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    PROJECT ON INDIAN RAILWAY

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    OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

    PROJECT REPORT ON

    INDIAN RAILWAYS

    CENTRAL RAILWAY

    CARRIAGE & WAGON MATUNGA WORKSHOP

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    The project on OPERATION MANAGEMENT ON INDIAN

    RAILWAYS is a result of co-operation, hard work and good wish of manypeople. We students of IES MCRC would like to thank our project guide

    PROFESSOR P.G KANE for his involvement in my project work and timely

    assessment that provided me inspiration and valued guidance throughout my

    study.

    We also take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to the

    MR.CHITENDRA SHETTY CHIEF INSTRUCTOR OFFICER BTC, C.R

    MATUNGA WORKSHOP for providing us with right information and right

    materials at the right time. Guiding and explaining us the Operations Process of

    Matunga Carriage & Wagon Workshop.

    We are also thankful to all those seen and unseen hands and heads, which

    have been of help in the completion of this project work.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Sr.no Particulars Page No.

    1 Introduction of Indian Railways 5

    2 Growth of Railways 10

    3 Organizational Structure 13

    4 HRM challenges &opportunities 14

    5 Need for Large Scale Investments 20

    6 SWOT & PESTEL analysis of Indian Railways 22

    7 PPP Initiatives 26

    8 Project Report C.R Matunga workshop 30

    9 Conclusion 44

    10 Bibliography 45

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    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY:

    The Railways in India provide the principal mode of transportation for freight and

    passengers. It brings together people from the farthest corners of the country and makes

    possible the conduct of business, sightseeing, pilgrimage and education. The Indian Railways

    have been a great integrating force during the last more than 155 years. It has bound the

    economic life of the country and helped in accelerating the development of industry and

    agriculture. From a very modest beginning in 1853, when the first train steamed off from

    Mumbai to Thane, a distance of 34 kilometres Indian Railways have grown into a vast

    network of 7,025 stations spread over a route length of 63,273 kilometres with a fleet of

    8,330 locomotives, 47,375 passenger service vehicles, 6,180 other coaching vehicles and 2,

    04,034 wagons as on 31st March, 2008. The growth of Indian Railways in the 155 years of its

    existence is thus phenomenal. It has played a vital role in the economic, industrial and social

    development of the country. The network runs multi-gauge operations extending over 63,273

    route kilometres.

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    INTRODUCTION

    India is the land of diverse culture and Indian Railways play a key role in not only meeting

    the transport needs of the country, but also in binding together dispersed areas and promoting

    national integration. Railways in India provide the principal mode of transportation for

    freight and passengers. The Indian Railways have been a great integrating force during the

    past 150 years and more. It has bound the economic life of the country and helped in

    accelerating the development of industry and agriculture. From a very modest beginning in

    1853 it has played a vital role in the economic, industrial and social development of the

    country.

    The Indian Railways operates the worlds second largest rail network under a single

    management. The network runs multi-gauge operations extending over 63,327 route

    kilometres. In terms of infrastructure it operates more than 14,444 trains backed by 7,739

    locomotives and 39,263 coaches. Thus it is one of the largest and busiest railway networks in

    the world carrying sixteen million passengers on a daily basis. It also carries more than one

    million tonnes of freight on a daily basis and with the employee strength surpassing 1.6

    million is also one of the biggest commercial employers and is only next to Chinese Army in

    terms of people recruited by it.

    The main characteristic of the Indian Railways is that it is an independent, corporatized,

    customer focused, and financially viable railway; run along commercial principles and

    subject to generally accepted corporate accounting principles and reporting. The Indian

    Railways Corporation (IRC) is responsible for managing railway assets and resources to meet

    the objectives of Indian Railways. The Indian Railway Executive Board (IREB) manages

    IRC and is responsible for restructuring process.The functions of the Indian Railways can be

    divided into core and non-core activities. The core activities comprise transportation of

    freight and passengers (Running of trains and owning of assets).The non-core activities

    comprises catering, running schools and colleges for the children of the railway staff, medical

    healthcare facilities for the railway staff production units and workshops, protection force for

    the safety of railway assets & maintenance of an exclusive telecommunications network etc.

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    Indian Railways is the state-owned railway company of India, which owns and operates most

    of the country's rail transport. It is overseen by the Ministry of Railways of the Government

    of India. However, rampant corruption has spread inside the organization which the Indian

    Railway department has acknowledged.

    Indian Railways has the largest rail network in Asia and the world's second largest less than

    one management, transporting 20 million passengers and more than 2 million tons of freight

    daily. It is one of the world's largest commercial or utility employers, with more than

    1.6 million employees. The railways traverse the length and breadth of the country, covering

    6,909 stations over a total route length of more than 63,327 kilometers (39,350 mi). As to

    rolling stock, IR owns over 200,000 (freight) wagons, 50,000 coaches and 8,000 locomotives.

    TypeDepartmental Undertaking of The Ministry of

    Railways, Government of India

    Industry Rail transportFounded 16 April 1853

    Headquarters New Delhi, Delhi, India

    Area served India

    Key peopleD. V. Sadananda Gowda

    (Ministry of Railways)

    Products Rail transport,Cargo transport,Services,more...

    Revenue Rs 88,355 crore (US$ 18.82 billion) (2012-13)Net income Rs. 951 crore (US$ 202.56 million) (2012-13)

    Employees 1.307 million (2013)

    Divisions 16 Railway Zones (excludingKonkan Railway)

    Website Indianrailways.gov.in

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Types_of_business_entityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Railways_%28India%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Product_%28business%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail_transporthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_Sectorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revenuehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_rupeehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_dollarhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Net_incomehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_rupeehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_dollarhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Employmenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Division_%28business%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konkan_Railwayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Websitehttp://www.indianrailways.gov.in/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Indian_Railway-logo.Phttp://www.indianrailways.gov.in/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Websitehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konkan_Railwayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Division_%28business%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Employmenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_dollarhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_rupeehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Net_incomehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_dollarhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_rupeehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revenuehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_Sectorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rail_transporthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Product_%28business%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Railways_%28India%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Types_of_business_entity
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    EVOLUTION OF RAILWAYS

    The novel plan for the introduction of a rail system, transformed the whole history of India.

    This innovative plan was first proposed in 1832; however no auxiliary actions were taken for

    over a decade. In the year 1844, private entrepreneurs were allowed to launch a rail system by

    Lord Hardinge, who was the Governor-General of India. By the year 1845, two companies

    were formed and the East India Company was requested to support them in the matter. The

    credit from the UK investors led to the hasty construction of a rail system over the next few

    years.

