Fluorescence in-situ hybridization of sex chromosomes in spermatozoa and spare preimplantation embryos of a Klinefelter 46,XY/47,XXY male
Post on 03-Feb-2017
Human Reproduction vol.15 no.2 pp.440444, 2000
Fluorescence in-situ hybridization of sex chromosomesin spermatozoa and spare preimplantation embryos of aKlinefelter 46,XY/47,XXY male
Magdalena Bielanska1, Seang Lin Tan1 andAsangla Ao1,2,3
Departments of 1Obstetrics and Gynecology and 2Human Genetics,Royal Victoria Hospital, Womens Pavilion, McGill University,Montreal, QC H3A 1A1, Canada
3To whom correspondence should be addressed
It has been suggested recently that 47,XXY germ cells areable to progress through meiosis to produce hyperhaploidspermatozoa. We report on a 46,XY/47,XXY Klinefelterpatient whose spermatozoa were recovered from the ejacu-late and used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of thepatients spermatozoa and of spare preimplantationembryos with DNA probes specific for chromosomes X, Yand 18 revealed sex chromosome hyperploidy in 3.9% ofthe sperm nuclei analysed (2.23% XY18, 1.12% XX18,0.56% YY18), while only three out of 10 spare embryosanalysed were normal for chromosomes tested. The abnor-malities included two diploid mosaic embryos with themajority of the blastomeres normal for the chromosomestested, and five embryos with mostly abnormal blastomeresand chaotic chromosome X, Y and 18 patterns. None ofthe embryos analysed showed a XXY1818 or XXX1818chromosome complement. The frequency of sex chromo-some hyperploidy in the spermatozoa of the mosaic Kline-felter patient was higher than the mean reported forkaryotypically normal males, supporting the hypothesisthat 47,XXY germ cells are able to complete meiosis andproduce aneuploid spermatozoa. However, most of thespermatozoa analysed were normal for sex chromosomes,and ICSI of the patients spermatozoa did not result in aspare embryo with a uniform 47,XXY or 47,XXX chromo-some complement. Instead, fertilization produced a highpercentage of mosaic embryos with chaotic chromosomearrangements.Key words: fluorescence in-situ hybridization/intracytoplasmicsperm injection/Klinefelter syndrome/preimplantation embryos/sex chromosomes
With an incidence of approximately 1 in 600 in live births,and 1 in 300 in spontaneous abortions, Klinefelter syndromeis the most common sex chromosome abnormality in humans(Hassold and Jacobs, 1984; Nielsen and Wolhert, 1991). It isalso the most frequent chromosomal abnormality among infer-
440 European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology
tile males, accounting for 4.6% of oligozoospermic or azoo-spermic men (De Braekeleer and Dao, 1991).
Klinefelter patients present with a somatic 47,XXY, or lesscommonly with a mosaic 46,XY/47,XXY karyotype. Althoughthe clinical features are variable, the majority of patients areinfertile due to primary testicular failure. Very few cases ofnaturally conceived offspring of proven paternity have beenreported (Laron et al., 1982; Terzoli et al., 1992). The retrievalof spermatozoa from severely oligozoospermic ejaculates orfrom testicular biopsies in Klinefelter patients is possible.With recent developments in reproductive technologies, therecovered spermatozoa have been used for intracytoplasmicsperm injection (ICSI), with successful fertilization of oocytes,and biochemical pregnancies and births have been achieved(Harari et al., 1995; Staessen et al., 1996; Bourne et al., 1997;Hinney et al., 1997; Tournaye et al., 1997; Nodar et al.,1998; Palermo et al., 1998; Reubinoff et al., 1998; Ron-Elet al., 1999).
