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ATTITUDESMeaning: Attitude is an individual's point of view or an individual's way of looking at something. Attitude" may be explained as the mental state of an individual, which prepares him to react or make him behave in a particular pre-determined way.
ATTITUDES ,TEAM BUILDING & CONFLICT MANAGMENTTEAM 2
COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE
Affective component: Example: I don't like that company"Cognitive component:Example: "They are the worst supply firm I have ever dealt with"Intentional componentExample: "I will never do business with them again"'
The affective component of an attitude reflects 'feelings and emotions' that an individual has towards a situation. The cognitive component of an attitude is derived from 'knowledge' that an individual has about a situation. Finally, the intentional component of an attitude reflects how an individual 'expects to behave' towards or in the situation3
Functions of Attitude:The Adjustment Function: Help people adjust to their work environment, which supports future behavior.Ego Defensive Function: Help people retain their dignity and self image Value Expressive Function: Basis for expressing valuesKnowledge Function: Attitudes provide standards and frame of reference that allows individuals to adjust to the environment
TYPES OF ATTITUDESJob Satisfaction
Job Satisfaction: A collection of positive and or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job.Job Involvement: Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth.Organizational Commitment: Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization.
Attitude formationTwo major influences on attitudes areDirect experience Classical ConditioningOperant ConditioningVicarious LearningSocial learningThe FamilyPeer GroupsModeling
Classical Conditioning:One of the basic processes underlying attitude formation can be explained on the basis of learning principles. People develop associations between various objects and the emotional reactions that accompany them.Operant Conditioning:Attitudes that are reinforced, either verbally or non verbally, tends to be maintained. Conversely, a person who states an attitude that elicits ridicule from others may modify or abandon the attitude.Vicarious Learning:In which a person learns something through the observance of others can also account for attitude development particularly when the individual has no direct experience with the object about which the attitude is held. It is through vicarious learning processes that children pick up the prejudices of their parents.
Social learning can take place through the following ways:The Family:A person may learn attitudes through imitation of parents. If parents have a positive attitude towards an object and the child admires his parents, he is likely to adopt a similar attitude, even without being told about the object, and even without having direct experience. Children also learn to adopt certain attitudes by the reinforcement they are given by their parents when they display behaviours that reflect an appropriate attitude.Peer Groups:Peer pressure moulds attitudes through group acceptance of individuals who express popular attitudes and through sanctions, such as exclusion from the group, placed on individuals who espouse (promote) unpopular attitudes.Modelling:Substantial social learning occurs through modelling, in which individuals acquire attitudes by merely observing others. The observer overhears other individuals expressing an opinion or watches them engaging in a behaviour that reflects an attitude, and the observer adopts this attitude.
Changing Attitudes Employees attitudes can be changed and sometimes it is in the best interests of managements to try to do so. For example, if employees believe that their employer does not look after their welfare, the management should try to change their attitude and help develop a more positive attitude in them.
Possible ways of Changing Attitudes:Providing New InformationUse of fear.Resolving discrepancies.Influence of friends and peers: Co-opting approach
Providing New Information: Sometimes a dramatic change in attitude is possible only by providing relevant and adequate information to the person concerned. Scanty and incomplete information can be a major reason for brewing negative feeling and attitudes.Use of Fear. Attitudes can be changed through the use of fear: People might resort to change their work habit for the fear of fear of unpleasant consequences. However, the degree of the arousal of fear will have to be taken into consideration as well.Resolving Discrepancies:Whenever people face a dilemma or conflicting situation they feel confused in choosing a particular course of action. Like in the case where one is to choose from between two alternative courses of action, it is often become difficult for him to decide which is right for him. Even when he chooses one over the other, he might still feel confused. If some one helps him in pointing out the positive points in favor of the chosen course of action, he person might resolve the his dilemma.Influence of friends and peers: A very effective way of changing ones attitude is through his friends and colleagues. Their opinion and recommendation for something often proves to be more important. If for example, they are all praise for a particular policy introduced in the work place, chances are high that an individual will slowly accept that even when he had initial reservations for that.Co-opting. If you want to change the attitude of some body who belongs to a different group, it is often becomes very effective if you can include him in your own group. Like in the case of the union leader who are all the time vehemently against any management decision, can be the person who takes active initiative in implementing a new policy when he had participated in that decision making process himself.
Meaning: Value is a specific mood of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or end state of existence. Importance of Values Values are important to the study of organizational behaviour because they lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation and because they influence our perception.
