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Positive emotions Engagement, interest Meaning, purpose
Self-esteem Optimism Resilience Vitality Self-determination Positive relationships
Positive emotion Taking all things together, how happy would you say you are?
Engagement, interest I love learning new things.
Meaning, purpose I generally feel that what I do in my life is valuable and worthwhile.
Self-esteem In general, I feel very positive about myself.
Optimism I’m always optimistic about my future.
Resilience When things go wrong in my life, it generally takes me a long time to get back to normal. (Opposite answers indicate more resilience.)
Positive relationships There are people in my life who really care about me.
WELL-BEING ITEMS
WELL-BEING FEATURES
FLOURISHING RANKINGS
0 25 30 3520 Percent meeting the criteria for flourishing
Co un
Ireland Austria
Finland Norway
Switzerland Denmark
ACTIVE AND CONSTRUCTIVE RESPONDING This table illustrates two examples of the four styles.
YOUR PARTNER SHARES POSITIVE EVENT
TYPE OF RESPONSE
Active and Constructive
“That is great! I am so proud of you. I know how important that promotion was to you! Please relive the event with me now. Where were you when your boss told you? What did he say? How did you react? We should go out and celebrate.” Nonverbal: maintaining eye contact, displays of positive emotions, such as genuine smiling, touching, laughing.
Passive and Constructive
“That is good news. You deserve it.” Nonverbal: little to no active emotional expression.
Active and Destructive
“That sounds like a lot of responsibility to take on. Are you going to spend even fewer nights at home now?” Nonverbal: displays of negative emotions, such as furrowed brow, frowning.
Passive and Destructive
“What’s for dinner?” Nonverbal: little to no eye contact, turning away, leaving the room.
“I just won five hundred dollars in a charity raffle!”
Active and Constructive
“Wow, what luck. Are you going to buy yourself something nice? How did you buy that ticket? Doesn’t it feel great to win something?” Nonverbal: maintaining eye contact, displays of positive emotions.
Passive and Constructive
“That is nice.” Nonverbal: little to no active emotional expression.
Active and Destructive
“I bet you are going to have to pay taxes on that. I never win anything.” Nonverbal: displays of negative emotions.
Passive and Destructive
“I had a bad day at work today.” Nonverbal: little eye contact, turning away.
ACTIVE AND CONSTRUCTIVE RESPONDING FORM
OTHER’S EVENT MY RESPONSE (VERBATIM) OTHER’S RESPONSE TO ME
10
Pe rc
en ta
ge o
GRIT TEST
GRIT NORMS
POSITIVE EMOTIONAL STYLE
NEGATIVE EMOTIONAL STYLE
DAILY ADJUSTED IL-6 BY PES LEVELS
0.2
Low Moderate High
1
Adjusted Hazard Ratio for All-Cause, CVD, and Cancer Mortality in 4,060 Adults 60+, 989 Deaths
*Adjusted for age, sex, exam year, BMI, smoking, abnormal exercise ECG responses, MI, stroke, HTN, DM, cancer, or hypercholesterolemia, family history of CVD or cancer, and percent maximal heart rate achieved during exercise.
Ad ju
st ed
H R*
X. Sui et al., JAGS 2007
ADJUSTED HAZARD RATIO FOR ALL-CAUSE, CVD AND CANCER MORTALITY IN 4,060 ADULTS 60+, 989 DEATHS
0.2
61 deaths
Ad ju
st ed
H R*
*Adjusted for age, exam year, smoking, abnormal exercise ECG, baseline health conditions, and percent body fat.
Multivariate + % Body Fat Adjusted HR of All-Cause Mortality by Fitness Groups, ACLS, 2,603 Adults 60+
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
X. Sui et al., JAMA 2007; 398; 2507–16
MULTIVARIATE + % BODY FAT ADJUSTED HR OF ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY BY FITNESS GROUPS, ACLS, 2,603 ADULTS 60+
10
Fit
40
Normal
*Rates adjusted for age, sex, and exam year.
Joint Associations of CRF and % Body Fat with All-Cause Mortality, ACLS 2,603 Adults 60+
X. Sui et al., JAMA 2007; 298; 2507–16
JOINT ASSOCIATIONS OF CRF AND % BODY FAT WITH ALL-CAUSE MORTALITY, ACLS, 2,603 ADULTS 60+
4
30,0000 40,000
Forbes magazine’s richest Americans 5.8
Pennsylvania Amish 5.8
African Masai 5.7
4.9