From Paths to Sandboxes

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From Paths To Sandboxes. @stephenanderson | #ias14tPSYCHOLOGY & DESIGNHow we can useto more fun, engaging (& effective) interactionsPSYCHOLOGY & DESIGNHow we can useto more fun, engaging (& effective) interactionsThree games Ive been playingPATH SANDBOX12345Paths1DIRECTTHE RIDER(conscious thought)MOTIVATETHE ELEPHANT(automatic systems)SHAPETHE PATH(the environment)Paths are designed to lead people along, for better or worse.http://www.andeeknutson.com/studies/Shoppers%20and%20Products/11_AnExploratoryLookAtSupermarketShoppingPaths_2005.pdfhttp://www.andeeknutson.com/studies/Shoppers%20and%20Products/11_AnExploratoryLookAtSupermarketShoppingPaths_2005.pdfhttp://www.andeeknutson.com/studies/Shoppers%20and%20Products/11_AnExploratoryLookAtSupermarketShoppingPaths_2005.pdfPaths are prevalent in our workCustomer Journey Maps, Service Blueprints, ScenariosLockton, D., Harrison, D.J., Stanton, N.A. (2010). The Design with Intent Method: a design tool for influencing user behaviour. Applied Ergonomics, Vol.41 No.3, 382-392.Behavioral Goals(which should align w/ User Goals!)Business GoalsPsychologyBehavioral Goals(which should align w/ User Goals!)Business GoalsPsychologyNEW SKILLSassist in developingHABITSassist in establishing(or putting an end to)COMPLETIONnudge people towardPaths arent necessarily bad, butPATHSSHAPE BEHAVIOREND IN AN EXCHANGEHAVE PREDICTABLE OUTCOMESARE GAMES TO BE PLAYEDDESIGN EVERY DETAILARE MEASURABLELEAD TO COMPLETIONLEAD PEOPLE ALONGARE CONSUMPTIVECREATE DEPENDENCY (ON DIRECTIONS)HAVE A CLEARLY DEFINED PURPOSEBEST FOR INSTRUCTIONIs there something more?12345Sandboxes2Sandboxes123452Why do so many people find these experiences maddeningly addictive?Q:Q:Why do so many people find these experiences maddeningly addictive?Q:Q:Pick one of these online experiencesList WHY you think people find them addictive (list as many reasons as you can)You have 90 secondsGO!Why do so many people find these experiences maddeningly addictive?Q:Q:Pick one of these online experiencesList WHY you think people find them addictive (list as many reasons as you can)You have 90 secondsGO!Set CompletionSequencingAppropriate ChallengesStatusPositive MimicrySelf-ExpressionCuriosityCollectingAutonomyVisual ImageryPattern Recognition Feedback LoopsReputationCompetitionAchievementsStatus-Quo BiasSurpriseVariable RewardsScarcityWhat do all these experiences have in common?Q:Q:2 OBSERVATIONS:1. These are PlatformsYou can make of them what you want. There is no prescribed way to use these system. TheWTFProblem.WhatsThisFor?TheWTFProblem.Whats This For?2 OBSERVATIONS:1. These are PlatformsYou can make of them what you want. There is no prescribed way to use these system. 2. These are Social SpacesPeople learn from each other how to use the system. Many of the psychological nudges that follow stem from observing others.While MineCraft is a place for exploration and self-expression (perhaps survival!), its watching others that inspires new ideas and creates personal challenges. The hashtag in twitter was an emergent element. It wasnt until I saw my wife pinning decorating ideas that I saw Pinterest as a visual bookmarking system.A sandbox is a style of game in which minimal character limitations are placed on the gamer, allowing the gamer to roam and change a virtual world at will. In contrast to a progression-style game, a sandbox game emphasizes roaming and allows a gamer to select tasks. Instead of featuring segmented areas or numbered levels, a sandbox game usually occurs in a world to which the gamer has full access from start to finish. A sandbox game is also known as an open-world or free-roaming game.http://www.techopedia.com/definition/3952/sandbox-gaminghttp://www.techopedia.com/definition/3952/sandbox-gaminghttp://www.techopedia.com/definition/3952/sandbox-gamingSandboxes create open spaces for self-directed play and creativity.Childrens toys and organization:Childrens toys and organization:Architecture: Adventure Playground A castle, made of carton, rocks and old branches, by a group of children for themselves, is worth a thousand perfectly detailed, exactly finished castles, made for them in a factory.And the proposed solution:Set up a playground for the children in each neighborhood. Not a highly finished playground, with asfalt and swings, but a place with raw materials of all kindsnets, boxes, barrels, trees, ropes, simple