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Chapter 5

Antecedents and Consequences of Brand Trust in the Baby Care Toiletries Product Brands: The Moderating role of Mothers Personal Variables.A THESIS

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS

OF THE FELLOW PROGRAMME IN MANAGEMENT

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT

LUCKNOW

By

Neha Srivastava

FPM 8004

Date:

Thesis Advisory Committee

1. Prof. _______________________

2. Prof. ________________________

3. Prof. ________________________Certificate of approval

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT LUCKNOW

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

This is to certify that the thesis entitled Antecedents and Consequences of Brand Trust in the Baby Care Toiletries Product Brands: The Moderating role of Mothers Personal Variables by Neha Srivastava is an original work and has not been submitted earlier either to Indian Institute of Management Lucknow or any other Institutions in fulfillment of the requirements for the award of a Doctoral Degree. We do not approve any statement made, opinion expressed and conclusion drawn therein but approve the thesis only for the purpose for which it is submitted.

Signature of the Thesis Advisory Committee Members for the evaluation of the Thesis

Prof._________________________ __________________________

Chairperson Signature

Prof._________________________ __________________________

Co Chairperson Signature

Prof._________________________ __________________________

Member Signature

AbstractBrand Trust which is an extension of general trust theory, has gained attention among the marketing academia. Several conceptualizations of brand trust exist in product and service domain and these conceptualizations have offered valuable insight into the processes that consumers evaluate and choose brands within a given category. However, Baby care products have been neglected in literature so far and require special attention due to its differing nature from other product categories. In baby care product category, the buyer and the user are different and involve high level of perceived risk. It is a product category where parents are initially unable to judge brand performance as consumption is undertaken by babies who cannot express about the usage experience. Hence, this category of product brands require great deal of trust building since mothers would hardly purchase any brands for their infants without knowing and trusting it.

Despite several works on brand trust, little conceptual or empirical research has addressed which factors build brand trust. Most studies have focused on the explorations of brand trust in general and not on its sources and development. Mother characteristics in the context of baby care brand trust development process have also received little research focus. In response to such a call, the primary motivation behind this study is to fill the current gap in literature by investigating baby care toiletries product brand trust development process. Specifically, our study is based in the Indian baby care toiletries brand market and addresses following objectives: (i) to identify and test the impact of factors that generates brand trust in baby care toiletries product brands and assess their relative importance (ii) to identify and test the relative importance of consequences of brand Trust in baby care toiletries product brands (iii) to examine the role of brand trust in the relation between its antecedent factors and consequences (iv) to explore the effects of mother characteristics (socio-demography, personality traits) on brand trust development process.

To accomplish objectives of this study, research has been structured in two phases, viz. exploratory and descriptive. The exploratory study covers focused literature review and qualitative in-depth interviews with forty mothers of babies under age of 3 years. Integrating past literature with focused interviews, the study has developed a model examining antecedents and consequences of brand trust in baby care toiletries product category. The proposed framework conceptualized two dimensions of brand trust namely cognitive and affective brand trust. Ten antecedents of cognitive brand trust and seven of affective brand trust have been identified and incorporated in the conceptual framework. The study further proposes three consequences of brand trust and mother characteristics as moderators in the study. In the descriptive study, a survey with structured instrument, incorporating items on 27 major variables (13 independent variables, 9 moderating variables, 2 mediating variables, 3 dependent variables) has been developed. Instrument was pre tested with sixty mothers who have purchased baby care toiletries brands in the last six months. Then the final administering of questionnaire was done with 680 mothers resulting in usable data points of 507. The survey data analysis was conducted in three stages. The first step involved establishing the reliability and validity of measurement items measuring different variables through confirmatory factor analysis. For testing the relative importance of antecedent factors on brand trust and effect of brand trust on consequences, path analysis was performed using structure equation modeling. In the third phase, the moderating effects of mother characteristics between antecedents and brand trust were tested through hierarchical moderator regression analysis.

Path analysis findings supported hypothesized paths with exception of rejection of ten paths. Results of identified antecedents affecting brand trust dimensions showed the following findings- brand credibility, brand predictability, brand consumption experience, brand innovation positively affected cognitive brand trust and brand reputation, brand intimacy, family influence positively affected affective brand trust. Results also showed relationship between brand trust and its consequences. Hierarchical moderator regression analysis for moderating variables (education, income, occupation, family type and personality) supported five hypotheses.The study is expected to contribute significantly to the domain of baby care market and its brand trust development process. The findings will suggest marketing strategy implications for companies that what essential elements they must keep in mind while promoting their brand and winning trust of mothers for baby care toiletry brands. This study attempts to provide original insights to marketing theorists and practitioners about the significance of antecedent factors for developing strong brand trust for baby care toiletry brands. The study also throws light on the emerging topic of brand trust development process. This will help marketer in judicious allocation of resources for marketing activities to build strong brand trust in baby care market. Theoretically, the present study is an offshoot of the ongoing research on brand trust development process and enhances our current understanding of the area in the baby care toiletries brand sector.Keywords: Brand Trust, Mothers characteristics, Commitment, WOM.Table of ContentsChapter 17Introduction71.1 The Research Context71.2 Research Questions, Objective, and Scope of the study91.3 Theoretical Framework101.4. Expected contributions of the study131.5 Organization of Thesis Chapters14Chapter 21515The Review of Literature and Model Development

2.1 Brand Trust in the Context of Baby Care Products15172.2 Theoretical Frameworks for Research on Brand Trust in baby care products

262.3 The Role of mothers demographic variables in brand trust

272.4 The Role of mothers personality variables in brand trust

Chapter 328Model Development and Hypotheses Generation283.1 Brand trust and its antecedents in the context of baby care toiletries28433.2 Consequences of Cognitive & Affective brand trust in the baby care toiletries

453.3 The Mediating Role of Brand Trust

3.4 Mothers Demographic and its moderating effects on the relationships between brand trust and its antecedents .513.5 Mothers Big Five Personality and its moderating effects on the relationships between brand trust and its antecedents .58Chapter 4 64The Research Methodology644.1 The Measurement of variables644.2 Context of study and Sampling674.3 Data Analysis Techniques and Procedures70Chapter 581Results and Findings815.1 Pre-testing of the questionnaire815.1.1 Results of Pretest825.2 The Final Survey825.2.1 The sample and the data collection procedure835.2.2 The response rate and sample characteristics835.3 Data Analysis841205.4 Summary and Discussion of Results

121Chapter 6

121Theoretical Contributions, Managerial Implications and Future Directions

1226.1 Summary

1246.2 Major Findings and Theoretical Implications

1326.3 Limitations and Directions for Future Research

134Bibliography

146Appendix A

157Appendix B

Appendix C163

Chapter 1Introduction1.1 The Research ContextIndia is a growing economy and with rising income level and changing consumer behavior, Indian families have more money to spend. When a family has a baby under age three, then Baby care product is one of the product categories where the major component of familys income is spent. According to Research & Markets Report (2013), the baby care market is in the nascent stage of development in India, but soon it is expected to emerge as