    On 22nd Dec' 1851, the first train came on the track to carry the construction material at

    Roorkee in India. On September 22, 1842, Britishcivil engineerCharles Blacker Vignoles,

    submitted aReport on a Proposed Railway in India to the East India Company.[1]By 1845,

    two companies, the East Indian Railway Company operating fromCalcutta, and theGreat

    Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR) operating fromBombay,were formed. With a passage of

    one and a half years, the first passenger train service was introduced between Bori Bunder,

    Bombay and Thana on the providential date 16th Apr' 1853. This rail track covered a distance

    of 34 kms (21 miles). Ever since its origin, the rail service in India never turned back. The

    British Government approached private investors and persuaded them to join the race with asystem that would promise an annual return of 5% during the early years of operation. Once

    finished, the company would be transferred under the Government ownership, yet the

    operational control will be enjoyed by the original company. In 1880, the rail network

    acquired a route mileage of about 14,500 km (9,000 miles), mostly working through Bombay,

    Madras and Calcutta.

    By 1895, India had started manufacturing its own locomotives. Into time, different kingdoms

    assembled their independent rail systems. In 1900, the GIPR became a government owned

    company. The network spread to modern day states ofAssam,Rajasthan andAndhra

    Pradesh and soon various independent kingdoms began to have their own rail systems. In

    1901, an early Railway Board was constituted, but the powers were formally invested

    underLord Curzon.It served under the Department of Commerce and Industry and had a

    government railway official serving as chairman, and a railway manager from England and

    an agent of one of the company railways as the other two members. For the first time in its

    history, the Railways began to make a profit. It was comprised of three members - a

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_engineerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Blacker_Vignoleshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_rail_transport_in_India#cite_note-andrew-0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_rail_transport_in_India#cite_note-andrew-0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_rail_transport_in_India#cite_note-andrew-0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Indian_Railway_Companyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcuttahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Indian_Peninsula_Railwayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Indian_Peninsula_Railwayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assamhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajasthanhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhra_Pradeshhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhra_Pradeshhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Curzonhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Curzonhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhra_Pradeshhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andhra_Pradeshhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajasthanhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assamhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Indian_Peninsula_Railwayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Indian_Peninsula_Railwayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcuttahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Indian_Railway_Companyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_rail_transport_in_India#cite_note-andrew-0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Blacker_Vignoleshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_engineer
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    Chairman, a Railway Manager and an Agent respectively. For the very first time in its

    history, the Railways instigated to draw a neat profit. In 1907, most of the rail companies

    were came under the government control. Subsequently, the first electric locomotive emerged

    in the next year. During the First World War, the railways were exclusively used by the

    British. In view of the War, the condition of railways became miserable. In 1920, with the

    network having expanded to 61,220 km, a need for central management was mooted by

    Sir William Acworth.

    The period from 1920 to 1929 was a period of economic boom. Following With the Second

    World War, the railways got incapacitated since the trains were diverted to the Middle East

    (theGreat Depression,the company suffered economically for the next eight years).

    TheSecond World War severely crippled the railways. Trains were diverted to theMiddle

    East and the railways workshops were converted to munitions workshops. By 1946 all rail

    systems were taken over by the government.

    On the occasion of India's Independence in 1947, the maximum share of the railways went

    under the terrain of Pakistan. The existing rail networks were forfeited for zones in 1951 and

    6 zones were formed in 1952. With 1985, the diesel and electric locomotives took the place

    of steam locomotives. In 1995, the whole railway reservation system was rationalized with

    computerization.

    History of Railway in India- Important Years

    1832- Plans were proposed to introduce a rail network in India.

    1844- Private entrepreneurs set up a private rail system in India.

    1851- Trains became operational.

    1875- 95 million pounds were invested into Indian railways by British companies.

    1895- Indian locomotives began to operate in the country.

    1907- The government obtained total control over most of the rail companies.

    1908- First electric locomotive was introduced.

    1947- 40% of the railway network came under Pakistan's possession.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depressionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_IIhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Easthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Easthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Easthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Easthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_IIhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression
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    History of Indian Railways- Important Years

    After India obtained independence from the British, the rail network in the country was

    christened as the Indian Railways.

    1951- Nationalization of the rail system in India took place.

    1952- Six railway zones were introduced.

    1995- Steam locomotives became obsolete. Only diesel and electric locomotives were

    operational.

    1987-1995- The Indian Railways reservation system was computerised.

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    Growth of Railways

    Start of Indian Railways

    Following independence in 1947, India inherited a decrepit rail network. On the whole, 42

    independent railway systems with thirty-two lines were merged in a single unit and were

    acknowledged as Indian Railways & hence it earned the distinction of being one of the

    largest railway networks in the world. About 40 per cent of the railways then passed through

    the newly independent republic ofPakistan. A large number of lines had to be rerouted

    through Indian Territory, and new construction had to be undertaken. Underinvestment and

    unproductive management and maintenance practices have sharply curtailed growth in route

    length. A total of forty-two separate railway systems, including thirty-two lines owned by the

    former Indian princely states existed at the time of independence spanning a total of

    55,000 km. These were amalgamated into theIndian Railways.

    In 1951, the rail networks were abandoned in favor of zones. A total of six zones came into

    being in 1952. As India developed its economy, almost all railway production units started to

    be built indigenously. Broad Gauge became the standard, and the Railways began to electrify

    most lines toAC.In 1985, steam locomotives were phased out.

    UnderRajiv Gandhi, reforms in the railways were carried out. In1987, computerization ofreservation first was carried out in Bombay and in 1989 the train numbers were standardized

    to four digits. In 1995 the entire railway reservation was computerized through the railways

    intranet. In 1998, theKonkan Railway was opened, spanning difficult terrain through the

    Western Ghats.Few of the recent developments include construction of Calcutta Metro and

    Delhi Metro.

    Railways (Post Reforms)

    Post reforms in the 1990's the progress of the railways was not satisfactory. The Rakesh

    Mohan Committee report suggested that the railways needed a complete overhaul if any

    progress had to be made. Since it was not that easy from a political point of view, it was not

    given due importance by the inner circle in the railways.

    But with the appointment of Mr.Lalu Prasad in 2004 as railway minister, things changed

    dramatically. In the next five years the minister and his team worked out a strategy to bring

    about a complete turnaround in the working of the railway. Currently Mamata Banerjee has

    chalked out future plans for railways which seem optimistic and achievable.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistanhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Railwayshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternating_Currenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajiv_Gandhihttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konkan_Railwayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Ghatshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcutta_Metrohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcutta_Metrohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Ghatshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Konkan_Railwayhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajiv_Gandhihttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternating_Currenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Railwayshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan
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    The economic turn-around was a result of:-

    Higher freight volumes.

    Increased occupancy in passenger trains.

    Monitor costs and reduce tariffs.

    The railways have managed to improve their market share and operating margins. The

    government has been credited with pursuing inclusive reforms, without comprising on the

    social obligation.

