Form Criticism 1 The Synoptic Gospels Form Criticism

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Form Criticism 1 The Synoptic Gospels Form Criticism </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> 2 If Mark is the first Gospel... what source(s) did Mark use? </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Form Criticism 3 Oral Tradition The sayings of Jesus and stories about what he did were not written down during his life. Various sayings and stories circulated through the early churches... By means of oral repetition </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Form Criticism 4 The Nature of Oral Tradition Conservative little accretion in the oral process not like the gossip game more like bedtime story Patterns for various stories == FORMS </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Form Criticism 5 Knock, Knock Canoe Canoe come out to play? </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Form Criticism 6 Identify these forms: so help me God. He is survived by his wife, Lisa, three daughters, and a brother in Peoria. and they lived happily ever after. Lets play ball! </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Form Criticism 7 Definition of FORM Small units of oral or written material that display well-defined characteristics in common For example: fairy tales jokes miracle stories </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Form Criticism 8 Some of the Forms found in the New Testament: Miracle Stories Hymns and liturgical materials Letters Sermons Legends Virtue/Vice Lists Apocalypses </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Form Criticism 9 The Study of these (Oral) Forms is referred to as Form Criticism </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> 10 Three Major Axioms of Form Criticism 1. The original source for the material in the Gospel is oral tradition in which the material circulated in small units. 2. This material has been brought together and redacted (=edited) in various ways and at various stages. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Form Criticism 11 Major Axioms, continued 3. Such material gives us information about the beliefs and circumstances of the early church as well as about the ministry of Jesus. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Form Criticism 12 Identify the context: so help me God. He is survived by his wife, Lisa, three daughters, and a brother in Peoria. and they lived happily ever after. Lets play ball! In what social context are you likely to hear/read each statement? Can you identify any borrowed contexts? </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Form Criticism 13 The social context of a form is referred to as its Sitz-im-Leben (setting-in-life) </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Form Criticism 14 The Importance of the Sitz-im-Leben Each of these forms served a definite function in the concrete situation in the life of the early church. The main purpose for the creation, circulation, and the use of these forms was not to preserve the history of Jesus, but to strengthen the life of the church. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Form Criticism 15 The Tasks of Form Criticism 1. Identify the form through repeated patterns through repetitious phrases 2. Identify the Sitz-im-Leben for each form 3. Identify divergences from the form in particular cases </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Form Criticism 16 Form Criticism and the Gospels </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Form Criticism 17 Basic Bibliography 1919: Martin Dibelius, From Tradition to Gospel 1921: Rudolf Bultmann, The History of the Synoptic Tradition 1933: Vincent Taylor, The Formation of the Gospel Tradition </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Form Criticism 18 The Forms of the Gospel Literature A. SAYINGS 1. Dominical Sayings 2. I Sayings 3. Parables 4. Pronouncement Stories B. NARRATIVES 1. Miracle Stories 2. Legends -- Stories about Christ </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Form Criticism 19 To A.2. I Sayings A.1. Dominical Sayings Proverbs -- Jesus as Teacher of Wisdom declarativedeclarative imperativeimperative interrogativeinterrogative Prophetic and Apocalyptic Sayings -- Jesus proclaims the arrival of the Kingdom of God Legal Sayings -- Jewish law and piety </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Form Criticism 20 Declarative Proverbs Matthew 12:34 -- For out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaks. Matthew 6:34 -- Let the days own trouble be sufficient for the day. Matthew 22:14 -- For many are called but few are chosen. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Form Criticism 21 Imperative Proverbs Matthew 8:22 -- Follow me, and leave the dead to bury their own dead. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Form Criticism 22 Interrogative Proverbs Matthew 6:27 -- And which of you by being anxious can add one cubit to his or her life? Mark 2:19 -- Can the wedding guests fast while the bridegroom is with them? </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Form Criticism 23 Prophetic and Apocalyptic Sayings Mark 1:15 -- The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent, and believe in the gospel. Luke 6:20-21 -- Blessed are you poor, for yours is the kingdom of God. Blessed are you that hunger now, for you shall be satisfied. Blessed are you that weep now, for you shall laugh. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Form Criticism 24 Legal Sayings Mark 7:15 -- There is nothing outside you which by going into you can defile you; but the things which come out of you are what defile you. Matthew 23:16-17 -- Woe to you, blind guides, who say, If any one swears by the temple, it is nothing; but if any one swears by the gold of the temple, he is bound by his oath. You blind fools! For which is greater, the gold or the temple that has made the gold sacred? </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Form Criticism 25 A.2. I Sayings Jesus speaks of himself, his work, and his destiny. Matthew 5:17 -- Think not that I have come to abolish the law and the prophets; I have come not to abolish them but to fulfill them. Mark 10:45 -- For the Son of man also came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Form Criticism 26 A.3. Parables A parable is a short narrative that draws on common experience teaches a lesson through a !Surprise! A parable re-orients the world and the expectations of the hearer. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Form Criticism 27 A.4. Pronouncement Stories A short saying of Jesus set in a brief narrative context. The saying may not have been originally uttered in this context. Frequently deals with issues of importance to the early church. Also called apophthegms (Bultmann) or paradigms (Taylor). </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Form Criticism 28 The Form of the Pronouncement Story Setting Action Significant saying of Jesus The setting and action are relatively brief. The whole interest and purpose of the unit is concentrated on the significant saying, or punchline. </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Form Criticism 29 Types of Pronouncement Stories Controversy Dialogue Arise in the discussion which the church had with its opponents and within itself on questions of the law. Scholastic Dialogue Someone seeking knowledge initiates the dialogue by asking a question. Biographical Apophthegm Purports to contain information about Jesus.edifying paradigms for sermons. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Form Criticism 30 Sitz-im-Leben of Pronouncement Stories Controversy Dialogues arose in response to the churchs controversies with outside opponents. Scholastic Dialogues arose within the church as teaching tools. Biographical Apophthegms had their origin in preaching. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Form Criticism 31 A Controversy Dialogue Mark 2:15-17 And as he sat at table in his house, many tax collectors and sinners were sitting with Jesus and his disciples; for there were many who followed him. And the scribes of the Pharisees, when they saw that he was eating with sinners and tax collectors, said to his disciples, Why does he eat and drink with tax collectors and sinners? And when Jesus heard it, he said to them, Those who are well have no need of a physician, but those who are sick; I came not to call the righteous, but sinners. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Form Criticism 32 A Scholastic Dialogue Mark 12:28-31 And one of the scribes came up and heard them disputing with one another, and seeing that he answered them well, asked him, Which commandment is the first of all? Jesus answered, The first is, Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one; and you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength. The second is this, You shall love your neighbor as yourself. There is no other commandment greater than these.... </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Form Criticism 33 A Biographical Apophthegm Luke 9:57-62 As they were going along the road, a man said to him, I will follow you wherever you go. And Jesus said to him, Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of man has nowhere to lay his head. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Form Criticism 34 B. Narratives 1. Miracle Stories (=Tales, Dibelius) a.Healing Narratives b.Exorcism Narratives c.Nature Miracles 2. Legends == Stories about Christ </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Form Criticism 35 The Form of Miracle Stories Setting Statement of the problem sickness, demon possession, hunger, threat of storm, death Intensification of the problem Cure Technology of the miracle [The miracle itself is unreported] Demonstration Result -- action of patient Response -- crowd responds </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Form Criticism 36 Healing Narratives Peters mother-in-law, Mk 1:30-31 parr. The Leper, Mk 1:40-45 Raising of Jairus Daughter, Mk 5:21-24, 35-43 parr. The Woman with a hemorrhage, Mk 5:24-34 The Deaf-mute, Mk 7:37-37 The blind man of Bethsaida, Mk 8:22-26 Blind Bartimaeus, Mk 10:46-52 The Widows son of Nain, Lk 7:12-16 The ten lepers, Lk 17:12-16 The bent woman, Lk 13:11-17 </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Form Criticism 37 Exorcisms The Capernaum demoniac, Mk 1:23- 27 parr. The Gadarene Demoniac, Mk 5:1-20 parr. The Daughter of the Syrophoenician woman, Mk 7:24-30 The Epilectic boy -- Mark 9:17-29, parr. </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Form Criticism 38 Nature Miracles The stilling of the storm, Mark 4:37-41 parr. The feeding of the multitude, Mark 6:34- 44 parr., Mk 8:1-9 parr. The walking on the water, Mk 6:47-51 par. The cursing of the fig-tree, Mk 11:12-14, 20-21 par. The miraculous draft of fishes, Lk 5:1-11 </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Form Criticism 39 Legends -- Stories about Christ The Baptism, Mk 1:9-11 The Temptation -- Mark 1:12-13 Peters confession, Mk 8:27b-33 parr. The Transfiguration -- Mark 9:2-8 Entry into Jerusalem, Mk 11:1-10 parr. Institution of Lords Supper, Mk 14:22-25 Infancy Narratives, Mt. 1-2; Lk 1-2 The Resurrection Narratives, Mk 16; Mt 28; Lk 24 </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Form Criticism 40 On Mixing Forms -- Sometimes forms are mixed. A miracle story may be used as the setting for a pronouncement story. See Mark 2:1-12 The purpose of the pericope determines the form of the pericope. </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Form Criticism 41 Results of Form Criticism 1. The gospels are kerygmatic in intention, not biographies of Jesus. 2. The gospel tradition was transmitted orally prior to being written down. The gospels were not written from direct personal reminiscence. </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Form Criticism 42 Results of FC, continued 3. At every stage in the transmission, the selection and shaping of the material was governed by the practical needs of the early Christian communities. 4. The order of the written gospels is determined by topical and theological considerations rather than the actual course of events. </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> Form Criticism 43 Summary and Review of Form Criticism Three major axioms of form criticism The tasks of form criticism The forms of the Gospel Literature The form of Pronouncement Stories The form of Miracle Stories The results of form criticism Vocabulary </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Form Criticism 44 Three Major Axioms of Form Criticism 1. The original source for the material in the Gospel is oral tradition. 2. This material has redacted (=edited) in various ways. 3. Such material gives us information about the beliefs and circumstances of the early church as well as about the ministry of Jesus. </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Form Criticism 45 The Tasks of Form Criticism 1. Identify the form 2. Identify the Sitz-im-Leben for each form 3. Identify divergences from the form in particular cases </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Form Criticism 46 The Forms of the Gospel Literature A. SAYINGS 1. Dominical Sayings 2. I Sayings 3. Parables 4. Pronouncement Stories B. NARRATIVES 1. Miracle Stories 2. Legends -- Stories about Christ </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Form Criticism 47 The Form of the Pronouncement Story Setting Action Significant saying of Jesus </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Form Criticism 48 The Form of Miracle Stories Setting Cure Demonstration </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Form Criticism 49 Results of Form Criticism 1. The kerygmatic intention of the Gospels 2. The oral transmission of the gospel tradition 3. Selection and shaping determined by the practical needs of the early Christian communities 4. Order determined by theological considerations </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> Form Criticism 50 Words and Concepts Oral Tradition Form Form Criticism Redacted Sitz-im-Leben Apophthegm Parable Pronouncement Story Legend Kerygmatic </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Form Criticism 51 More to Learn... Source CriticismSource Criticism Form CriticismForm Criticism Redaction CriticismRedaction Criticism </li> </ul>