tools, frames, grass, and waterwhere children can create and re-create playgrounds of their own.I am convinced that standardised playgrounds are dangerous, just in another way: When the distance between all the rungs in a climbing net or a ladder is exactly the same, the child has no need to concentrate on where he puts his feet. Standardisation is dangerous because play becomes simplified- Helle NebelongPATHSSHAPE BEHAVIOREND IN AN EXCHANGEHAVE PREDICTABLE OUTCOMESARE GAMES TO BE PLAYEDDESIGN EVERY DETAILARE MEASURABLELEAD TO COMPLETIONLEAD PEOPLE ALONGARE CONSUMPTIVECREATE DEPENDENCY (ON DIRECTIONS)HAVE A CLEARLY DEFINED PURPOSEBEST FOR INSTRUCTIONSANDBOXES CREATE ENGAGEMENTEND IN LEARNING & DISCOVERYHAVE UNKNOWN OUTCOMESARE SPACES IN WHICH TO PLAYUNDERSPECIFY THE DESIGNARE OBSERVABLELEAD TO UNDERSTANDINGLET PEOPLE EXPLOREARE GENERATIVEENCOURAGE AUTONOMYPURPOSE IS SELF-DETERMINEDBEST FOR PEFORMANCE12345Education3The jockey offers a piece of sugar to his horse before jumping into the saddle, the coachman beats his horse that he may respond to the signs given by the reins; and, yet, neither of these runs so superbly as the free horse of the plains.MA R I A MO N T E S S O R Iwe have prepared the environment and the materialsMA R I A MO N T E S S O R IMONTESSORI? Mixed age classrooms Specialized educational materials Student choice of activity from within a prescribed range of options Uninterrupted blocks of work time A Constructivist or "discovery" model, where students learn concepts from working with materials, rather than by direct instructionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_(learning_theory)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_(learning_theory)Playing is learning.Googles founders Larry Page and Sergei Brin Amazons Jeff BezosWikipedia founder Jimmy WalesJulia Childrapper Sean P.Diddy Combsvideogame pioneer Will WrightMontessori taught me the joy of discovery Its all about learning on your terms, rather than a teacher explaining stuff to you. SimCity comes right out of Montessorivideogame pioneer Will WrightAmazons Jeff BezosWikipedia founder Jimmy WalesJulia Childrapper Sean P.Diddy CombsGoogles founders Larry Page and Sergei BrinWe both went to Montessori school, and I think it was part of that training of not following rules and orders, and being self-motivated, questioning whats going on in the world, doing things a little bit differently.A sandbox education teaches you to play at life.Human beings have an inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise their capacities, to explore, and to learn.Edward Deci psychologistEQUATE TO INFORMAL (NON-INSTITUTIONAL) LEARNINGVIEW STUDENTS ASVESSELS TO BE FILLEDVIEW STUDENTS ASFIRES TO BE KINDLEDSANDBOXES PATHSEQUATE TO FORMAL (INSTITUTIONAL) LEARNINGSPECIFY PERFORMANCE GOALS LEAD TO LEARNING CHALLENGESGetting an A in French Learning to speak FrenchEQUATE TO INFORMAL (NON-INSTITUTIONAL) LEARNINGVIEW STUDENTS ASVESSELS TO BE FILLEDVIEW STUDENTS ASFIRES TO BE KINDLEDSANDBOXES PATHSEQUATE TO FORMAL (INSTITUTIONAL) LEARNINGSPECIFY PERFORMANCE GOALS LEAD TO LEARNING CHALLENGESGetting an A in French Learning to speak FrenchFALSE DICHOTOMY!!!!!!!!!! Normally, learning in CodeSpells is encouraged by way of a series of quests that must be completed with the use of Java-based spell crafting[In our version], players could walk up to in-game gnome-like characters who would give various spells to the player, along with simple explanations. Our hope was that these spells would serve as starting points for code exploration.from On the Nature of Fires and How to Spark Them When Youre Not ThereLEGO BRICKSLEGO BRICKS12345but how is this useful?4Practical TakeawaysUnderspecify featuresThank Kars Alfrink for this one!As a user I want a way to flag interesting tweets for reviewing laterorAs a user I want a way to give kudos to people for sharing something interesting.orAs a user I want a way to save positive tweets for later use as testimonialsor?As a (user role), I want (function) so that (benefit)Practical TakeawaysAvoid long workflows.(AKA Short Paths vs Long Paths)Practical TakeawaysBuild and consume your own APIsA SANDBOX, AT DIFFT LEVELSSCRIPTING LAYER / ABILITY ADD MODSINTERFACE LAYERAPI / DATA LAYEROPEN SOURCE THE CODE BASEPractical TakeawaysBack off.Let people make mistakes and learn through trial and error.Practical TakeawaysDirect Manipulation is best!