flooding in nigeria
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DESCRIPTIONThe risk of flood
FLOODING IN NIGERIARisk Chain and Management
By Adeyi Joel O.
Nigeria - Disaster StatisticsData related to human and economic losses from disasters that have occurred between 1980 and 2010.
Natural Disasters from 1980 - 2010
OverviewNo of events: 94No of people killed: 21,002Average killed per year: 677No of people affected: 6,306,441Average affected per year: 203,434Economic Damage (US$ X 1,000):
Economic Damage per year (US$ X 1,000):
Natural Disaster Occurrence Reported
Drought: 0.03Earthquake*: ...Epidemic: 1.58Extreme temp:
Flood: 1.13Insect infestation:
Mass mov. dry:
Mass mov. wet:
Volcano: ...Storm: 0.06Wildfire: ...
Average Disaster Per Year
Top 10 Natural Disasters Report
Disaster Date Affected
Drought 1983 3,000,000Flood 2010 1,500,200Flood 1994 580,000Flood 1988 300,000Flood 2003 210,000Flood 2009 150,000Flood 1998 100,000Flood 1999 90,000Flood 2001 84,065Flood 2007 50,000
Killed PeopleDisaster Date Killed
Epidemic 1991 7,289Epidemic 1996 4,346Epidemic 2009 1,701Epidemic 1996 1,193Epidemic 1986 1,000Epidemic 2005 561Epidemic 1991 400Epidemic 2010 353Epidemic 1999 350Epidemic 2001 340
Economic DamagesDisaster Date Cost (US$ X
1,000)Drought 1983 71,103
Flood 1994 66,500
Flood 2010 30,000Flood 1985 8,000
Flood 2000 4,805
Flood 2001 3,000
Flood 2003 2,570
Flood 2000 1,900
Flood 2005 147
Epidemic 1986 0
Source of data from slide 3-7: "EM-DAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, Universit� catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Bel." Data version: v11.08
The rainy season (2012) in Nigeria has delivered more
precipitation than earlier years, causing flooding in 18
of 38 states. The excessive water run-off was initially
contained through contingency measures, but the
heavy rain in 2012 had led to the overflow of water
reservoirs, forced release of dam water and breaching
of river boundaries and banks, resulting in damage to
roads, bridges and other infrastructure, loss of
property and livestock and displacement of people. The
floods affected over 134,371 people, displaced 64,473
people, injured 202 and killed 148 people. The
displaced population resorted to residing with host
families or in makeshift camps.
THE RISKThe pictures presents a clear view of the country’s poor drainage and waste management system which exposes its citizen and the country as a whole to a variety of risks ranging from health (individual) risk to systematic risks.
WHEN FLOOD STRIKES…
The role of the interlinked components of risk management cannot be
overemphasized. Knowledge helps to understand shocks, internal
conditions, and potential outcomes, thus reducing uncertainty.
Protection helps to reduce the probability and size of losses and increase
those of benefits.
Insurance is the transfer of resources across people and over time, from
good to bad states of nature.
Coping on the other hand is to recover from losses and make the most of
In contrast, when preparation is limited, or a shock is unexpectedly large,
coping can be haphazard and require costly measures leaving few resources
for future risk, worsening vulnerability to shocks, and weakening the
household's ability to undertake new opportunities.
VICTIMS OF THE FLOOD SUFFER SHOCK
Displaced Kids Lost Displaced Parents
DISPLACED VICTIMS SEEKING FOR SHELTER
VICTIMS MIGRATE FOR MAKESHIFT CAMP
Obstacles to Effective Risk Management in Nigeria
The major factors impeding effective risk management as regards flood in Nigeria lies
both on individuals and the governments’ path.
On the individual’s path is the lack of resources, lack of information and cognitive failures
i.e. majority of homeowners in flood-prone areas are unaware of the risk of flood, and
also behavioral failures suggesting that in many cases, individuals seem to have short
memories regarding origins of, or prior crisis of various sort.
On the other hand is the failures on the path of the government. These could stem from
capture of interest groups, corruption of government officials, and distortionary policies.
From the ongoing it is therefore conclusive that the Nigeria government faced with the
tradeoffs of preparing for risk and coping with its consequence is better at the latter as
evidenced in the next slides which shows the role of the external environment in reducing
the impact of shocks.
Victims Find Shelter in Makeshift Camps
Victims Receive Relief Material
External Environment Help To Reduce Shock
The Way Out Developing countries are already suffering from the impacts of climate change and are
the most vulnerable to further change. Flooding is the common and most costly natural
disaster, though its impacts are also exacerbated by anthropogenic sources. Quality
assessment of the risk impacts of flood will facilitate countries to plan adaptation
measures and adapt effectively.
Risk management helps to prepare for the shock that could undermine development.
That is, effective combination of capacities (research, protection, insurance) with an
ability to cope with the aftermath of the shock. Thus risk management helps in
effectively combining capacities thereby setting priorities and making choices which are
both unavoidable and necessary so as to effectively employ and manage resources.
To overcome flooding in Nigeria, we need to learn the process of effective risk
management which begins with the understanding of risk embodied in a situation, and
then how to effectively prepare for the risk by allocating limited resources between
combined capacities and in essence striking a perfect balance without halting