From Virtual Learning Environments to Pervasive Learning Environments

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From Virtual Learning Environments to Pervasive Learning Environments. Yvan Peter LIFL Universit Lille 1 - France. Course objectives. Give an idea of the specific issues arising from the design & development of mobile learning Provide example works that illustrate these issues. E-Learning. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>From Virtual Learning Environments to Pervasive Learning EnvironmentsYvan PeterLIFL Universit Lille 1 - France</p></li><li><p>Course objectivesGive an idea of the specific issues arising from the design &amp; development of mobile learning</p><p>Provide example works that illustrate these issues</p></li><li><p>E-LearningOccur through a Virtual Learning Environment or Learning Management SystemManages users (course registration)Provides a structure for coursesGives access to learning resourcesCan be collaborative or notCollaborative features can beSynchronous (chat, IM, videoconference)Asynchronous (mail, forums, blogs)</p></li><li><p>E-LearningWeb based systemProvides access anywhere, anytimeLMS &amp; resources target PC platformKnown screen size, input and output capabilitiesStable connectivity (more or less)</p></li><li><p>E-Learning architectureMulti-tier architecturePresentation layerData layerLogic layer</p></li><li><p>E-Learning architectureExample with Java technologyPresentation layerData layerLogic layerServletsJSPTag librariesEnterprise JavaBeansPersistent storee.g., relational database</p></li><li><p>E-Learning architecture</p></li><li><p>Mobile, pervasive, ubiquitous[Lyytinen &amp; Youngjin, 2002]Level of embeddednessLevel of mobilityPervasive computingTraditional computingUbiquitous computingMobile computingHighLowLowHigh</p></li><li><p>Mobile, pervasive, ubiquitous[Lyytinen &amp; Youngjin, 2002]Level of embeddednessLevel of mobilityPervasive computingTraditional computingUbiquitous computingMobile computingHighLowLowHigh</p></li><li><p>Enabling technologiesSmaller (cheaper) and more powerful devices, embedded technologyAvailable anywhere, anytimeWireless networksEnable connectivity in an infrastructure or ad hoc mannerSensors and location awarenessProvide context information</p></li><li><p>Elements of designManagement &amp; use of contextLearning in &amp; across contextsRelation betweenDevicesTasks / activitiesSocial aspects</p></li><li><p>Context and its use</p></li><li><p>A few words on context</p><p>Used to drive adaptationOf resources, activities, interfacesContext is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and applications themselves [Dey, 2001]</p></li><li><p>A few words on context</p><p>Used to drive adaptationOf resources, activities, interfacesContext is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and applications themselves [Dey, 2001]And/or to the learning experienceAnd also between users through the application</p></li><li><p>Classification by context use[Froehberg, 2006]Context aware systems</p></li><li><p>Sample context aware applicationsDigital contextVirus game [Collela, 2000]Simulates spreading of a virusSystem is driven by approaching peopleSavannahLearn to be a lionPredefined areas trigger events &amp; media</p></li><li><p>Sample context aware applicationsPhysical contextAmbient Wood [Harris et al, 2004, Rogers et al, 2005]Environment related access to mediaData collection</p></li><li><p>The case of locationLocation is THE main context of many mobile learning systemsLocation can be computed in various waysExplicit localisationGPS (outdoor)Triangulation : Wifi spots or cellular network antennasCurrent cell in cellular networkImplicit localisationAny id reading : QR code/datamatrix, RFIDBluetooth detection</p></li><li><p>Reference model for mobile social software[de Jong et al, 2008]Context dimensions</p></li><li><p>Device aspect</p></li><li><p>Device AspectThe form factor has an impact on the interaction &amp; activity supportWeightScreen sizeInput/output capabilities</p></li><li><p>Device AspectDevice performance and function will also have their importanceProcessing powerMemoryBattery lifeCommunication media supported (bluetooth, Wifi, 3G)Sensors : GPS, camera</p></li><li><p>Wireless communicationPersonal Area Network (PAN)Local Area Network (LAN)MobilePhone networksBluetoothWifiGSM (low bandwidth)GPRS (medium bandwidth)UMTS (high bandwidth)HSDPA (high bandwidth)~10 meters rangeDevice discovery~100 meters rangeInfrastructure or ad hoc </p></li><li><p>Technical frameworks</p></li><li><p>Types of technologiesType of clientThin clientThrough the devices browserFat clientRequires software deploymentType of communicationClient-serverAd hoc / peer-to-peer</p></li><li><p>Thin clientRequiresA browser on the deviceGood connectivityProblemsPull modeHistorical development of mobile markupLocation is not transmitted by the browserExcept blackberry</p></li><li><p>Thin client : markup &amp; protocolsWAP 1.x &amp; Wireless Markup Language (WML)Imode &amp; CHTMLWAP 2.0 &amp; XHTML Mobile Profile</p></li><li><p>Thin clientKnowing the device (&amp; the user)CC/PP (Composite Capabilities/Preference Profiles)RDF vocabulary to defineDevice hardware &amp; softwareUser preferences</p></li><li><p>Thin clientKnowing the device (&amp; the user)UAProf (User Agent Profile)Definition of the WAP 2.0 protocol extension to support profile transmissionUses CC/PP vocabulary</p></li><li><p>Thin clientDevice Context Delivery (DELI) from HP Labsoftware library to handle CC/PP &amp; UAProfhttp://delicon.sourceforge.netWURLF (Wireless Universal Resource File)Open source project to provideA database of device specifications (XML file)APIs to take advantage of the databasePHP, Java, Perl, Ruby, Pythonhttp://wurfl.sourceforge.net/</p></li><li><p>Fat clientDevelopment depends on the system</p><p>ProblemsNeeds software deploymentHeterogeneity of hardware &amp; software</p></li><li><p>Fat clientDevelopment environment.NetRequires Windows mobile (PDA)JavaNeed a JVM on deviceFlashLiteNeeds a player on device</p></li><li><p>Fat client : Java</p></li><li><p>Flash LiteThe mobile version of Flash player &amp; development environmentProgramming language : ActionScriptWith restricted features compared to PC platform</p></li><li><p>Flash Lite</p></li><li><p>Mobile WidgetsInformation specific interface to be embedded on the user interfaceAt the time very much tied to the vendor environment</p></li><li><p>Frameworks &amp; architectures</p></li><li><p>AMULETS project [Skipol et al, 2008]Innovative learning activitiesCollaborative learningIn contextAuthentic setting (supported by ubiquitous technologies)</p></li><li><p>AMULETS architecture[Skipol et al, 2009]</p></li><li><p>Reference ArchitectureReference Architecture for Context-Aware Learning Support Systems [Schmidt, 2008]6 layers architecture</p></li><li><p>Reference ArchitectureInterface level context awareness[Schmidt, 2008]</p></li><li><p>Reference Architecture: in useApplied in the Learning in Process projectIntegration of working and learning on a process levelLearning management, knowledge management, human capital management and collaboration solutions on a technical level</p></li><li><p>Reference Architecture: in use[Schmidt, 2008]</p></li><li><p>Reference Architecture: in use[Schmidt, 2008]</p></li><li><p>MobilearnNext-generation paradigms and interfaces for technology supported learning in a mobile environment exploring the potential of ambient intelligence</p></li><li><p>Mobilearn architecture</p></li><li><p>Open Mobile ApplicationFramework (OMAF)[Dahn, 2003]</p></li><li><p>Conclusion</p></li><li><p>Maturity is still aheadHeterogeneity of hardware platforms &amp; software environments is a big issueThere is no consensus yet on the definition of the relevant services for mobile learning</p></li></ul>