Recent chromosome studies have reported that Klinefeltermales have an increased incidence of 24,XY sperm cellscompared with that found in karyotypically normal men,demonstrating that 47,XXY spermatogonia may undergomeiosis to produce hyperhaploid spermatozoa (Cozzi et al.,1994; Chevret et al., 1996; Martini et al., 1996; Guttenbachet al., 1997; Hinney et al., 1997; Estop et al., 1998; Kruseet al., 1998). An increase in the frequency of sex chromosomehyperhaploidy in this population of patients may present a riskof retrieving sperm cells with an abnormal sex chromosomecomplement for ICSI protocols. This, in turn, may increasethe risk of chromosomally imbalanced embryos.
In the present study, to determine whether a 46,XY/47,XXYKlinefelter patient had an increased risk of a chromosomallyabnormal conceptus, we used three-colour fluorescence in-situhybridization (FISH) with probes specific to chromosomes X,Y and 18 to examine the sex chromosomes in the patientsspermatozoa and spare preimplantation embryos produced byICSI. To our knowledge, this is the first study which reportson the sex chromosomes constitution of the sperm cells andembryos from the same Klinefelter patient.
Materials and methods
The couple, a 36-year-old female and her 35-year-old husband, werereferred to the McGill Reproductive Centre for infertility arising fromprimary testicular failure associated with a karyotype consistent withKlinefelter syndrome. Two peripheral blood chromosome analyseshad been performed. One revealed a 47,XXY karyotype in all 50cells analysed. The second investigation, at a different medical
Hyperploidy in spermatozoa and embryos in a Klinefelter male
laboratory, disclosed the probable presence of low-level mosaicism,with one cell in 60 showing a 46,XY karyotype. The patient had anelevated concentration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Pastseminal analysis demonstrated severe oligozoospermia or azoosper-mia. Analysis of semen used for ICSI showed severe oligozoospermia,with a sperm count of 0.1106 per ml of ejaculate and motility of60%. The wife had no evidence of fertility problems. The coupleopted for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). However, due totechnical difficulties, FISH results could not be obtained on thebiopsied blastomeres. After consultation with the patients, threeembryos of unknown sex chromosome constitution were transferred,and resulted in an ongoing twin pregnancy.
Preparation of sperm nuclei
Supernumerary spermatozoa suspended in sperm washing medium(Medicult, Hopkington, USA) were obtained after ICSI had beenperformed according to standard protocols (Palermo et al., 1998).Spermatozoa were prepared for FISH as described previously (Martinand Ko, 1995). Spermatozoa were washed three times with 10 mmol/l Tris0.9% NaCl. An aliquot (25 l) of sperm suspension wassmeared on glass slides and air-dried. Slides were aged at roomtemperature for 2 days. Sperm heads were decondensed by a 30 minimmersion in dithiothreitol (DTT)/0.1 mol/l Tris, followed by a 3 himmersion in a 1 mmol/l DTT/10 mmol/l lithium diiosalicyalte/0.1mol/l Tris solution at room temperature. Slides were rinsed in 2SSC solution for 5 min, and air-dried.
Preparation of blastomeres
Fifteen out of 19 normally fertilized embryos were cultured underoil in Gardners sequential media (Scandinavian IVF Science,Gothenburg, Sweden) to day 4. Ten spare, monospermic embryos,ranging from the 6- to 11-cell stages of development, were washedin phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Each embryo was transferred ina microdroplet to a poly-L-lysine-treated slide. Blastomeres weredesegregated and nuclei spread with 0.01 NHCl, 0.1% Tween 20(Coonen et al., 1994). The slides were air-dried, washed in PBS for5 min, and dehydrated through an ethanol series. The location of thenuclei was marked using a diamond pen.
Immediately before FISH analysis, slides with embryonic or spermnuclei were pretreated with pepsin (100 g/ml) in 0.01 mol/l HCl for20 min at 37C, rinsed in PBS, and dehydrated in an ethanol series.Three-colour FISH was performed using directly labelled alphasatellite DNA probes, specific for chromosomes X (spectrum green),Y (spectrum orange) and 18 (spectrum aqua) (Vysis, Downers Grove,IL, USA).
