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FOODBORNE ILLNESS. Mrs. Pereira Essentials of Cooking. Foodborne Illness. The World Health Organization (2011) defines foodborne illness as a preventable public health problem by agents that enter the body through eating contaminated food and water. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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FOOD BORNE ILLNESSES

FOODBORNE ILLNESSMrs. PereiraEssentials of Cooking

1Foodborne Illness The World Health Organization (2011) defines foodborne illness as a preventable public health problem by agents that enter the body through eating contaminated food and water.

These diseases can either be infectious or toxic in nature.

*Every year in the U.S., foodborne pathogens causes millions of illnesses and thousands of deaths. There are 31 known foodborne pathogens that are composed of viruses, bacteria, toxins, and parasites. Some recent challenges facing public health officials is the epidemiology of foodborne illness. New pathogens are emerging and affecting populations on a global level (Tauxe, 1997). Approximately 81% of unknown agents (organisms yet to be identified or not detected) account for foodborne illness/hospitalization and 64% are related to death (Wotecki and Kineman, 2003).*(Question to the audience) What are some of the most common pathogens or organisms that cause foodborne illness? (wait for responses)*First of all, there are a total of 31 important known organisma that causes foodborne illness. Of the known pathogens, the most common pathogens are: salmonella, norovirus, campylobacter, toxoplasma, clostridium botulinum, shigella, E coli, and Hepatitis A

It is an illness that comes from eating contaminated food. 2Incidence of Foodborne Illnesses Each year in the United States, 31 known foodborne pathogens cause:

9.4 million illnesses55, 961 hospitalizations1,351deaths

Scallen, E., et al, 2011

Illnesses The WHO estimates approximately 76 million cases of food borne illness is reported each year. This total is comprised of known pathogens; however, there are approximately 9.4 million illnesses related to known pathogens. Of the 9.4 million cases, data show that 5.5 million (59%) are caused by virus, 3.6 million (39%) are caused by bacteria, and 0.2 million (2%) is caused by parasites (Scallen, et al, 2011)Hospitalizations of the 55961 hospitalizations related to foodborne illness, 64% were caused by bacteria, 27% by viruses, and 9% by parasitesDeaths Of the 1351 deaths from foodborne illness, 64% was caused by bacteria, 25% by parasites, and 12% caused by viruses. The leading causes of death was from nontyphoidal salmonella (28%), toxoplasmosis gondii (24%), listeria monocytogenes (19%), and norovirus (11%). (Scallen, et al, 2011)3Categoriesof Foodborne PathogensViruses

Bacteria

Parasites

Toxins

Pathogens that cause foodborne illness is classified into 4 different categories: Examples of foodborne Viruses hepatitis, norovirusExamples of Bacteria campyolobacteria, salmonellaExamples of parasites giardia, toxoplasma gondiiExamples of toxins clostridrium perfringens, clostridium botulism, E. Coli 0157H7

The most common culprits of food borne illnessesCampylobacter second most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in the U.S.

Norovirus leading viral cause of diarrhea in the U.S.

Salmonella most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in the U.S. and most common cause of foodborne deaths

CDC, 2010

These pathogens are the most common culprits of foodborne illness, either because of the severity of the sickness or the number of cases of illness they cause. Campylobacter, Norovirus poor hygiene causes easy transmission from person-to-person and Salmonella causes 1.4 million cases of foodborne illness/yr5The most common culprits of food borne illnessesE coli/STEC produces a deadly toxin and causes 73,000 cases of foodborne illness/yr in the U.S.

Clostridium botulinum produces a toxin that causes life threatening illness that can compromise breathing

CDC, 2010

E coli/STEC (Shiga Toxin Producing E coli) is one of the most severe forms of foodborne illnessClostridium botulinum Shigella stringent hygienic practices are important for preventing the transmission of shigella6At risk populationsElderly

Persons with chronic diseases

Young Children

Infants

Unborn babies

Pregnant women

Thobaben, 2010NDDIC, 2007

Everyone is at risk for getting a foodborne illness; however, the elderly are at a greater risk because as people age their stomach and intestinal tract may hold on to foods longer, their liver and kidneys may not rid itself of toxins (poisons) as quickly, and their sense of taste and smell is sometimes altered, thereby making them unable to smell spoilage of foodsChronic disease patients are at risk because the disease may weaken their immune system and their bodies are unable to fight off the illnessYoung children are at risk because their immune system, stomach, intestines, and digestive organs are not yet fully developed. Food does not digest as quickly and children lack the adequate amount of enzymes, stomach acid, beneficial bacteria, and muscular development in comparison to adultsPregnant women are at high risk due to the alteration in cell-mediated immunity that alters the immune response. Listeria is the most common foodborne illness affecting pregnant women

7Signs/Symptoms and Sources of pathogens (organisms)OrganismSigns/SymptomsOnset after ingestionFood sourceNorovirusNausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, fever, headache2-5 daysRaw undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, contaminated waterSalmonellaDiarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, vomiting6-48 hours Eggs, poultry, meat, unpasteurized milk or juice, cheese, contaminated fruits and vegetablesCampylobacterDiarrhea, cramping, fever, vomiting, diarrhea with or without blood2-5 daysRaw undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, contaminated waterE coliWatery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, some vomiting1-3 daysWater or food contaminated with human fecesClostridium perfringensIntense abdominal cramps, watery diarrhea 8-17 hoursMeats, poultry, gravy, dried, or precooked foods, time and/or temperature abused foodsClostridium botulinumVominting, diarrhea, blurred vision,, difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness, and can lead to respiratory failure and death12-72 hoursImproperly canned foods, fermented fish, baked potatoes in aluminum foil; honey should not be fed to children

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