    The railways have been applauded for improved customer service and for reducing passenger

    fares.

    Some of the salient features of the reform are:

    A well planned strategy to build around capacity generation through optimization of the

    existing infrastructure and assets.

    Adopting a different approach to the social and commercial segment of the traffic.

    Increasing the passenger carrying capacity of important trains. Improved operational

    efficiency meant the unit cost of operation reduced.

    Dynamic and market driven tariff policy linked to seasonality and price elasticity of

    demand.

    The policy of overhaul increase in freight rates has been replaced by a system of

    differential tariff based on market conditions.

    Tremendous growth in traffic volumes, revenues and surpluses has proven the fact

    that the process of globalization has brought positive results for everyone concerned.

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    The Future Prospects

    The railways have devised a planned strategy to remove bottlenecks and increase capacity to

    meet the demand. The key areas of focus would be up gradation of infrastructure,

    modernization of wagons technology, advanced signalling and telecommunication, induction

    of high horse power locomotives, grade separation and usage of information technology to

    decrease transit times and reduce unit operational cost.

    The railways also propose to construct state of the art passenger and freight terminals

    bench.

    Over the next 5 to 10 year the government plans to give utmost priority to low cost,

    rapid pay back and high return investments with the view of speeding up works on

    doubling railway line, port connectivity, gauge conversion, signalling and telecom,

    renewal of assets and modernization of passenger terminals.

    The government has initiated private investments in major stations to create world

    class passenger amenities and services.

    There is an increase in demand for coaches. The government has proposed to meet the

    increase in demand partly through increase in the capacity in the existing production

    units and partly by setting up a new manufacturing unit through a joint venture under

    Public Private Partnership (PPP).

    The railways are also planning to build a super specialty hospital in Patna. If

    successful, the concept would be extended to other parts of the country.

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    ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE

    Indian Railways is a department owned and controlled by theGovernment of India,via the

    Ministry of Railways.As of May 2014, the Railway Ministry is headed by Sadanand Gowda

    Union Minister for Railways, and assisted by two ministers of State for Railways. Indian

    Railways is administered by the Railway Board, which has a financial commissioner, five

    members and a chairman.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_of_Indiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Railways_%28India%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Railways_%28India%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_of_India
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    Human Resource Management: Chal lenges and opportuni ties

    The core aim of Human Resource Management is to attain the organization effectiveness.

    Transport is one of the service sectors in India. Indian Railways is the life line of India.

    Indian Railways carried 19 millions of passengers and 2.29 million tonnes of freight every

    day during the year 2008-09. The Indian Railways organization structure depicts the superior

    subordinate relationship in vivid manner. The density of human resource in Indian Railways

    is at 22 Human Resource per kilometre. The electrification network is at 29 percent to the

    total route kilometres. However, the electrifications network should further increased to 50

    percent in order to render the best services to the commuters.

    The socio-economic development is linked with the number of railways stations; hence the

    railway stations should further increase. The electric engines are eco friendly, fastest and

    cheapest hence. The number of electric engines should further increase in number in order to

    render best services to the goods and commuters in Indian Railways. The net revenue reflects

    the contribution of Indian railways to the Indian exchequer. The net revenue in Indian

    Railways is substantial at Rs 9174.45 crores while the operating ratio is at 90 percent during

    the year 2008-09. The Productivity is substantial in Indian Railways through NTKMS and

    PKMS. The Human Resource cost to the Total cost in Indian Railways is at 55 percent due to

    the implementation of the VI pay commission.

    The market share of Indian Railways is at 30 percent during the year 2008-09 hence, the

    Railway Board ought to take decisions in tapping the small consignments also to boost up the

    productivity and net revenue. However, the Indian Railways should focus on the core

    activities and the non core activities should be given to the BPO. The USA railroad length

    network is the largest in the entire globe while the Indian Railway stands fourth largest in the

    Network through the route kilometres. Indian Railways stands second in the deployment of

    Human Resource with 14 lakhs during the year 2007-08. Indian Railways stand fourth largest

    as far as the freight tones are concerned. However Indian Railways has the highest PKMS

    with 694764 millions in the entire globe. The Human Resource Planning is the core aspects

    of the Human Resource Management. The Human Resource has reduced by 2.66 lakhs

    during the period 1990-91 to 2008-09 depicts vividly the human planning strategy to reduce

    the human resource on one hand and to reduce the human resource cost of Rs 3,273 crores on

    the other. The Recruitment and Selection of group A&B officers is empowered to UPSC

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    while The Railway Recruitment Board is empowered to recruit the group C and D staff.

    However, the RRBs have to follow the recruitment and selection pattern of the UPSC.

    Chal lenges and opportunities

    The core aim of Human Resource Management is to attain the organization effectiveness.

    Human Resource Management includes the following key aspects

    Human Resource Planning aims at anticipating the movement of Human Resource in the

    organization on account of Turnovers, Transfers, Retirement and Promotions. Recruitment

    and Selection aims at to select the right person at the right place. Training helps in upgrading

    the skills, knowledge and attitudes while Development is to enhance the skills, knowledge,

    and Personality Development.

    Training and Development helps in synchronization of Human Resource in an effective

    manner for achieving the goals of the organization. Reward Management is one of the tools

    for encouraging the desired employee behaviours while the Human Relations will help in

    boosting the morale of the employees.

    Of all the resources, the Human Resource is vital for utilization of scarce resources in

    an effective and efficient manner. The author of Personnel Management C B.

    Mamoria states that the organizations performance and resulting productivity are

    directly proportional to the quality and quantity of human resources, hence, the

    significance of the Human Resource.

    Service sector is the life line of the economic growth of the country. Transport is one

    of the service sectors in India. Indian Railways caters to the needs of the commuters

    and movement of bulky goods for longer distances in India. Indian Railways are the

    life line of India. Indian Railways are the cheapest, fastest and safest means of

    transport in India in comparison to Roadways.

    Indian Railways is one of the gigantic public undertakings enriched with fixed assets. Viz:

    64015 Route Kilometres, 7030 Railway Stations while the Railway Bridges are 1, 30,776 in

    number. About 29 percent of Total Route kilometres has Electrification network in Indian

    Railways.

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    The Indian Railways Fleet is substantial with 4963 Diesel Traction, and 3586 Electrical

    Traction, while 2, 11,763 Wagons, and 49110 Passenger service Vehicles. The Total strength

    of Human Resource in Indian Railways is at 13.86 Lakhs during the year 2008-09.