Difference between attitudes and valuesAttitudesValues1.Exihibit predisposition to respond.1.Represent judgmental ideas like what is right.2.They refer to several beliefs relating to a specific object or situation.2.They represent single belief focused on object or situation.3. These are ones personal experience.3. These are derived from social or cultural mores.
Values and Ethics
The major distinction between the two is that values are beliefs that affect an individuals judgemental ideas about what is good or bad. The ethics is the way the values are acted out. Ethical behaviour is acting in ways consistent with ones personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society.
What is team?A team is a group of individuals working together to solve a problem, meet an objective or tackle an issue
Team Building Team building is a process of establishing and developing a greater sense of collaboration and trust between members.Ability to identify and motivate individual employee to form a team that stays together works together and achieve together coming together in a beginning, staying together is progress and working together is success -- Henry ford
BUILDING AN EFFECTIVE TEAM
Get to know one another
Establish consensus as per the teams goals.
Consider each employee's ideas as valuable.
Encourage team members to share information.
Delegate problem-solving tasks to the team.
Encourage team members to share information. Emphasize the importance of each team member's contribution and demonstrate how all of their jobs operate together to move the entire team closer to its goal.Delegate problem-solving tasks to the team. Let the team work on creative solutions together.
MEANING AND DEFINITION OF GROUP DYNAMICS :-
Group dynamics deal with internal nature of groups, how they are formed, what structure and processes they adopt, how they function and affect individual members ,other groups and the organization.INTERGROUP DYNAMICS: "Intergroup dynamics are the changes occurring between groups."
WHAT CAUSES POOR GROUP DYNAMICS?Weak leadership
Excessive deference to authority
BlockingThe aggressor The negatorThe withdrawerThe recognition seeker
Weak leadership: when a team lacks a strong leader, a more dominant member of the group can often take charge. This can lead to a lack of direction, infighting, or a focus on the wrong priorities.Excessive deference to authority: this can happen when people want to be seen to agree with a leader, and therefore hold back from expressing their own opinions.Blocking: this happens when team members behave in a way that disrupts the flow of information in the group. People can adopt blocking roles such as:The aggressor:this person often disagrees with others, or is inappropriately outspoken.The negator:this group member is often critical of others' ideas.The withdrawer:this person doesn't participate in the discussion.The recognition seeker:this group member is boastful, or dominates the session.Free riding:here, some group members take it easy, and leave their colleagues to do all the work. Free riders may work hard on their own, but limit their contributions in group situations; this is known as "social loafing."Evaluation apprehension: team members' perceptions can also create a negative group dynamic. Evaluation apprehension happens when people feel that they are being judged excessively harshly by other group members, and they hold back their opinions as a result.
STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING GROUP DYNAMICS
Know your team.
Tackle problems quickly with good feedback.
Define roles and responsibilities
Break down barriers.
Focus on communication.
Know Your Team:As a leader, you need to guide the development of your group. So, start by learning about thephasesthat a group goes through as it develops. When you understand these, you'll be able to preempt problems that could arise, including issues with poor group dynamics.Next, useBenne and Sheats' Group Rolesto identify positive and negative group roles, and to understand how they could affect the group as a whole. This will also help you plan how to deal with potential problems.
Tackle Problems Quickly with good feedback:If you notice that one member of your team has adopted a behavior that's affecting the group unhelpfully, act quickly to challenge it.Providefeedbackthat shows your team member the impact of her actions, and encourage her to reflect on how she can change her behavior.
Define Roles and Responsibilities:Teams that lack focus or direction can quickly develop poor dynamics, as people struggle to understand their role in the group.Create ateam charter defining the group's mission and objective, and everyone's responsibilities as soon as you form the team. Make sure that everyone has a copy of the document, and remind people of it regularly.Break Down Barriers:Useteam-building exercisesto help everyone get to know one another, particularly when new members join the group. These exercises ease new colleagues into the group gently, and also help to combat the "black sheep effect," which happens when group members turn against people they consider different.Also, explain the idea of theJohari Windowto help people open up. Lead by example: share what you hope the group will achieve, along with "safe" personal information about yourself, such as valuable lessons that you've learned.
Focus on Communication:Open communication is central to good team dynamics, so make sure that everyone is communicating clearly. Include all of the forms of communication that your group uses emails, meetings, and shared documents, for example to avoid any ambiguity.If the status of a project changes, or if you have an announcement to make, let people know as soon as possible. That way, you can ensure that everyone has the same information.Opinionated team members can overwhelm their quieter colleagues in meetings. Where this happens, use techniques such asCrawford's Slip Writing Method, and make sure that you develop strongfacilitationskills.
