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  • Principles andPractices

    Food QualityAssurance

    2004 by CRC Press LLC

  • Principles andPractices

    Food QualityAssurance

    CRC PR ESSBoca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.

    Inteaz Alli

    2004 by CRC Press LLC

  • TX69302_Frame_C00.fm Page 4 Tuesday, July 22, 2003 1:58 PM

    This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted materialis quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonableefforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannotassume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.

    Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronicor mechanical, including photocopying, microlming, and recording, or by any information storage orretrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.

    The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, forcreating new works, or for resale. Specic permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLCfor such copying.

    Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431.

    Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and areused only for identication and explanation, without intent to infringe.

    Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com

    2004 by CRC Press LLC

    No claim to original U.S. Government worksInternational Standard Book Number 1-56676-930-2

    Library of Congress Card Number 2003043979Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

    Printed on acid-free paper

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Alli, Inteaz.Food quality assurance : principles and practices / Inteaz Alli.

    p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 1-56676-930-2 (alk. paper) 1. Food industry and tradeQuality control. I. Title.

    TP372.5.A46 2003 664.0685dc21 2003043979

    2004 by CRC Press LLC

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    Dedication

    Dedicated to

    My wife, my two sons, and all my family

    2004 by CRC Press LLC

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    Preface

    This book has been prepared with three objectives. First, the book is intendedto be used as a textbook for students taking a college- or university-levelfood quality assurance or food quality management course for the first time.The authors primary objective was to compile information that food sciencestudents are expected to be familiar with as part of their college or universityprogram, before they seek career positions in the food industry. Second, itis expected that the book will be used by food plant employees who havenot had prior training in food quality and food safety. Third, the book willbe useful to food industry quality practitioners who need to become familiarwith updated information relating to their work, including the evolution ofprinciples, practices, and terminology in food quality assurance and foodquality management.

    There have been substantial changes in food industry quality and safetypractices since the beginning of the 1990s. These changes have been drivenprimarily by the adoption of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point(HACCP) system for ensuring food safety worldwide, as well as the wide-spread use of the International Organization for Standardizations qualitystandard (ISO 9001:2000) by various industry sectors, including the foodindustry. Consequently, it has become essential for students preparing forcareers in the food industry to learn about these systems as part of thecurricula in their university or college programs.

    The contents of this textbook are devoted primarily to food qualitysystems and food safety systems. The goal is to introduce the principles,practices, and vocabulary of food quality and food safety in a manner thatis understandable to a college or university food science and technologystudent, as well as to a novice to the area of food quality and food safety.

    The primary sources of information for the book are recent versions ofdocuments available to the public from recognized international and nationalorganizations. These include the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the ISO,the American Society for Quality, and the National Advisory Committee forMicrobiological Criteria for Foods. In addition, information contained indocuments of various government regulatory agencies responsible for foodquality and food safety in North America have been used.

    2004 by CRC Press LLC

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    The book presents the principles and practices of food industry goodmanufacturing practices (GMPs), HACCP, and the ISO 9000 quality man-agement system standards.

    2004 by CRC Press LLC

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    Acknowledgments

    The author expresses sincere thanks to the following:

    Alam Alli, Razan El-Ramahi, and Terri Cundi students who readchapter drafts and provided comments from a student perspective

    Paul Brennan, Mike Hudson, Laurent Laflamme, and Renee Sau-vageau food industry quality assurance professionals who re-viewed chapter drafts for technical content relating to food qualityand food safety and Sam Weissfelner quality managementsystems expert for reviewing Chapters 1 and 3 at the proof stage.

    Barry Callebaut North America Inc., International Stockfood Corp.,Lallemand Inc., and SGS/ICS Canada Inc. companies that provid-ed the author the opportunity to practice in the field of quality as-surance and quality management.

    ASQ Quality Press for permission to use definitions in Chapter 1from the following sources: Quality Glossary, Quality Progress, July 2002, 4961. ASQ Food, Drug and Cosmetic Division, Food Processing Industry

    Quality Systems Guidelines, ASQ Quality Press, Milwaukee. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations for

    permission to use materials from the Recommended InternationalCode of Practices, General Principles of Food Hygiene, Codex Ali-mentarius Commission, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Program,1997.

    Journal of Food Protection. Copyright held by the International Asso-ciation for Food Protection, Des Moines, Iowa, U.S., for permissionto use material from NACMCF.

    IHS Canada/Standards Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Cana-da, for permission to use materials from the ISO 9000 Standards.

    2004 by CRC Press LLC

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    About the author

    Inteaz Alli, Ph.D., is a Professor of Principles of Food Quality Assuranceand Food Analysis at the Department of Food Science and AgriculturalChemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. He served as Chairof the Department from 1995 to 2003. He is a Lead Auditor (National QualityInstitute) for Quality Management Systems, a Certified Quality Auditor andHazard Analysis Critical Control Point Auditor (American Society for Qual-ity), and a Professional Chemist. Dr. Alli has served in numerous executivepositions in the Montreal Section of the American Society for Quality, andin several editorial and committee positions in the Canadian Institute ofFood Science and Technology and the Quality Assurance Division of theInstitute of Food Technologists. The author has also served as an advisorand consultant for both public- and private-sector organizations in the foodindustry.

    2004 by CRC Press LLC

  • Contents

    Chapter 1

    Vocabulary of food quality assurance ..........................................11.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................11.2 Definitions and explanation of terms ........................................................21.3 Recognized experts in the quality field ..................................................25References...............................................................................................................26

    Chapter 2

    Overview of food quality and food safety ................................ 272.1 Introduction .................................................................................................272.2 Scope of food quality and food safety ....................................................282.3 Responsibility for food quality and food safety ...................................282.4 The distinction between food quality and food safety ........................292.5 Food safety as part of food quality .........................................................292.6 Food quality .................................................................................................302.7 Systems and programs for food quality .................................................312.8 Food safety ...................................................................................................312.9 Systems and programs for food safety ....................................................312.10 Food laws and regulations ........................................................................322.11 Enforcement of food laws and regulations ............................................332.12 Food standards ............................................................................................332.13 Food quality, food safety, and good manufacturing practices

    (GMPs) .....................................................................................................

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