fractures, sprains, and dislocations
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DESCRIPTIONFractures, Sprains, and Dislocations. Fractures. A break or a crack in a bone is called a fracture. Many types of fractures are difficult to determine. If a fracture is suspected, it’s wise to get it checked out. Fracture Categories. All fractures are one of two types - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Fractures, Sprains, and Dislocations
FracturesA break or a crack in a bone is called a fracture.
Many types of fractures are difficult to determine.
If a fracture is suspected, its wise to get it checked out
Fracture CategoriesAll fractures are one of two types
Closed skin over fracture is not broken
2) Open/Compound where the skin over the fracture is broken. The bone may be visible.
Types of FracturesHairlineStressCompleteGreenstickComminuted
Hairline FractureA very thin crack or break in the boneHairline fracture of the foot
Stress FractureFracture caused by repetitive stress to a bone
Complete FractureWhen a bone breaks into two separate pieces
Greenstick FractureWhen the bone cracks on one side only, not all the way throughUlnar greenstick fracture
Comminuted FractureWhen the bone is broken into more than two pieces or is crushed
Spiral FractureBone is broken by twistingSpiral fracture of femur
Depression FractureWhen the skull is fractured inward
Complicated FractureWhen a broken bone may have caused damage to internal organs
There is more concern than the fracture itself
Transverse FractureWhen the bone is broken straight across
Oblique FractureWhen the bone is broken on a steep anglefibula
Signs or Symptoms of a FracturePain and tendernessLoss of functionA wound (with bone sticking out)DeformityUnnatural movementShockCrepitus (grinding) (dont test for this)Swelling and bruising
What is sprain?The bones at a joint are held together by tough bands called ligaments.A sprain is an injury to a ligament1st degree stretched2nd degree partially torn3rd degree completely tornMost common are the fingers, wrist, ankle, and knee
Signs and Symptoms of a SprainPain that may be severe and increase with the movement of the jointLoss of functionSwelling and discoloration
What is a dislocation?When the bones at a joint are no longer in proper contact.
Can be caused by severe twisting or indirect force, or even a muscular contraction
Most frequently dislocated jointsShoulderElbowThumbFingerJawKnee
Signs and Symptoms of a DislocationDeformity or abnormal appearancePain and tenderness aggravated by movementLoss of normal functionJoint may be locked in one positionSwelling of the joint
General Treatment PrinciplesStop the activity.
Survey the injured area.
First Aid if qualified.
Get help if not.
Determine if additional medical attention is necessary.