Sperm nuclei FISH
Slides with sperm nuclei were denatured in a Coplin jar containing70% formamide/2 saline sodium citrate (SSC) at 72C, for 2 min.Slides were immediately dehydrated in a cold ethanol series, and air-dried. The probe mixture was denatured at 75C for 5 min, andimmediately applied to the specimen. The probe was hybridized tosperm DNA by incubation in a moist chamber at 37C for 4 h. Slideswere washed in 0.04 SSC/0.3% Tween 20 solution for 3 min,followed by 2 SSC, at room temperature, for 1 min. Slides wererinsed in PBS and counterstained with 2 ng/ml of 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) for 20 s, rinsed and mounted in anti-fademedium (Vector, Burlingame, CA, USA).
Embryonic nuclei FISH
The probe mixture was applied to the slide with embryonic nucleiand covered with a plastic coverslip. Probe and target nuclear
Table I. Results from fluorescence in-situ hybridization of patientsspermatozoa with probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 18
FISH Presumed No. of % of spermatozoaresults karyotype spermatozoa
X18 23,X 180 50.28Y18 23,Y 158 44.13XX18 24,XX 4 1.12YY18 24,YY 2 0.56XY18 24,XY 8 2.23XY1818 46,XY 3 0.84XXY18 24,XXY,-18 1 0.2818 22, -X or -Y 2 0.56Total 358 100
DNA were co-denatured by heating the slide to 78C for 6 min.Hybridization was carried out in a moist chamber at 37C for 2 h.Following hybridization, the slides were washed using 0.04 SSC/0.3% Tween 20 solution, at 73C, for 3 min. The slides were air-dried, and mounted in DAPI (II) counterstain (Vysis).
Following FISH, the nuclei and fluorescence signals were viewedusing a fluorescence Olympus DX 60 microscope equipped withappropriate filters: FITC/Texas red/DAPI (Applied Imaging, SantaClara, CA, USA) and Aqua (Vysis). Only intact, non-overlappingembryonic nuclei and sperm heads, with clear fluorescence signalswere scored. Two signals of the same colour were considered torepresent two individual chromosomes only when the same-colouredsignals were a minimum of one diameter apart. Images were capturedusing a CCD camera and Cytovision software (Applied Imaging).
FISH results from a total of 358 spermatozoa available foranalysis are presented in Table I. In total, 338 (94.4%) spermcells were normal with an X18 (50.28%) or a Y18 (44.13%)chromosome pattern. The difference in 23Y- and 23X-bearingspermatozoa was not statistically significant. An abnormalchromosome complement was detected in 5.6% of spermato-zoa. Sex chromosome disomy was detected in 3.9% of nucleiand included cells with XY18 (2.23%), XX18 (1.12%) andYY18 (0.56%) signals (Figure 1a). Other abnormal chromo-some patterns detected included XY1818 (0.84%), XXY18(0.28%) and 018 (0.56%).
A total of 80 nuclei, obtained from 75 blastomeres, werespread from ten day 4 embryos. Upon analysis, 67 (84%)yielded intact nuclear material with large, bright fluorescencesignals. The results of FISH using probes specific for chromo-somes X, Y and 18 are shown in Table II. Of ten normallyfertilized spare embryos analysed, three were normal forchromosomes tested, one with an XX1818, and two with anXY1818 pattern. Two embryos were diploid mosaic, withthe majority of blastomeres uniformly normal for the threechromosomes tested (Figure 1b). Five embryos consisted ofmostly abnormal blastomeres, with a variable number of XY18
M.Bielanska, S.L.Tan and A.Ao
Figure 1. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization of Klinefelter syndrome patients spermatozoa and spare preimplantation embryo with CEP
alpha satellite DNA probes specific for chromosomes X (green), Y (red) and 18 (aqua). (a) An abnormal sperm nucleus showing an XY18chromosome complement. (b) Normal nucleus of a blastomere from a mosaic embryo showing XY1818 chromosome signals. (cf)Abnormal nuclei from four blastomeres of a chaotic embryo showing varied number of XY18 signals, (c) Y181818, (d) XXYY1818, (e)X1818, (f) Y18. (Original magnification,1000.)
signals in the nuclei, consistent with chaotic chromosomesegregation (Figure 1cf). None of the seven spare embryoswith chromosomally abnormal blastomeres showed a uniformXXY1818 or XXX1818 complement. Three embryos ofunknown sex chromosome constitution which had been trans-ferred resulted in an ongoing twin pregnancy. Amniocentesisshowed both fetal karyotypes to be 46,XX.