    The Medical and Health services of employees are taken care with the help of 121 Hospitals

    and 586 Health units. Apart from that the 133 private hospitals recognized for medical

    treatment also do render the yeomen services. About 46 percent of the employees are

    provided with Railway Accommodation facilities. The total area of 4.31 lakhs in hectares of

    Land is the hallmark of Indian Railways. Indian Railways carried 19 million passengers and

    2.29 million tonnes of freight each day during the year 2008-09.The Railway Board

    synchronizes of scare resources with the help of Human Resource in Indian Railways. Human

    resource helps not only in tapping the fixed and scare resources of organization in an

    effective and efficient way but also in attaining the goals of organization in a rapid manner.

    In fact, they are the real assets of Indian Railways.

    RAIL BUDGET AND FINANCES

    The Railway Budget deals with planned infrastructure expenditure on the railways as well as

    with the operating revenue and expenditure for the upcoming fiscal years, the public elements

    of which are usually the induction and improvement of existing trains and routes, planned

    investment in new and existing infrastructure elements, and the tariff for freight and

    passenger travel. The Parliament discusses the policies and allocations proposed in the

    budget. The budget needs to be passed by a simple majority in theLok Sabha (Lower House).

    The comments of theRajya Sabha (Upper House) are non-binding.

    Indian Railways is subject to the same audit control as other government revenue and

    expenditures. Based on anticipated traffic and the projected tariff, requirement of resources

    for capital and revenue expenditure of railways is worked out. While the revenue expenditure

    is met entirely by railways itself, the shortfall in the capital (plan) expenditure is met partly

    from borrowings (raised by Indian Railway Finance Corporation) and the rest from budgetary

    support from the Central Government. Indian Railways pays dividend to the Central

    Government for the capital invested by the Central Government.

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    As per the Separation Convention (on the recommendations of the Acworth Committee),

    1924, the Railway Budget is presented to the Parliament by the Union Railway Minister, two

    days prior to theGeneral Budget,usually around 26 February. Though the Railway Budget is

    separately presented to the Parliament, the figures relating to the receipt and expenditure of

    the Railways are also shown in the General Budget, since they are a part and parcel of the

    total receipts and expenditure of the Government of India. This document serves as a balance

    sheet of operations of the Railways during the previous year and lists out plans for expansion

    for the current year. The formation of policy and overall control of the railways is vested in

    Railway Board,comprising the Chairman, the Financial Commissioner and other functional

    members of Traffic, Engineering, Mechanical, Electrical and Staff departments.

    Indian Railways, which a few years ago was operating at a loss, has, in recent years, been

    generating positive cash flows and been meeting its dividend obligations to the government,

    with (unaudited) operating profits going up substantially. The railway reported a cash surplus

    of INR 9000 cr in 2005, INR 14000 cr in 2006, INR 20,000 cr in 2007 and INR 25,000 cr for

    the 2007-2008 fiscal year. Its operating ratio improved to 76% while, in the last four years, its

    plan size increased from INR 13,000 cr to INR 30,000 cr. The proposed investment for the

    2008-2009 fiscal years is INR 37,500 cr, 21% more than for the previous fiscal year.

    Budget Estimates-2008 for Freight, Passenger, Sundry other Earnings and other Coaching

    Earnings have been kept at INR 52,700 cr, INR 21,681 cr, INR 5,000 cr and INR 2,420 cr

    respectively. Maintaining an overall double digit growth, Gross Traffic Earnings have been

    projected as INR 93,159 crore in 2009-10 (19.1 billion USD at current rate), exceeding the

    revised estimates for the current fiscal by INR 10,766 crore. Around 20% of the passenger

    revenue is earned from the upper class segments of the passenger segment (the air-

    conditioned classes).

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_budget_of_Indiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Railway_Board_%28India%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Railway_Board_%28India%29http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_budget_of_India
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    PUBLIC EXPENDITURE ACCOUNTABILITY OF THE INDIAN

    RAILWAYS

    In a largely government controlled economy, the Indian Railways (IR) has been used as a tool

    of dispatch towards government objectives. A separate budget owing to historical

    circumstances is just one of the features that mark the close bondage between the government

    and its chief logistics agency. The basic attitude of running IR is that of a bureaucracy. A

    welfare outlook has burdened IR with many liabilities.

    Populist measures leading to an irrational fare structure with a heavy cross subsidy of the

    passenger sector by freight has corroded its viability as a profit making entity. Its share in the

    goods transport sector has steadily slipped behind road. An unwieldy workforce means that agreater part of its finances are being diverted towards staff costs and pensions. This is

    seriously compromising IRs ability to invest in capital goods like tracks and rolling stock

    leading to an alarming safety issue and the inability to keep abreast with global technology

    standards.

    Railway Government Inter face

    While considering the IR government interface, it is necessary to understand certain roles anddefine some terms. IR is under the Ministry of Railways, which is referred to as the central

    government in the Indian Railways Act. The word government in this paper refers to the

    Government of India (GOI) which consists of all the other government agencies (including

    the Finance Ministry) other than IR. The Railway Minister (who heads the Ministry of

    Railways) acts as a link between the GOI and IR. The Railway Board heads the executive

    arm of IR and is also the secretariat to advise the Railway Minister on all matters concerning

    railway management. This section begins with an examination of the Indian Railways Act,

    1989. This is followed by an analysis of the financial interface of IR and GOI. The special

    railway budget is considered next followed by an overview of the different issues related with

    political interference in the working of IR. IRs interactions with state governments form the

    last part of this section.

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    The I ndian Railway Act -1989

    The Indian Railways Act enacted by Parliament vests the central Government (Ministry of

    Railways) with powers over the functioning of IR. There are chapters dealing with railway

    administrations, Commissioners of Railway Safety, construction and maintenance of works,

    opening of railways, fixation of rates, carriage of passengers and goods etc. The act provides

    for operational independence of IR. There are only few instances when there is need for

    direct interaction with Parliament. They are related to safety, and exemptions and

    amendments with respect to the Act. The Chief Commissioner of Railway Safety is required

    to lay down an annual report of the activities of the Commissioners of Railway Safety before

    Parliament. Exemptions from the rules or inclusion of new rules into the Act also require the

    approval of Parliament. The separate Railway budget (discussed later), that is presented

    annually in the Parliament, is more a matter of convention and is not required by the Act.

    F inancial I nter face between GOI and IR

    The financial interface between GOI and IR has three dimensions: budgetary

    support, IRFC and dividends. The budgetary support is a direct fund input by the GOI into IR

    for plan investments. The borrowings of IRFC warrant mention in this section as they involve

    an indirect funding support to IR - The GOI eventually guarantees all IRFC borrowings. The

    dividend is a return on investment that IR pays annually to GOI.

    It is to its credit that IR, unlike its counterparts even in many developed countries, has been

    able to maintain an operating profit and has been sourcing funds for investments through

    internal resources. Even so, there is not enough funding. Part of this shortfall has been met by

    the governments budgetary support. The share of budgetary inputs in the investment plans

    has been varying, with IR having to look for other strategies like market borrowings through

    the Indian Railways Financial Corporation (IRFC) and schemes like Build Operate Lease

    Transfer (BOLT) and Own Your Wagon (OYW).

