fractures, sprains, and dislocations

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Fractures, Sprains, and Dislocations

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Fractures, Sprains, and Dislocations. Fractures. A break or a crack in a bone is called a fracture. Many types of fractures are difficult to determine. If a fracture is suspected, it’s wise to get it checked out. Fracture Categories. All fractures are one of two types - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Fractures, Sprains, and Dislocations

  • FracturesA break or a crack in a bone is called a fracture.

    Many types of fractures are difficult to determine.

    If a fracture is suspected, its wise to get it checked out

  • Fracture CategoriesAll fractures are one of two types

    Closed skin over fracture is not broken

    2) Open/Compound where the skin over the fracture is broken. The bone may be visible.

  • Types of FracturesHairlineStressCompleteGreenstickComminuted

    DepressionComplicatedTransverseObliqueSpiral

  • Hairline FractureA very thin crack or break in the boneHairline fracture of the foot

  • Stress FractureFracture caused by repetitive stress to a bone

  • Complete FractureWhen a bone breaks into two separate pieces

  • Greenstick FractureWhen the bone cracks on one side only, not all the way throughUlnar greenstick fracture

  • Comminuted FractureWhen the bone is broken into more than two pieces or is crushed

  • Spiral FractureBone is broken by twistingSpiral fracture of femur

  • Depression FractureWhen the skull is fractured inward

  • Complicated FractureWhen a broken bone may have caused damage to internal organs

    There is more concern than the fracture itself

  • Transverse FractureWhen the bone is broken straight across

  • Oblique FractureWhen the bone is broken on a steep anglefibula

  • Signs or Symptoms of a FracturePain and tendernessLoss of functionA wound (with bone sticking out)DeformityUnnatural movementShockCrepitus (grinding) (dont test for this)Swelling and bruising

  • Sprains

  • What is sprain?The bones at a joint are held together by tough bands called ligaments.A sprain is an injury to a ligament1st degree stretched2nd degree partially torn3rd degree completely tornMost common are the fingers, wrist, ankle, and knee

  • Signs and Symptoms of a SprainPain that may be severe and increase with the movement of the jointLoss of functionSwelling and discoloration

  • Dislocations

  • What is a dislocation?When the bones at a joint are no longer in proper contact.

    Can be caused by severe twisting or indirect force, or even a muscular contraction

    Most frequently dislocated jointsShoulderElbowThumbFingerJawKnee

  • Signs and Symptoms of a DislocationDeformity or abnormal appearancePain and tenderness aggravated by movementLoss of normal functionJoint may be locked in one positionSwelling of the joint

  • General Treatment PrinciplesStop the activity.

    Survey the injured area.

    First Aid if qualified.

    Get help if not.

    Determine if additional medical attention is necessary.

  • RICE

    R-RestI-ImmobilizeC-ColdE-Elevate