Forging new generations of engineers. Lesson 4.7: Landscape Design.
Post on 14-Dec-2015
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Forging new generations of engineers Slide 2 Lesson 4.7: Landscape Design Slide 3 Landscape Design The art of developing property for its greatest use and enjoyment Involves understanding the environment around the structure and selecting plants that perform well in that environment. Good design results in adding value to property and enhancing quality of life. Good design requires careful thought about how plant material and construction materials can be used to develop long-range plan. Slide 4 Landscape Value Determinants Aesthetic appeal Economic value Functional Value Environmental concerns Slide 5 Aesthetics Does the design add visual beauty to the surroundings? Are undesirable features downplayed and desirable features showcased? Does it appeal to all five senses? Sight, Hearing, Touch, Taste, and Smell Slide 6 Economic Value Property value can be increased 6 to 15 percent with good landscaping design. The function of landscaping is to enhance the structure, not overpower it. Landscaping can reduce energy costs by buffering seasonal temperatures. reduce wind speed to make outdoor life more comfortable. Slide 7 Functional Value Good design increases the total usage of site: i.e., screens, shade, open spaces, decks, pools, patios. Choice of plant material can cut down on maintenance, such as ground cover on a steep slope. Can help prevent erosion from wind or water. Slide 8 Environmental Concerns Landscaping can Reduce glare and wind. Use water more efficiently. Help clean the air of dust and pollutants. Provide wildlife habitat. Slide 9 Step 1: Analyze the site and develop a base plan: Determine what already exists on the site, draw and dimension them on base plan (see below). Check the areas arbor laws. Developing a base plan: Locate property boundaries and existing structures. Note the North arrow. Locate position of existing utilities such as above ground power, underground gas, water, and sewer pipes. Indicate significant existing plants. Note specific use areas, such as play or delivery areas. Note environmental factors, such as sun path, wind direction, soil characteristics, and topography. Locate views (good and bad) and determine if they need to be screened or framed. Landscape Design Process Slide 10 Landscaping Design Process Continued: Step 2: Determine landscape needs and sketch out a plan to meet those needs. There are three major areas to consider: 1.Service Garbage collection Structures utilities A/C and heating Power drop Water hookup 2.Public Access to structure Parking 3.Private Entertainment Sports Area Slide 11 Landscaping Design Process Continued: Step 2 Continued: Bubble diagrams are used to lay out the general location and spatial relationships of specific areas. Walkways should be wide enough for two adults to walk comfortably side by side; direct straight pathways are generally preferred. Slide 12 Landscaping Design Process Continued: Step 3: Choose the plant and construction materials that will be used. Basic principles used to choose materials: 1. Unity- tying the landscape and structure together: Gives a sense of visual flow. Achieved with use of different materials having the same colors, forms, or textures. 2. Simplicity Employs a limited number of plant species 3. Variety Focuses attention on the desirable aspects of site and structure Slide 13 Step 3 continued: 4. Balance Balances the visual appearance of landscape Two types of balance Symmetric - mirror image, more formal, static Asymmetric - different on each side, creates more movement, more dynamic 5. Sequence Directs the eye to the focal point Entrance, specimen plant 6. Proportion or scale Relates objects, plant and construction material to one another Evokes emotion Landscaping Design Process Continued: Slide 14 Plant Materials Large plant material humbles the observer while small creates dominance or power. Slide 15 Principles of Design Plant material is the building block of landscape design. The principles of design (form, texture, and color) play a significant role in choosing plant material 1.Form Plants outline or silhouette 2.Texture Visual appearance 3.Color For strongest effect, 80% to 90% should be foliage not flowers Slide 16 Plant Choice Factors Cold hardiness factors Light requirement Moisture content Soil drainage needs Soil pH requirement Pest susceptibility Rate of growth and mature size Slide 17 http://www.usna.usda.gov/Hardzone/ushzmap.html Slide 18 Step 4:Create your design on paper. Using standard symbols, depict the plant material: the outside circles are drawn to the scale of the canopy. Symbols and plant material are identified in a key on the drawing. Broadleaf deciduous tree or shrub Broadleaf evergreen tree or shrub Needle evergreen Shrubs in a grouping Landscaping Design Process Continued: Slide 19 Installation Sequence 1.Watering system with built details, such as light wiring, walls, or walks 2.Lawn or groundcover 3.Trees 4.Foundation, corner, and entrance plantings 5.Borders and screens 6.Refinements, such as beds, ponds, and lighting fixtures