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    Large-scale investment required to improve Indian Railways

    The Indian Railways is crawling in a phase of state-sponsored decay. Despite being a crucial

    mode of transport across the country, the system has hardly been developed over the past

    years. While the new terminal at Mumbais international airport is earning raving reviews,

    the train system in India has sadly been neglected.

    Since its inception in 1853, the railway network in India has hardly developed to meet

    international standards. The first ever train, carrying 400 passengers, ran between Mumbai

    and Thane at a speed of about 28 kmph. In comparison, a Mumbai slow local suburban train

    currently runs at an average speed of just 50 kmph. The increase in speed is marginal despite

    the railway service being over 161 years old. Slow speeds are an endemic problem across the

    Indian Railways and not just on local Mumbai trains. Even Indias much-hyped Shatabdi

    Express currently runs at a speed which was attained in Europe before the Second World

    War. The incumbent United Progressive Alliance government has considered foreign

    investment to breathe life into the Indian Railways. Across the world, investors are realizing

    the importance and profitability of a railway network. The railway network in the Arabian

    Peninsula has seen a surge in investments over the past ten years. However, considering thedecaying state of the Indian railways, it will take much more than foreign funds to improve

    its standards.

    Fell short of i ts target

    During the 11thFive-Year plan (2007-2012), the Indian Railways fell short of its targets by

    25 percent. Comparatively, the gas and pipelines sector overachieved by 80 percent while the

    telecom industry grew by 25 percent. Despite the likes of Lalu Prasad, Mamata Banerjee and

    Nitish Kumar being Union Railway Ministers in the past, the Indian Railways havent

    expanded by a large margin despite the vastness of the country. According to a report by

    Ernst and Young, India has added just 13,000km of new railway line since independence in

    1947. In comparison, Chinas Railway Construction Corporation added 14,000km between

    2006 and 2011 and plans to invest a further US$ 104.2 billion this year.

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    Safety, or the lack of it, is a major factor plaguing the Indian Railways. A report by a safety

    review committee stated: The financial state of the Indian Railways is at the brink of

    collapse unless some concrete measures are taken. Passenger fares have not been increased

    over the last decade during which many passenger-carrying trains were introduced on the

    existing overloaded infrastructure. This has strained the infrastructure way beyond its limit

    and all the safety margins have been eaten up, pushing Indian Railways to a regime of

    adhocism in infrastructure maintenance.

    The only reason the Indian Railways has survived this long is due to the absence of a

    competitor or the lack of a viable alternative. India has the fourth biggest railway network in

    the world and therefore should have skilled staff, the best engine industry and most efficient

    signaling technique. However, despite a massive revenue base, a lot is left to be desired on

    the Indian Railways.

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    SWOT & PESTEL ANALYSIS

    SWOT Analysis of I ndian railway:

    Strengths:

    Financial back up from government.

    Biggest company in the world in terms of Employee Strength.

    Large Infrastructure.

    Large Network across the country.

    Luxurious and also affordable to common man.

    Weakness:

    Assets are not properly utilized

    Government protocols, lot of negligence.

    Lack of safety measures in all trains.

    Delay in train timings.

    Opportunities:

    Use of Latest Technology.

    Better customer service.

    Metro trains in cosmopolitans cities.

    Threats:

    Heavy vehicles with two trailers may replace freights carriage.

    Low cost airlines.

    Development of roadways.

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    PESTLE Analysis:

    Political:

    The Indian Railways is owned and run by the government of India. As a resultThere was lot of policy changes which resulted in increase in efficiency of the railways

    Economic:

    IR is a Public Sector Undertaking so fund flows were taken care of by the Government and

    Revenue generated helped in economic prosperity of the country.

    Social:

    As there was no further hike in the travel fare, so travel was made affordable for common

    man at the same time the additional services were also provided. This led to considerable

    increase in revenues and tourism.

    Technological:

    Introduction of Diesel engines, Electric super fast trains, redesigning of coaches and

    improved safety measures were undertaken which earned more revenues to the railways.

    Legal:

    The contracts undertaken by the railways for freight carriages and insurance are major of

    Legal aspects.

    Environmental:

    Introduction of electric engine helped in decreasing the pollution. Also Introduction of

    Kulhars (cups made of mud) and ban on use of plastic cups in train also led to decrease in

    pollution and gave financial help to potters.

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    Alternative Financing Initiatives of Indian railway

    F IRST STEP IN MARKET BORROWINGS

    IR realized the resource gap between the requirement and funds available as longback as in 1984, when it started market borrowings through its first special purpose

    vehicle (SPV), Indian Railway Finance Corporation (IRFC). Money raised by IRFC

    through issue of bonds was used for acquiring rolling stock like locomotives and wagons,

    which were then leased to IR against committed lease charges. IR in turn distributed

    these assets to Zonal Railways, who were then paying lease charges to IR as a part of

    their revenue expenditure. This arrangement continues even today.

    SECOND STEP OF CUSTOMER OWNED ASSETS

    The second initiative taken in 1980s was to encourage big institutional customers to own

    their wagons through Own Your Wagon Scheme (OYWS). The wagons so procured were

    operated on predetermined routes as decided by the company owning the wagons. The

    Company was given guaranteed supply of wagons by IR and also predetermined

    discount in freight rate as lease charges. This policy did not survive for long as it suited

    only few cash rich industrial units with consistent source of supply and regular need of rail

    transport.

    CONTAINER MARKETING & PRIVATISING PARCELS

    By mid 1990s, IR revolutionized their loading performance by introducing speedier bulk

    movement with only end to end train examination. During the same time, IR established

    Container Corporation of India Ltd (CONCOR)to cater to smalls and piecemeal traffic

    through containerized service. Both these initiatives led to higher growth and better services

    in cargo and piecemeal traffic. CONCOR remains under IRs control but has since

    outsourced lot of its activities to private sector during its expansion.

    CATERING & TOURISM SERVICES

    IR was providing catering and tourism services on its own. It was felt that a

    professional body should take over these activities relieving Railways of this ancillary

    Industry. This resulted in creation of Indian Railway Catering & Tourism Corporation Ltd.

    (IRCTC) in 1999.

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    PROJECT COST SHARING WITH STATE GOVERNMENT

    With a view to meet aspirations of various State Governments, the concept of cost sharing

    with State Government was first initiated on Mumbai Suburban System for linking

    Mumbai with Navi Mumbai through Thane Creak Bridge. Maharashtra Government

    through its PSU, CIDCO contributed 2/3rdof the cost of this project. The cost was proposed

    to be recovered through surcharge on all tickets issued to stations in Navi Mumbai. The

    model and its variants have been subsequently tried out for projects in the states of

    Karnataka. Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand. Tamil Nadu & West Bengal There are a large

    number of other states which have also signed agreements with IR. The improvement in

    infrastructure helps the State Government ultimately and Railways get the advantage of

    having to do only part funding of the projects.

