FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY. Skeletal System What is the Skeletal System? What is the Skeletal System? It is the bones, tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connects.

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<ul><li><p>FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY </p></li><li><p>Skeletal System What is the Skeletal System? </p><p> It is the bones, tendons, ligaments and cartilage that connects them all together.</p></li><li><p>Skeletal SystemHow does the Skeletal System help us?1. SUPPORT. It supports our body, without we would be a pile of guts and skin on the ground.2. PROTECTS. It protects our vital organs and body tissue, E.g. Brain, eyes, heart etc3. MOVEMENT. Provides the structure for us to be able to move.</p></li><li><p>Skeletal SystemACTIVITY: Complete the table.</p></li><li><p>Muscular SystemThe Muscular system can be described as having either voluntary (controlled) or involuntary ( no direct control) muscles.</p><p>The 3 main types of muscles are;Smooth muscle are found in blood vessels or in the intestinal walls are usually internal involuntary muscle.Cardiac muscle are found in the walls of the heart and are involuntary.Skeletal muscle are external voluntary muscle like biceps and quads.</p></li><li><p>Muscular SystemSkeletal Muscle: Attach to and cover the bony skeleton. Skeletal muscle fibres have the longest muscle cells; they have obvious stripes called striations and can be controlled voluntarily. Skeletal muscle is responsible for overall body movement. It contracts fast, but tires easily, but can generate great amounts of force, and is easily adaptable.</p></li><li><p>Muscular SystemSkeletal Muscle Fibre Types There are 2 different types of muscle cells. Type 1: Fast twitchType 2: Slow twitch Fast twitch muscles contract at faster rate but fatigue easily; they are good for sprinting and power. Slow twitch muscles contract slower, but dont fatigue as fast; they are good for endurance. . Research states that all fibre types are changeable with training, so higher intensity training creates fast twitch muscles (anaerobic), and low intensity trainings creates slow twitch muscles (aerobic).</p></li><li><p>Muscular SystemACTIVITY:</p><p> Fill in the muscles using correct anatomical names</p></li><li><p>Synovial Joints Synovial joints are freely movable, and the bones are separated by fluid containing joint cavity. This allows the freedom of movement. Most joints of the body fall into this class. </p></li><li><p>Synovial Joints</p></li><li><p>Synovial JointsThere are 2 types of synovial joints;</p><p> Hinge joint. Allows back and forth movements like bending and straightening. Eg knee and knuckle. Ball and socket joint. Allows side to side, back and forth and rotational movements. It is held in place by ligaments. Eg shoulder and hip. </p></li><li><p>Synovial JointsACTIVITY. </p><p>What type of joints are the following?KneeElbowShoulderHip</p></li><li><p>MovementsHow does movement happen?Muscle cells have contractile components. This means that they have the ability to shorten and lengthen. Muscle is attached to bone via connective tissue called tendons. When a muscle contracts it pulls on the bone over a joint and creates movement. Muscles work in pairs. When one muscle in a pair shortens the other must lengthen to allow the movement to occur.</p></li><li><p>MovementsFlexion and Extension.</p><p>Flexion is the bending or decreasing of the angle between the bones. Eg. Bending your arm through flexion at the elbow.</p><p>Extension is the straightening or increasing of the angle of the bones. Eg. Straighteningyour leg by extension at the knee.</p></li><li><p>MovementsAbduction and adduction.</p><p>Abduction is the movement of the bone awayfrom the midline. Eg. Doing a lateral raise. (movement on the way up.)</p><p>Adduction is the movement of the bone towards the midline. Eg. In the lateral raise,(movement on the way down towards the body.)</p></li><li><p>MovementsDorsiflexion and plantarflexion.</p><p>Dorsiflexion is the raising of the toes and foottowards the tibia.</p><p>Plantarflexion is pointing of the toes.</p></li><li><p>MovementsInversion and eversion.</p><p>Inversion is the movement of the sole of the footinward at the ankle.</p><p>Eversion is the movement of the sole of the footoutward at the ankle.</p></li><li><p>MovementsPronation and supination.</p><p>Pronation is the crossing of the radius and the ulna, for eg when the palms are facing down.</p><p>Supination is movement of the bones so the radius and ulna run parallel, for eg when your Palms are facing up. </p></li><li><p>MovementsCircumduction.</p><p>Circumduction is movement of the bone so that end describes a circle, and the bone make a cone around it.</p></li><li><p>MovementsACTIVITY. Complete the table.</p></li></ul>

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