Pay Attention:Watch out for the warning signs of poor group dynamics.Pay particular attention to frequent unanimous decisions, as these can be a sign ofgroupthink,bullying, or free riding. If there are frequent unanimous decisions in your group, consider exploring new ways to encourage people to discuss their views, or to share them anonymously.
A team is a relatively permanent work group whose members must coordinate their activities to achieve one or more common objectives.
When does team works bestA Team succeeds when its members have:A commitment to common objectivesDefined roles and responsibilitiesEffective decision systemsCommunication and work proceduresGood personal relationships
Why Teams WorkTeams initiate change. Teams are natural problem solving devices.Teams are collections of the organization's best assets.
Teams initiate change. :Often those at the top of the organization are challenged by what changes are necessary within an organization. Teams provide a valuable source of feedback.
Teams are natural problem solving devices:A team setting opens up new communication lines. Because of the necessity of commun- ication within a team, members encounter problems and challenges in early stages and are able to head them off with greater efficiency and success.Teams are collections of the organizations best assets. :Each team member has specific talents. By combining individuals in team fashion, all of these talents are joined to work toward a common goal.
Team vs. Group: Whats the Difference
Work GroupWork TeamA group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility.A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
Comparing Work Groups and Work Teams
Types of TeamsProblem-Solving TeamsSelf-Managed Work TeamsCross-Functional TeamsVirtual Teams
Problem-Solving Teams:Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment.Self-Managed Work TeamsGroups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors.
Cross-Functional TeamsEmployees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task.Virtual TeamsTeams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
GROUP DECISION MAKING
Group Decision MakingGroup decision making is a situation faced when individuals collectively make a choice from the alternatives before them as collaborative decision making.The decisions made by groups are often different from those made by individuals.
The following criteria make a group; The people interact with one another either directly or indirectly They must be interdependent in some regard, i.e. what affects one must affect others to some extent. The relationship must be relatively stable, i.e. must persist over some period of time. (weeks, months, years). Individuals involved must share common goals Members must perceive themselves as being part of the group. There are groups that come into being for particular circumstances, and for sometime and are dissolved when they achieve their aim.
ADVANTAGES:More complete information and knowledge.Increased diversity of views.Increased acceptance of a solution.Increased legitimacy.DISADVANTAGES:Time consuming.Pressures to conform and fit in.Domination by the few.Disagreements may delay decisions and cause hard feelings.
Stages In group DevelopmentFormingStormingNormingPerformingAdjourning
Methods for improving group decisions
Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
What is Conflict?Conflict is an inevitable & unavoidable part of our everyday Professional & Personal lives.A disagreement between people that may be the result of different:IdeasPerspectivesPrioritiesGoals
Conflict managementConflict management is the principle that all conflicts cannot necessarily be resolved, but learning how to manage conflicts can decrease the odds of non-productive escalation.
Types of Conflict:Conflicts can be of different types as described belowOn the basis of involvement: Interpersonal (between two persons)IntergroupIntragroup OrganisationalIntraorganizational InterorganizationalOn the basis of results:Functional Dysfunctional conflict
Are Conflicts Bad and Undesirable?There are three viewpoints.
The traditionalists view. Human Relations View.
The traditionalists view:They say conflicts are bad and should be avoided. Human Relations View:They say conflict is natural and can be functional at sometime and dysfunctional at other time. Integrationist view: The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively
Conflict is a problem when:It hampers productivity & increases tensionLowers moraleCauses more & continued conflictsCauses inappropriate behaviorIncreases absenteeismConflict is constructive when:Opens up issues of importance resulting in issue clarificationHelps build cohesiveness as people learn more about each otherIncreases individual involvement.
Styles of conflict management
How to Minimize Inter-Personal Conflicts? 1.Regular Review of Job Descriptions2. Establish Rapport and build Relationship with all of Your Subordinates3.Regular Reports4.Training5.Holding Regular Meetings6.Anonymous Suggestion Box
Tips for managing workplace conflictHave a positive attitude.Building good relationships.Not letting small problems escalate, deal with them as they arise.Focus on solving problems, not changing people.If you cant resolve the problem, turn to someone who can help.Adapt your style according to situation & people involved.Give feedback.