    PORT LINKING PROJECTS

    IR has launched several schemes to supplement investment in partnership with private

    players for specific projects to develop port linkages. These include setting up of private

    terminals and public private partnership to provide rail connectivity to new upcoming

    ports. Rail linkages to Gujarat Pipavav Port Ltd and Adani Port Ltd were the earliest projects

    to be done under the scheme. Similar efforts are on for developing other port linkages withprivate participation.

    OTHER EFFORTS

    Apart from construction/ gauge conversion of railway lines through private

    participation, Railways have also privatized tourist trains. Palace on Wheels has been

    operating for over a decade now. Another tourist train Deccan Odyssey is being run by

    Maharashtra State Tourist Corporation. Privatisation of some more tourist trains including the

    Kisan Tourist Train to cater to common people is on the anvil.

    As can be seen from above, though some progress has been made since last over a decade

    to bring in alternative financing, it has not been enough for meeting the investment

    requirement of IR; both in capacity augmentation and revenue generating projects.

    There is a growing realization that the solution lies in Government sharing the cost and the

    risks with private sector through fair and appropriate risk sharing mechanisms

    embedded in well designed concession agreements for PPP projects.

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    PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP INITIATIVES OF

    RAILWAYS

    Several models of Private - Public Partnership are now being used in variousinfrastructure projects in the Transport Sector including Railways. The spectrum of

    projects varies from leasing out of Government owned facilities to BOO (Build, Own,

    Operate) and BOT (Build, Operate and Transfer).

    While it is possible for other infrastructure projects in ports, highways & airports to be an

    independent system which could be operated and maintained independently of the existing

    system, the same is not possible for Railways. Here any project has to be

    supplementary or an extension to an existing larger railway network. Due to this

    historical perspective, railway activities are not readily available to private sector which

    poses a new challenge of building capacity with private sector through PPP. Following are

    some PPP project initiatives undertaken by Railways. Detailed write ups on these projects,

    their efficacy and lessons learnt from them are as follows:

    INDIAN RAILWAY CATERING & TOURISM CORPORATION LIMITED (IRCTC)

    Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Ltd has been set up by the Ministry ofRailways with the basic purpose of hiving off entire catering and tourism activity of the

    railways to the new Corporation so as to professionalise and upgrade these services with

    public-private participation.

    IRCTC was incorporated in 1999 as a marketing arm of IR with an authorized capital of

    Rs.50 crores and a paid up capital of Rs 20 crores to hive off the entire catering and internet

    booking activity of Railways. It started its operations from 1stAugust, 2001.

    In all the below mentioned missions, IRCTC has adopted PPP as a primary strategy. The

    Companys operations have been profitable and it earned a net profit of Rs 20.75

    crores in FY -08 and paid a dividend of Rs 4.15 crores.

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    PPP IN FOOD PLAZAS

    IRCTC has tied up with well known entities in hospitality industry such as McDonalds,

    Subway, Amul, Haldiram etc to open food plazas at major stations. Till March 2008, 53 food

    plazas had become operational and licences for 10 more had been issued. The

    partnership is fully market driven and entire investment is through private partner on long

    term basis with a concession of at least ten years. The payment is in two parts, one time

    upfront fee and then an annual fee based on land use charges and business license fee. The

    annual fee is then shared with IR to the extent of 40%. This arrangement is working well as

    can be seen from example of Bombay Central Station. A McDonalds / R.K. hospitality

    food plaza opened at that station has given an upfront concession fee of Rs. 2crores, an

    annual land use charge of Rs.3 lakhs plus an annual license fee of Rs.2.5 lakhs to the

    Railways.

    PPP IN INTERNET TICKETING

    The Internet Rail reservation was launched in August 2002 with Railway booking

    through the internet with ticket delivery to the customer. During 2007-08, a total of 1.89

    crores e tickets valued at over Rs 1705 crores were booked through the IRCTC web site.

    IRCTC has also launched Rail Reservation through Mobile phones of HUTCH,RELIANCE and IDEA CELLULAR. This service is available in all circles of these

    operators. IRCTC is now tying up with mobile companies for reservation through SMS.

    IRCTC earns revenue out of payments made to them by IR for each such ticket out of service

    charges levied by them on the customers

    RAIL SAMPARK 139

    IRCTC had taken up the project for launch of Integrated Train Enquiry System- Rail

    Sampark 139 with the objective of providing State of the Art enquiry services to Railway

    Passengers all over the country. This was a pioneering PPP project where the call centre was

    taken on a revenue model rather than on a cost model. This project has brought about a sea

    change in the quality of enquiry services available to Rail Passenger across the

    country. Work is on for launch of various value added & premium services

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    PPP IN BUDGET HOTELS & YATRI NIWAS

    IRCTC has taken over YatriNiwas at New Delhi, Howrah and BNR hotels at Puri. In

    addition, IRCTC proposes to establish Rail YatriNiwas on surplus unused Railway land for

    passengers at Bangalore, Secunderabad, Bhopal, Chandigarh, Madurai and Sealdah in the

    first phase. In all these PPP initiatives, IRCTC will act as an interface between IR and the

    private investor

    DEPARTMENTAL CATERING BUSINESS

    IRCTC has from 1st January, 2004 onwards taken over 18 departmental catering units, 659

    commission vendor and almost 3125 staff. The departmental staff will be phased out

    gradually and business would be gradually outsourced.

    FUTURE OUTLOOK

    Complete takeover of departmental catering activity and licensee management from IR along

    with the departmental staff. Consolidate Railway catering services through public private

    partnership. Enhance tourism business by utilizing Rail passenger services on major routes

    and hill Railways. Promote multiple distribution channels for Rail tickets through state of art

    technologies Establish Rail YatriNiwas / Budget hotels on surplus unused Railway land.

    SUCCESS / FAILURES

    It has been a success story all the way. IR and IRCTC have hugely benefited from PPP in

    food plazas. IRCTC has helped IR in reducing its workforce in this loss making

    peripheral activity and has hugely succeeded in improved ticketing, enabling business tie ups

    with Banks, mobile phone service provider, credit card and cash card companies etc. IRCTC

    model as an intermediate PSU for privatization and outsourcing has proved to be a success.

    This is more so because IR provides a captive market for peripheral services. There is an

    untapped huge opportunity in licensing of commercial space for which, another

    Corporation is being proposed. The success of IRCTC has reinforced the perception

    that Railways should concentrate on what it does best- manage the railway operations

    and exit all the peripheral activities.

