienist 72724 The Safety Professional 74325 The Occupational Medicine Physician 76526 The Occupational Health Nurse 77527 The Industrial Hygiene Program 793

    Part VII Government Regulations and Their Impact28 Government Regulations 80729 History of the Federal Occupational Safety and

    Health Administration 825

    Appendices: available online for no access charge at Additional ResourcesB ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) and

    Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs)C Conversion of UnitsD Review of MathematicsE Glossary

    Index 1049



  • vii

    The National Safety Council was chartered on the belief that information andplanning are the keys to safety. For those beginning their careers or experi-enced safety and health professionals, Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene contin-ues to be the acclaimed standard of information for occupational and industrialhygiene professionals.

    I encourage all employers, as well as safety and health professionals, to sharethe Councils commitment to preventing injury and illness and protecting peo-ple from hazards in the workplace. Fulfilling this commitment requires accurate,up-to-date informationthe kind of comprehensive and current informationcontained in the fifth edition of the National Safety Councils Fundamentals ofIndustrial Hygiene. Written and edited by prominent industrial hygienists, occu-pational safety professionals and noted physicians, Fundamentals of IndustrialHygiene provides a useful guide to assist the reader, regardless of his or her knowl-edge base, to recognize, evaluate and control hazards in any type of workplace.

    Throughout my own career, I have often referred to the most current editionof Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene for valuable guidance. While at the Occu-pational Safety and Health Administration, I used earlier editions of Fundamen-tals to obtain in-depth knowledge and insight related to specific occupationalenvironments, processes and procedures. Today, the book remains an indispensa-ble tool to me and to National Safety Council staff, volunteers, members, chap-ters and affiliates in designing safety and health programs that are grounded incurrent scientific knowledge and real-life experience.

    Whether establishing priorities, collecting and analyzing data, developing pro-cedures to mitigate loss and suffering, or as a simple reference tool, Fundamen-tals of Industrial Hygiene assists every reader in the establishment of safety andhealth programs that are the foundation of our missionpreventing injury andillness, wherever they may occur.



  • ix

    The fifth edition of Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene comes at a time of con-tinuing congressional activity that seeks to regulate how the federal Occupa-tional Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) promulgates and enforcesstandards for health and safety in U.S. workplaces.

    The words of then-OSHA head Joseph Dear to the American IndustrialHygiene Conference in Kansas City, Missouri, on May 24, 1995, still hold true,that OSHA strives to guarantee that each worker who leaves for work in themorning arrives home safely each night. (The Synergist, American IndustrialHygiene Association, Volume 6, Number 67, p. 10, June/July, 1995.)

    It is also clear the fundamental principles of industrial hygiene deserve moreemphasis than at any time before.

    This edition of Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene presents original new chap-ters on Particulates (Chapter 8), Dilution Venilation of Industrial Workplaces(Chapter 20), Respiratory Protection (Chapter 22), The Occupational MedicinePhysician (Chapter 25), and The Occupational Health Nurse (Chapter 26). Allother chapters have been extensively updated and revised.

    The primary purpose of this book is to provide a reference for those who haveeither an interest in or a direct responsibility for the recognition, evaluation, andcontrol of occupational health hazards. Thus, it is intended to be of use to indus-trial hygienists, industrial hygiene students, physicians, nurses, safety personnelfrom labor and industry, labor organizations, public service groups, governmentagencies, and manufacturers. Others who may find this reference helpful includeconsultants, architects, lawyers, and allied professional personnel who work withthose engaged in business, industry, and agriculture. It is hoped that this bookwill be of use to those responsible for planning and carrying out programs tominimize occupational health hazards.

    An understanding of the fundamentals of industrial hygiene is very importantto anyone involved in environmental, community, or occupational health. Thisma