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    FROM BUSSHELTERS TO

    TRANSITORIENTED

    DEVELOPMENT

    Florida Planning andDevelopment Lab

    Florida State University

    A LITERATURE REVIEWOF BUS PASSENGERFACILITY PLANNING,SITING, AND DESIGN

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    From Bus Shelters toTransit-Oriented Development:

    A Literature Review of Bus Passenger Facility Planning, Siting, and Design

    Report Prepared for:

    Florida Department of TransporationPublic Transit Office

    By:

    Florida Planning and Development LabDepartment of Urban and Regional Planning

    Florida State University

    March 2004

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    From Bus Shelters to Transit-Oriented Development:A Literature Review of Bus Passenger Facility

    Planning, Siting, and Design

    Budget No: 362656539

    Prepared by:Ivonne Audirac, Ph.D.

    Harrison Higgins, AICP

    Florida Planning and Development LabDepartment of Urban and Regional Planning

    Florida State UniversityTallahassee, Florida 32306-2280

    (850) 644-8513http://www.fsu.edu/~durp

    Program Manager:

    Amy Datz, FDOTContract Number BC137-18

    Florida Department of Transportation605 Suwannee Street

    Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0450(850) 414-4500

    http://www.dot.state.fl.us/

    The opinions, findings and conclusions expressed in this publication are those ofthe authors and not necessarily those of the Florida Department of Transportation.This document was prepared in cooperation with the State of Florida Departmentof Transportation.

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    Acknowledgements

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) has requested that Florida StateUniversity (FSU) provide small Florida transit agencies design guidelines for buspassenger transit facilities. Beyond identifying the minimum standards, the purpose of thisstudy is to provide transportation agencies with feasible alternatives when developing buspassenger facilities that focus on the interaction of transit facilities with transit operationsand the built environment.

    The following FSU staff and students participated in conducting the research, analysis,design, and preparation of this report:

    Principal Investigators:

    Ivonne Audirac, Ph.D and Harrison Higgins, AICP.

    Research Assistance:

    Poorna Bhattacharya, Catherine Hartley, Tanya Kunkel, David Sheern and Sue Trone

    With Participation From:

    Raniera Barbisan, Paul Flavien, Michelle Freeman, John Patrick John-Peter, RobertoMiquel, Santanu Roy, Tang Lei, and Jeff Thelen.

    The Principal Investigators would also like to acknowledge assistance provided by the staffof several Florida transit agencies, including: James Liesenfelt of Brevard County Transit;Jennifer Stults of the Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority; Ramona Cavasos,Richard Deibler, and Julia Pearsall of Escambia County Area Transit; Shenley Neely andJesus M. Gomez of the Gainesville Regional Transit System; Les Weakland and EdCrawford of the Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority; Karen Wood and Liz Waltonof Indian River County Transit; Steve Githens of Lakeland Citrus Connection; Steve Meyerof Lee County Transit; Peter Gajdis and Ralph Hesler of Manatee County Area Transit;Mike Carroll and Thelma Williams of Pasco County Public Transit; Roger Sweeny andMike Sibalt of the Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority; Marsha A. Danielson and Paul A.Simmons, III of Polk County Transit Services Division; Sarah Blanchard and PhilLieberman of Sarasota County Area Transit; DeWayne Carver of TALTRAN; and JimDorsten of Votran.

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    Table of Contents

    Literature Review

    Introduction........................................................................................................................... 11

    Chapter 1: Accessing Bus Transit Facilities...................................................................... 17

    1.1 Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) and Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices.............. 191.2 Bicycle-Oriented Considerations.................................................................................................. 251.3 Pedestrian-Oriented Considerations............................................................................................ 291.4 Security and Crime Prevention.................................................................................................... 35

    Chapter 2: Building Bus Transit Facilities.......................................................................... 41

    2.1 Transit Facility Design Guidelines................................................................................................ 43National and Transit Cooperative Research Program-Report-Based Guidelines........................ 43State, Regional, and Local Guidelines......................................................................................... 51Books and Articles on Transit Facility Design.............................................................................. 62

    2.2 Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)...................................................................................... 692.3 Bus Passenger Facilities.............................................................................................................. 832.4 Green Design Considerations...................................................................................................... 89

    Chapter 3: Transit-Oriented-Development (TOD)............................................................... 97

    3.1 TOD Planning and Strategies...................................................................................................... 101National Studies and Guidelines..................................................................................................101State and Regional Studies and Guidelines................................................................................ 109County, City, and Transit Agency Studies and Guidelines........................................................... 116Journal Articles on TOD and Transit-Friendly Development....................................................... 120

    3.2 Parking and Auto Relationship to Transit.................................................................................... 127

    Chapter 4: Funding and Marketing Transit.........................................................................139

    4.1 Funding....................................................................................................................................... 1414.2 Transit Image Marketing and Community Visibility...................................................................... 149

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    Introduction

    The recent California Supreme Court decision inBonanno v. Central Contra Costa Transit Authority, 30Cal. 4th 139 (2003) ruled in favor of a pedestrian whowas tragically hit by a car while crossing a dangerousintersection to reach a bus stop. Although the $1.6million verdict undoubtedly sent a chilling message tohundreds of public transit agencies that now they canbe held liable for the location of their property, itreaffirms the importance of good planning, siting anddesign of bus passenger facilitiesoften a low levelpriority vis--vis other transit operation concerns. Thejudges decision underscored the significance ofeffective interagency coordination in enhancing safebus service provision. The car driver was sued andbore the bulk of total liability. However, the lack ofcoordination between the county owning the right ofway along the busy street and the public transitagency which neglected to relocate its bus stop to asafer location was what ultimately resulted inavoidable physical trauma and injury to bus patrons.

    This court case brings attention to the bus stop,an often overlooked, yet fundamental component ofoverall safe quality transit service which provides aviable alternative to the automobile. As the Bonannocase demonstrates, bus stops and other buspassenger facilities have been treated as residualelements in a transportation system biased towardrapid automobile flow and characterized by poorspeed limit enforcement. Regarding safe pedestrianaccess to transit facilities, the transportation systemsdecision-making structure is typically balkanizedamong state departments, transit agencies, and localgovernments regarding the design, maintenance, and

    safety conditions of the right of way where bus stopsmust be located. Transit-oriented development andbus stops will remain marginal planning and urbandesign considerations as long as the focus remainsset on rail and as long as local land-use planning andtransit planning continue to be out of sync.

    The current planning and design philosophytoward more livable, equitable and environmentallyfriendly cities expressed in several Smart Growth andNew Urbanist manifestos is strongly reliant onpractical transit mobility solutions. In some instancesthese solutions are offered as alternatives to theautomobile, while in others they are complementary.Although Curitiba-inspired bus rapid transit (BRT)(Cervero 2003) is at the center of new regional designand mobility schemes like Peter Calthorpes urbannetwork (Calthorpe 2001) as well as a nationwideflurry of light-rail based transit-oriented development(TOD) initiatives (Cura 2003), we must not forget thatthese transit mobility schemes are dependent onsubsidiary bus feeder and pedestrian mobilitynetworks and as well as on the buying-in of a largenumber of transit agencies and county and citydepartments. As of lat

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