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    Indian Railways has been consistently recording impressive growth rates for the last few

    years. The cash surplus before dividend and net revenue are estimated at US$ 6.17 billion and

    US$ 4.53 billion, for 2007-08 respectively. This has placed Indian Railways in a much better

    position ahead of many of the Fortune 500 companies. India Railway has taken up one of

    the most ambitious annual plans for 2008-09 with huge investment of about USD 7.91

    billion. The plan includes a total budgetary support of USD 1.66 billion that includes USD

    163.33 million from the Central Road Fund. This much ambitious plan is eying massive

    profits of more than USD 20.447 billion for the year2008-09.

    Initiatives

    The Indian Railways has initiated one of the most challenging growth targets for the coming

    year. This has been claimed on the basis of the most innovative plans and initiatives thought

    out by the ministry. Over past few years Indian Railways has remarkably transformed itself to

    set a bench mark in the global level.

    construction of a dedicated freight corridor, with an investment of US$ 81.92 million

    slated for 2008-09 and US$ 614.40 million for 2009-10

    Development of PPP envisaged in new routes, railway stations, logistics parks, cargo

    aggregation and warehouses etc.

    Development of 100 budget hotels with private participation in the vicinity of railway

    stations.

    Installation of Wi-Fi for providing wireless access at 500 stations.

    Establishment of integrated logistic parks on unused lands.

    Development of agri-retail hubs, cold storage houses, multi-purpose warehouses on

    surplus land with the Railways.

    Renewal over 2941 kilometres (kms), which will require 3, 39,288 tonnes of rail steel,

    and sleeper renewal over 2382 kms.

    The rapid rise in international trade and domestic cargo has placed a great strain on the Delhi-

    Mumbai and Delhi-Kolkata rail track. Government has, therefore, decided to build dedicated

    freight corridors in the Western and Eastern high-density routes. The investment is expected

    to be about Rs. 22,000 crore (USD 4.525 billion). Requisite surveys and project reports are in

    progress and work is expected to commence within a year.

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    PROJECT REPORT

    CARRIAGE & WAGON WORKSHOP, MATUNGA

    The Carriage Workshop, Matunga was set up in 1915 as a repair workshop for broad gauge

    and narrow gauge coaches and wagons of the erstwhile Great Indian Peninsular (GIP)

    Railway. The workshop covers a triangular piece of land/area of 35 hectares, including a

    covered area of about 11 hectares, skirted by the Central Railway suburban corridors on the

    east and the Western Railway corridors on the west.

    The workshop now carries out Periodical Overhaul (POH) and heavy corrosion repairs of

    main line as well as EMU coaches. Last year ie in 2009-10, a total of 3182 coaches consisting

    of 2207 Non AC, 341 AC coaches and 634 EMU coaches were attended. For the year 2010-

    11 target is 1884 Non AC, 360AC and 720 EMU coaches.

    The workshop is certified with ISO 9001/2000 and ISO 14001/1996 since 2001 & 2002

    respectively. It was last recertified for ISO 9001-2000 in 2007 & ISO 1400-2004 in 2008.

    Now this workshop is going one step ahead to adopt Integrated Management System

    covering ISO: 9000, ISO: 14000 & ISO: 18000 (Occupational Health and Safety Assessment

    Series). The system is likely to be implemented by July 2011.

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    A FEW FIRSTs OF MATUNGA WORKSHOP

    First Zonal workshop on Indian Railways to start Cushioning in Unreserved Coaches

    from Oct. 2008. PROVISION OF CUSHIONED SEATS IN ALL GS/SLR

    COACHES DURING POH HAS BEEN CARRIED OUT

    First Zonal workshop on Indian Railways to provide all coaches with Bogie Mounted

    Air Brake System by the end of Jan.2011. The bogie mounted brake system is not

    only more reliable but also gives faster braking and release of brakes thus making

    trains faster.

    First workshop to implement Payment to contractors & suppliers through NEFT from

    15th July 2010.

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    First Zonal workshop on Indian Railways to start cleaning of bogies by Grit blasting

    in 2004. This has improved the safety standards of Rolling stock by enabling better

    examination

    First Zonal Workshop in Indian Railways to provide consultancy for ISO 9001:2000

    Certificate to another unit. (Kalyan Freight Depot in the year 2003)

    First Railway unit in which more than 3500 workers, supervisors, union officials and

    officers took pledge on the New Year day against PASTING OF POSTERS on walls

    on 1st January, 2003.

    First Zonal Railway workshop to convert all ARMEs and A Class ARTs into Air

    brake in the year 2002.

    First Zonal Railway Workshop in Indian Railways to get ISO-14001 Certification in

    the year 2002.

    First Zonal Railway Workshop in Indian Railways to get ISO-9001 Certification in

    the year 2001.

    First Zonal Railway Workshop in Indian Railways to get ISO-9001 Certification in

    the year 2001.

    First Zonal workshop to start provision of bogie mounted air brake system in 1993-94. First zonal workshop to provide Nylon 66 bushes in brake rigging in 1980.

    The only workshop to have been nominated in 1953 to manufacture the Honourable

    President twin-car Saloon based at New Delhi & thereafter regularly doing its POH.

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    NOTABLE ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    Coaches For Heritage Special

    Lifeline Express

    Deccan Odyssey

    Retro fitment Of Dc To Ac/Dc EMU(Siemens)

    STAFF STRENGTH OF MATUNGA WORKSHOP

    SupervisorsSkilled

    TechniciansSupporting

    StaffTotal

    TOTAL 584 5790 1361 7719

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    INNOVATIONS BY MATUNGA WORKSHOP

    1) HEADSTOCK MANIPULATOR AND FIXTURE

    Earlier repair to the head stock was being carried out by replacing/repairing individual items

    of the headstock assembly viz. HS, Aux. HS, yoke bracket, stiffner etc. during the corrosion

    repair of the coaches. Fixture for assembly of complete headstock has been commissioned

    which facilitates precise and expeditious assembly of headstock. The manipulator facilitates

    down hand welding which enhance welding quality and thereby safety.

    2) GRAVITY CONVEYER SYSTEM

    A gravity conveyer system was commissioned to eliminate manual handling for painting of

    coil springs. The springs are now being painted in two stages primer and black painting.

    The gravity conveyer system minimizes handling of springs, saves time and also improves

    quality of spring painting.

    http://www.cr.indianrailways.gov.in/uploads/files/1301037198167-innovation_mtn1.pdfhttp://www.cr.indianrailways.gov.in/uploads/files/1301037198167-innovation_mtn1.pdf
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    3) MOTORIZED BEARING AND AXLE BOX EXTRACTION SYSTEM

    Motorized bearing and axle extraction system has been commissioned which saves man hour

    and thereby additional outturn per shift is achieved. By using this extractor bearings are

    pulled out easily, safely and without any defects. In manual extraction some bearing could

    not be pulled out due to over pressure and other defects. In such cases wheel discs were

    pressed off along with bearing in wheel press machine.