(AKA No more wizards!!)Practical TakeawaysHelp people understand through Playful Interactions http://vimeo.com/36579366Watch this!The approach to teaching without words that Im proposing makes heavy use of interactivity and instant informative feedback.http://www.creativitypost.com/education/teaching_without_wordsSTMathSANDBOXES PATHSSHAPE BEHAVIOR CREATE ENGAGEMENTEND IN AN EXCHANGE END IN LEARNING & DISCOVERYHAVE PREDICTABLE OUTCOMES HAVE UNKNOWN OUTCOMESARE GAMES TO BE PLAYED ARE SPACES IN WHICH TO PLAYDESIGN EVERY DETAIL UNDERSPECIFY THE DESIGNARE MEASURABLE ARE OBSERVABLELEAD TO COMPLETION LEAD TO UNDERSTANDINGLEAD PEOPLE ALONG LET PEOPLE EXPLOREARE CONSUMPTIVE ARE GENERATIVECREATE DEPENDENCY (ON DIRECTIONS) ENCOURAGE AUTONOMYHAVE A CLEARLY DEFINED PURPOSE PURPOSE IS SELF-DETERMINEDBEST FOR INSTRUCTION BEST FOR PEFORMANCESANDBOXES PATHSSHAPE BEHAVIOR CREATE ENGAGEMENTEND IN AN EXCHANGE END IN LEARNING & DISCOVERYHAVE PREDICTABLE OUTCOMES HAVE UNKNOWN OUTCOMESARE GAMES TO BE PLAYED ARE SPACES IN WHICH TO PLAYDESIGN EVERY DETAIL UNDERSPECIFY THE DESIGNARE MEASURABLE ARE OBSERVABLELEAD TO COMPLETION LEAD TO UNDERSTANDINGLEAD PEOPLE ALONG LET PEOPLE EXPLOREARE CONSUMPTIVE ARE GENERATIVECREATE DEPENDENCY (ON DIRECTIONS) ENCOURAGE AUTONOMYHAVE A CLEARLY DEFINED PURPOSE PURPOSE IS SELF-DETERMINEDBEST FOR INSTRUCTION BEST FOR PEFORMANCETo quote Kathy Sierra which of these will help users kick ass?The BIG Practical Takeaway:One Last Practical Takeawaywe have prepared the environment and the materialsMA R I A MO N T E S S O R IEnvironmentObjectsRuleswe have prepared the environment and the materialsMA R I A MO N T E S S O R IThe idea for knowledge games [came] from watching people at the cutting edges of new disciplines; people who are entrepreneurs, creators, designers and innovators. Watching them work, watching them play, and sometimes having difficulty telling the difference. Dave Gray12345Playing at Life!5How do you approach LIFE?Like a Path to follow, or a Sandbox in which to play?What we learned from that project then allowed us to?? (WETA DO C U M E N E TA RY )Play is the answer to how anything new comes about. J E A N P I A G E TMy book proposalYes, this was my book proposal!Humanity has advanced, when it has advanced, not because it has been sober, responsible, and cautious, but because it has been playful, rebellious, and immature.TO M RO B B I N S Q U O T E S (AM E R I C A N NO V E L I S T . B . 1936)Q:Are you designing Paths or Sandboxes? Q:Are you designing Paths or Sandboxes? Are you following a path or playing in a sandbox?Thank you!getmentalnotes.comDesign for UnderstandingStephen P. Anderson@stephenandersonwww.poetpainter.com | www.slideshare.net/stephenpahttp://leapfrog.nl/blog/archives/2008/11/17/a-playful-stance-my-game-design-london-2008-talk/http://www.slideshare.net/dings/paideia-as-paidia-from-gamebased-learning-to-a-life-wellplayedSee also:The cutting room floor:http://www.dvice.com/archives/2012/10/ethiopian_kids.phpWhat happens if you give a thousand Motorola Zoom tablet PCs to Ethiopian kids who have never even seen a printed word? Within five months, they'll start teaching themselves English while circumventing the security on your OS to customize settings and activate disabled hardware. Whoa.The One Laptop Per Child project started as a way of delivering technology and resources to schools in countries with little or no education infrastructure, using inexpensive computers to improve traditional curricula. What the OLPC Project has realized over the last five or six years, though, is that teaching kids stuff is really not that valuable. Yes, knowing all your state capitols how to spell "neighborhood" properly and whatnot isn't a bad thing, but memorizing facts and procedures isn't going to inspire kids to go out and learn by teaching themselves, which is the key to a good education. Instead, OLPC is trying to figure out a way to teach kids to learn, which is what this experiment is all about.The mind, basically, is a pattern-seeking machine We tend to seek patterns and then we tell stories about them. I think were pretty much conditioned to look for a pattern and to try to interpret it in terms of certain stories. the native and unspoiled attitude of childhood, marked by ardent curiosity, fertile imagination, and love of experimental inquiry, is near, very near to the attitude of the scientific mind.-John Dewey'Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun. With games, learning is the drug.'-Raph Kosterx