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  • V T T P U B L I C A T I O N S

    TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND ESPOO 1999

    Seppo Kuikka

    A batch process management framework Domain-specific, design pattern and software component based approach

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    Tätä julkaisua myy Denna publikation säljs av This publication is available from

    VTT TIETOPALVELU VTT INFORMATIONSTJÄNST VTT INFORMATION SERVICE PL 2000 PB 2000 P.O.Box 2000

    02044 VTT 02044 VTT FIN–02044 VTT, Finland Puh. (09) 456 4404 Tel. (09) 456 4404 Phone internat. + 358 9 456 4404 Faksi (09) 456 4374 Fax (09) 456 4374 Fax + 358 9 456 4374

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    ISBN 951–38–5541–4 (soft back ed.) ISBN 951–38–5542–2 (URL:http://www.inf.vtt.fi/pdf/) ISSN 1235–0621 (soft back ed.) ISSN 1455–0849 (URL:http://www.inf.vtt.fi/pdf/)

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    N S 398

    A batch process m

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    Seppo K uikka

    Requirements for product and production quality and variability, as well as the needs for the efficient use of production equipment, emphasise the benefits of batch production in the process industries. Emerging batch standards as well as design pattern and software component technologies are making it possible to design the needed flexible, distributed, and integrated batch automation concepts.

    An experimental batch process management framework was developed to fulfil the aforementioned needs for batch automation. It also demonstrates reusability by the so-called calling framework architectural style and component interfaces. Framework components may be easily parametrized and replaced by customised versions.

    For some problem specific decision-making needs, enhancement of component frameworks may be needed. Since this design problem is recurrent, a generic design pattern, Agentified Component, was developed within the framework. The approach retains the deterministic nature of the framework, but simultaneously introduces the possibility of solving problems using a knowledge-based approach.

  • VTT PUBLICATIONS 398

    TECHNICAL RESEARCH CENTRE OF FINLAND ESPOO 1999

    A batch process management framework

    Domain-specific, design pattern and software component based approach

    Seppo Kuikka

    VTT Automation

    Dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Technology to be presented with due permission for public examination and debate at Helsinki University of Technology (Espoo, Finland) in Auditorium T2 (Konemiehentie 2, Espoo)

    on the 10th of December, 1999 at 12 o´clock noon.

  • ISBN 951–38–5541–4 (soft back edition) ISSN 1235–0621 (soft back edition)

    ISBN 951–38–5542–2 (URL: http://www.inf.vtt.fi/pdf/) ISSN 1455–0849 (URL: http://www.inf.vtt.fi/pdf/) Copyright © Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus (VTT) 1999

    JULKAISIJA – UTGIVARE – PUBLISHER

    Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus (VTT), Vuorimiehentie 5, PL 2000, 02044 VTT puh. vaihde (09) 4561, faksi (09) 456 4374

    Statens tekniska forskningscentral (VTT), Bergsmansvägen 5, PB 2000, 02044 VTT tel. växel (09) 4561, fax (09) 456 4374

    Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Vuorimiehentie 5, P.O.Box 2000, FIN–02044 VTT, Finland phone internat. + 358 9 4561, fax + 358 9 456 4374

    VTT Automaatio, Teollisuusautomaatio, Tekniikantie 12, PL 1301, 02044 VTT puh. vaihde (09) 4561, faksi (09) 456 6752

    VTT Automation, Industriautomation, Teknikvägen 12, PB 1301, 02044 VTT tel. växel (09) 4561, fax (09) 456 6752

    VTT Automation, Industrial Automation, Tekniikantie 12, P.O.Box 1301, FIN–02044 VTT, Finland phone internat. + 358 9 4561, fax + 358 9 456 6752

    Technical editing Maini Manninen

    Libella Painopalvelu Oy, Espoo 1999

  • 3

    Kuikka, Seppo. A batch process management framework. Domain-specific, design pattern and software component based approach. Espoo 1999. Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT Publications 398. 215 p.

    Keywords batch control, object-oriented software, batch process management, framework, design pattern, software component, software agent

    Abstract

    Requirements for product and production quality and variability, as well as the needs for the efficient use of production equipment, have emphasised the benefits of batch production in the process industries. The resulting complexity of batch control has, however, been a challenge to control engineers. Emerging batch standards and software component technologies have now made it possible to design flexible, distributed, and integrated batch automation concepts to satisfy the requirements.

    The batch control domain was studied in this thesis in terms of domain standardisation, existing batch control systems, and related research approaches. The applicable information technology, object-oriented software component frameworks and multi-agency, was surveyed and evaluated. Guidelines for deploying generic software design patterns in designing domain-specific frameworks, were adapted.

    An experimental batch process management framework, was developed to fulfil the aforementioned flexibility, distribution and integration needs for batch automation. It also demonstrates reusability by the so-called calling framework architectural style as well as internal and external component interfaces. Framework components may be easily parametrized and replaced by customised versions. Additionally, the framework can be integrated with other systems by using component technology.

    For some problem specific needs of local decision-making and interaction, enhancement of component frameworks may be needed. No applicable design patterns were found for this kind of design issue. Since the design problem is

  • 4

    recurrent, a generic design pattern, Agentified Component, was developed and experimented with within the framework of this thesis. The approach retains the deterministic nature of the framework, important in the automation domain, but simultaneously introduces the possibility of solving specific problems using a knowledge-based approach.

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    Preface

    I have been involved in several ways with software development for automation applications during my professional life. From the point of view of this thesis, an important impetus was the 1995 Summer School on Reusable Architectures in Object-Oriented Software Development in Tampere (supported by the Finnish Program of Doctoral Studies in Computer Science). Within that excellent event my - until then - preliminary ideas of deploying design patterns for developing a domain-specific automation framework began to take shape.

    I studied the themes of this study within several postgraduate seminars in Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) in the years 1995 - 1998. Another important impetus for this thesis took place during one of these seminars. I was given an opportunity to participate (starting from spring 1996) in a VTT Automation research programme CAIP (Control Architectures for Intelligent Production). A CAIP project (and a continuation project of it) made it possible to develop the experimental Batch process management framework, described in this thesis. It thus helped to verify the domain-specific, design pattern, and software component based approach to automation software development. It also made it possible to study the integration of multi-agent technologies into a component framework.

    I am especially thankful to my supervisor, Professor Kari Koskinen from the Laboratory of Information Systems in Automation of HUT, who previously also acted as the leader of the CAIP research programme in VTT. I also want to express my deepest gratitude to my instructor and group leader, Dr. Olli Ventä from VTT Automation. A third person, to whom I am also indebted, is the automation systems team leader and my co-worker at VTT Automation, Mr. Teemu Tommila. These colleagues have provided for the facilities and prerequisites for this research and development work and, more importantly, they have always been willing to give professional support and warm encouragement.

    Other people, discussions with whom have been important for developing the ideas and/or writing the thesis are: Professor Aarne Halme, Mr. Alexander Ran, Mr. Thomas Fischer, Mr. Kevlin Henney, and Dr. Seppo Haltsonen. I am also

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    grateful to Professors Pentti Lautala and Ilkka Haikala from Tampere University of Technology for providing expert criticism and valuable suggestions for this thesis.

    I also want to thank all my colleagues at VTT Automation, several post graduate seminar instructors and students in HUT and my colleagues and students in Espoo-Vantaa Institute of Technology (EVITech) for relaxed but inspiring working environment. For the financial support, I express my gratitude to VTT, Tekes, and EVIT

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