    4) ROOF LEAKAGE TESTING BY SPRINKLING WATER ON THE ROOF

    During the monsoon season, divisions had complained for leakage through the coach roof. To

    overcome this problem, Matunga workshop has developed in-house roof leakage testing

    facility by sprinkling the water on the roof top. This innovation may help to examine the roof

    leakage on the coach and attending the same.

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    5) BSS/BRAKE BLOCK HANGER TESTING AND PAINTING INTEGRATED

    WORK STATION

    BSS and Break Block Hangers were tested in C&M Lab at BB end Trolley Shop andtransported to Smithy Shop for Stress reliving &Painting.

    An Integrated Work Station is developed in Smithy Shop for BSS and Break Block Hangers

    in Smithy Shop for Testing, Stress reliving &Painting. This has helped to reduce

    transportation manpower and also has improved the quality.

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    6) PROVISION OF VENTURY TYPE VENTILATORS AND RELOCATING BODY

    SIDE WINDOWS OF KITCHEN AREA.

    Four windows out of the five existing windows were closed; this will help in reducing gas

    consumption as the direct air from the window will not strike the gas flames. Also as the

    windows are closed possibility of throwing of garbage and water from windows is eliminated

    which will prevent corrosion of body side panel.

    Ventury type ventilators are provided on the top of the body side panel which improves the

    ventilation in the pantry car.

    7) PROVISION OF MODEL ROOM FOR ERRU TRAINING

    In the Year 2006 RDSO introduced electronic rectifier regulator unit to be used in place of

    conventional rectifier regulator unit. The regulation achieved in the ERRU as well as ripple

    content in the E.R.R.U. is better than R.R.U. Further biggest advantage in ERRU is to get the

    data downloaded from the E.R.R.U. and analysis of data for further corrective action.

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    Data downloading and data analysis from the ERRU was a challenge faced by field staff. To

    overcome such difficulties original manufacture of ERRU such as STASLIT, KEL, HMTD,

    and ICE were called at MTN Workshop and detail training programme of field supervisor of

    all Division of Central Railway was organized. During the training it was felt necessary to

    provide Model Room for ERRU where all training related to ERRU such as data

    downloading from various makes of ERRU, data analysis from the downloaded data,

    simulation Study of various faults and identification of ERRU components etc to be given.Matunga Workshop has taken lead towards provision of model room having flowing features.

    8) COMMISSIONING OF VARIABLE VOLTAGE VARIABLE FREQUENCY

    DRIVE ON ALTERNATOR TESTING BEDS

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    This workshop has been taking various measures for energy conservation to achieve

    considerable reduction in Electricity consumption. Variable Voltage Variable Frequency

    drive with regenerative control panel is energy saving system provided in Alternator testing

    bed in ER Shop. 03 Nos. of 25KW Alternator testing beds have been provided with VVVF

    drive.

    9) REGULAR TRAINING OF MATUNGA STAFF AT BASIC TRAINING CENTER

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    At Matunga workshop BTC is having 5 class rooms and a seminar hall, having capacity to

    train 175 trainees. BTC Matunga is equipped with all multimedia audio-visual teaching aids.

    Various training courses are being conducted at BTC MTN like Training of Apprentice

    Mechanics, Graduate Apprentice, Trade Apprentice, Competency training, refresher training,

    In-plant training, pre-promotional courses, training on safety etc. Recently Interactive touch

    screen board has been commissioned which is having various teaching application like

    demonstration of photograph, video clips, creating new sheets from the power point

    presentation, taking a print out of created work sheet etc. This modern teaching aid has

    improved teaching quality in BTC. BTC Matunga is having model room which is provided

    with cut section models for better understanding of important assemblies. BTC Matunga is

    also having CDTS test bench, CDTS is a new technology introduced in Railway, provision of

    CDTS test bench gives opportunity of better understanding of the system to the trainees of

    BTC.

    10) SAFETY

    Safety cell Matunga was formed in November 2003 dedicated exclusively for industrial

    safety. Safety cell Matunga manned with 3 safety officers belonging to Mechanical, electrical

    and EMU branches. Safety cell Matunga is involved in carrying out safety audit/inspection of

    various shops/sections of Matunga workshop and time to time issue of safety circulars and

    instructions. Safety counseling centre is set up at Main gate Matunga. Safety cell is taking

    persistent effort for provision of personal protective equipments like safety shoes, hand

    gloves, masks, safety goggles etc.

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    BASIC TRAINING CENTER

    MODEL COACH

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    FINAL FINISHED BOGGIE

    UNDERSTANDING HOW SHELL IS FIXED WITH THE BOGGIE

    Machine worth 3.5cr which creates flanges of a wheel

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    ABONDENDED DOORS & WHEELS

    INTERNAL MANUFACTURING CENTER

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    Conclusions

    The visualisation of Indian Railways has been made very effective through the integration of

    geospatial technology in data storage and representation by developing repositories. These

    repositories definitely have advantage over the existing schematic view of Indian railways

    that displays just the network without any coordinates attached to the nodes and edges.

    Challenges to overcome

    1. To increase operational efficiency

    2. To be responsive to business constituents

    3. Make the information accessible and actionable

    4.

    Re-act quickly to threats and opportunities

    5. Turn I.T. into a competitive business asset

    6. Technological up gradation for better maintenance of railway assets

    7.

    To fight back the greater competition from Roadways, with major investments in

    Highway network up gradation

    8. Increase freight market share through higher availability of services at competitive

    prices

    9. Greater attention to passenger services and safety & Up gradation of the Railway

    Production units for improved efficiency and productivity

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    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    www.cr.indianrailways.gov.in

    www.researchandmarkets.com swatpestanalysis.blogspot.com

    indiarailinfo.com

    www.ireps.gov.in

    www.jagranjosh.com/articles-railway-recruitment-

    indianrail.wikia.com/wiki/Production Units

    www.pppinindia.com

    http://www.jagranjosh.com/articles-railway-recruitment-1347444269-1http://indianrail.wikia.com/wiki/Production_Unitshttp://indianrail.wikia.com/wiki/Production_Unitshttp://www.jagranjosh.com/articles-railway-recruitment-1347444269-1
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    GROUP MEMBERS

    NIKHIL ARORAATAUL BEREKAR - 4

    CHETAN KHOBRAGADE - 23

    GAURAV MAGARE - 27

    RAHUL PANDEY - 33

    TANOJ PANDEY - 34

    ZEESHAN SIDDIQUI - 56

    ANAND SINGH - 57

    RAHUL TIWARY - 61