fractures sprains and dislocations
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Fractures, Sprains, and Dislocations
Bones and musclesSkeletonbonesligamentssupport, protection, movementMusclesmuscletendonsmovement, vital functions
FracturesA break or a crack in a bone is called a fracture.
Many types of fractures are difficult to determine.
If a fracture is suspected, its wise to get it checked out
Fracture CategoriesAll fractures are one of two types
Closed skin over fracture is not broken
2) Open/Compound where the skin over the fracture is broken. The bone may be visible.
Types of FracturesHairlineStressCompleteGreenstickComminuted
Hairline FractureA very thin crack or break in the boneHairline fracture of the foot
Stress FractureFracture caused by repetitive stress to a bone
Complete FractureWhen a bone breaks into two separate pieces
Greenstick FractureWhen the bone cracks on one side only, not all the way throughUlnar greenstick fracture
Comminuted FractureWhen the bone is broken into more than two pieces or is crushed
Spiral FractureBone is broken by twistingSpiral fracture of femur
Depression FractureWhen the skull is fractured inward
Complicated FractureWhen a broken bone may have caused damage to internal organs
There is more concern than the fracture itself
Transverse FractureWhen the bone is broken straight across
Oblique FractureWhen the bone is broken on a steep anglefibula
Signs or Symptoms of a FracturePain and tendernessLoss of functionA wound (with bone sticking out)DeformityUnnatural movementShockCrepitus (grinding) (dont test for this)Swelling and bruising
What is sprain?The bones at a joint are held together by tough bands called ligaments.A sprain is an injury to a ligament1st degree stretched2nd degree partially torn3rd degree completely tornMost common are the fingers, wrist, ankle, and knee
Signs and Symptoms of a SprainPain that may be severe and increase with the movement of the jointLoss of functionSwelling and discoloration
Treatment SprainsTherefore, they should not try to treat the injury other than by immobilization and elevation.
StrainsInvolves a stretching and/or tearing of muscles or tendons. Strains most often involve the muscles in the neck, back, thigh, or calf.May be difficult to distinguish from sprains or fractures. When uncertain whether an injury is a strain, sprain, or fracture, treat the injury as if it is a fracture.
What is a dislocation?When the bones at a joint are no longer in proper contact.
Can be caused by severe twisting or indirect force, or even a muscular contraction
Most frequently dislocated jointsShoulderElbowThumbFingerJawKnee
Signs and Symptoms of a DislocationDeformity or abnormal appearancePain and tenderness aggravated by movementLoss of normal functionJoint may be locked in one positionSwelling of the joint
Treatment DislocationDo not try to relocate a suspected dislocation. They should immobilize the joint until professional medical help is available.
General Treatment PrinciplesStop the activity.
Survey the injured area.
First Aid if qualified.
Get help if not.
Determine if additional medical attention is necessary.
SplintingSplinting is the most common procedure for immobilizing an injury. Cardboard is the material typically used for makeshift splints but a variety of materials can be used.
Cardboard are turned up to form a mold in which the injured limb can rest.
Possible items for SplintingSoft materials. Towels, blankets, or pillows, tied with bandaging materials or soft cloths.Rigid materials. A board, metal strip, folded magazine or newspaper, or other rigid item.
Soft SplintsSplinting Using a TowelSplinting using a towel, in which the towel is rolled up and wrapped around the limb, then tied in place.
Pillow splintPillow splint, in which the pillow is wrapped around the limb and tied.
Blanket as a Soft SplintSplinting using a blanket in which the victims legs are immobilized by tying blankets at intervals from mid-thigh to feet.
Anatomical SplintsCreated by securing a fractured bone to an adjacent unfractured bone. Anatomical splints are usually reserved for fingers and toes but, in an emergency, legs may also be splinted together.
Guidelines for SplintingSupport the injured area.Splint injury in the position that you find it.Dont try to realign bones.Check for color, warmth, and sensation.Immobilize above and below the injury.