Most Klinefelter patients with a pure 47,XXY somatic karyo-type are azoospermic, and spermatozoa for ICSI are retrievedvia testicular biopsy (Staessen et al., 1996; Tournaye et al.,1996; Nodar et al., 1998; Palermo et al., 1998; Reubinoffet al., 1998; Ron-El et al., 1999). In contrast, in cases with a46,XY/47,XXY mosaic karyotype, spermatozoa can usuallybe recovered from the ejaculate (Harari et al., 1995; Martiniet al., 1996; Guttenbach et al., 1997; Hinney et al., 1997;Kruse et al., 1998; Okada et al., 1999). Our patients cyto-genetic analysis had shown a dominantly 47,XXY karyotype,with only one 46,XY cell in 60. The proband was diagnosedwith primary testicular failure; however, his ejaculate containedenough spermatozoa for ICSI and for subsequent FISH analysis.This finding demonstrates the presence of limited spermato-genesis in this patient. Furthermore, it indicates testicularmosaicism, and suggests that the one 46,XY cell observed wasnot an artefact. Perhaps the mosaicism also extended to, and
was present in various percentages in, other non-investigatedtissues.
Multi-colour FISH using chromosome-specific DNA probeshas been successfully used to determine the frequencies ofnumerical chromosome abnormalities in the spermatozoa ofboth normal and infertile men (Moosani et al., 1995; Martinet al., 1996; Rademaker et al., 1997; Finkelstein et al., 1998;Storeng et al., 1998; Pang et al., 1999). Despite the scarcityof spermatozoa in many Klinefelter syndrome males, a numberof studies were able to analyse from 24 to 27 097 spermatozoaper patient (Martini et al., 1996; Hinney et al., 1997; Estopet al., 1998; Kruse et al., 1998). In the present study, we wereable to screen chromosomes X, Y and 18 in a total of 358available spermatozoa.
The total incidence of sex chromosome disomy in ourpatients spermatozoa was 3.9%. This value is higher than thatdetermined by FISH (0.14% to 0.43%) for karyotypicallynormal fertile men (Williams et al., 1993; Wyrobek et al.,1994; Martin et al., 1996; Spriggs et al., 1996; Rademakeret al., 1997; Storeng et al., 1998). It is also higher than thereported mean values of sex chromosome disomy for maleswith abnormal seminal parameters (0.33% to 2.95%) (Moosaniet al., 1995; Storeng et al., 1998; Pang et al., 1999). The totalfrequency of sex chromosome hyperploidy for our patient fallsin the range ascertained in other mosaic (0.92% to 5.0%) andnon-mosaic (1.36% to 25%) Klinefelter syndrome individuals
Hyperploidy in spermatozoa and embryos in a Klinefelter male
Table II. Results of fluorescence in-situ hybridization of patients spare embryos with probes specific forchromosomes X, Y and 18
Embryo No. of No. of FISH results (No. of nuclei) Embryo diagnosisnumber blastomeres nuclei
1 8 8 XX1818 (5) Diploid2 6 6 XY1818(1)/Y(1)/XXYY(1)/X(1)/ Chaotic mosaic
XY18 (1)/Y1818 (1)3 7 7 XX 1818(2) / X1818(3) / X18(2) Chaotic mosaic4 6 8 XX1818(3) / 18 (1) Diploid mosaic5 11 11 XY1818(8) Diploid6 7 7 XX1818(2)/XXX1818181...