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  • fizika

    10moswavlis wigni

    saxelmZRvanelo grifirebulia ganaTlebis xarisxis

    ganviTarebis erovnuli centris mier

    (brZ. N375, 18.05.2012 weli)

    qeTevan tatiSvili

    1

  • Tema I. eleqtruli muxti ................................................................................................. 7 proeqti: ambavi rwyilisa da WianWvelasi, anu Cveni samyaros damatebiTi ganzomilebebi ..................................................... 7 1.1. sxeulTa daeleqtroeba (gameoreba) ..............................................................11 1.2. eleqtruli muxtis Tvisebebi ........................................................................15 1.3. kulonis kanoni ...............................................................................................18 1.4. fizika amocanebSi: kulonis kanoni. ZalTa superpoziciis principi ..................................................................................22 Seamowme Seni codna .........................................................................................26 Temis damatebiTi kiTxvebi, amocanebi ...........................................................28

    Tema II. eleqtruli veli ...................................................................................................30 proeqti: rogor gavxdeT msoflios mbrZanebeli, anu faradeis galia ..........................30 2.1. eleqtruli veli .............................................................................................33 2.2. fizika amocanebSi: wertilovani muxtis velis daZabuloba. velebis superpoziciis principi ...................................................................39 2.3. eleqtrostatikuri velis muSaoba. eleqtruli velis potenciali. potencialTa sxvaoba ................................43 2.4. fizika amocanebSi: eleqtrostatikuri velis muSaoba. eleqtruli velis potenciali. potencialTa sxvaoba. ...............................49 2.5. gamtarebi eleqtrostatikur velSi ..............................................................55 2.6. dieleqtrikebi eleqtrostatikur velSi ....................................................60 2.7. kondensatori .................................................................................................63 proeqti: qila, romelmac evropa SeZra ...............................................................................68 Seamowme Seni codna ...............................................................................................70 Temis damatebiTi kiTxvebi, amocanebi ..................................................................72

    Tema III. eleqtruli deni ...................................................................................................75 proeqti: faraonis naTura ....................................................................................................75 3.1. eleqtruli deni. denis wyaros emZ ...............................................................78 3.2. eleqtruli deni liTonis gamtarebSi. denis Zala ......................................81 3.3. eleqtruli winaRoba. kuTri winaRoba ........................................................84 3.4. omis kanoni sruli wredisaTvis .....................................................................90 3.5. fizika amocanebSi: omis kanoni sruli wredisaTvis ....................................92 3.6. fizika amocanebSi: kondensatorTa batarea. galvanur elementTa batarea .......................................................................100 3.7. denis muSaoba da simZlavre. joul-lencis kanoni ...................................107 Seamowme Seni codna .....................................................................................113

    sarCevi

    4

  • Tema IV. eleqtruli deni sxvadasxva garemoSi ..........................................................115proeqti: baRdadis batarea, anu 2000 wlis win dawyebuli eleqtrobis istoria .........115 4.1. eleqtruli deni siTxeSi ..............................................................................118proeqti: cidan daSvebuli eleqtroba ...............................................................................122 4.2. eleqtruli deni airSi ................................................................................124 4.3. eleqtruli deni vakuumSi ...........................................................................130 4.4. eleqtruli deni naxevargamtarebSi ............................................................133 Seamowme Seni codna .......................................................................................139

    Tema V magnituri veli ................................................................................................ 141 dedamiwis magnituri veli ...........................................................................141 5.1. magnituri velis induqcia .......................................................................... 144 5.2. amperis Zala ................................................................................................ 148 5.3. magnituri velis Zalwirebi ....................................................................... 151 5.4. magnituri velis Zalwirebis mimarTuleba .............................................. 153 5.5. lorencis Zala ........................................................................................... 155proeqti: energia, romlis xarjzec eleqtroZrava muSaobs .............................................. 158 5.6. fizika amocanebSi: damuxtuli nawilakis moZraoba erTgvarovan magnitur velSi ................................................................... 160 magnituri xafangi ..................................................................................... 166 Seamowme Seni codna .......................................................................................168

    Tema VI eleqtromagnituri induqcia ........................................................................ 169 6.1 eleqtromagnituri induqcia ..................................................................... 170 6.2 lencis wesi .................................................................................................. 174 6.3 eleqtromagnituri induqciis kanoni ....................................................... 177 6.4 TviTinduqcia ............................................................................................. 183 Seamowme Seni codna .......................................................................................187 ganmeorebiTi gazomvebi ................................................................................188 testebis pasuxebi ....................................................................................... 189 damatebiTi kiTxvebisa da amocanebis pasuxebi ....................................... 190

    5

  • eleqtruli veli 2.1

    1 eleqtruli veli

    damuxtuli burTulis gverdiT meore damuxtuli burTula dakides (sur. 1). gadaixreba Tu ara vertika-luri mdgomareobidan pirveli burTula? meore bur-Tula? ratom?

    cxadia, am kiTxvebze pasuxs Sarl kulonic gasce-mda, Tumca is damuxtuli burTulebis urTierTqme-debas eqsperimentulad dadgenil faqtad miiCnevda da am urTierTqmedebis meqanizms, Tu ra gziT gada-ecema garkveul manZilze erTi burTulis moqmedeba meores uSualo Sexebis gareSe, frangi mecnieri ver axsnida.

    mecnierebis Semdgomma ganviTarebam cxadyo, rom damuxtuli sxeulebis ur-TierTqmedebas sakmaod rTuli xasiaTi aqvs. ingliseli mecnierebis faradeis (1791-1867) da maqsvelis (1831-1879) Sromebma safuZveli Cauyara eleqtromagni-turi urTierTqmedebis Tanamedrove Teorias, romlis Tanaxmadac, damuxtuli sxeulebis garSemo arsebobs eleqtruli veli, romlis saSualebiTac maT Soris urTierTqmedeba xorcieldeba: yoveli q

    1 muxti Tavis garSemo qmnis eleqtrul

    vels, romelic q2 muxtze moqmedebs da piriqiT, q

    2 muxtis mier Seqmnili veli q

    1-

    -ze moqmedebs.eleqtrul (gravitaciul, magnitur) vels ar aqvs forma, feri, suni, gemo, ar

    SeiZleba misi danaxva da xeliT Sexeba, anu mas, nivTierebisgan gansxvavebiT, ar aqvs struqtura, agebuleba. velis arsebobis aRmoCena mxolod misi moqmedebe-bis Sedegadaa SesaZlebeli.

    2 eleqtruli velis ZiriTadi TvisebebiCven SegviZlia martivi cdebis saSualebiT davadginoT eleqtruli velis Zi-

    riTadi Tvisebebi. modi, CavataroT cda da davakvirdeT, rogor `iqceva~ damux-tuli sxeulis garSemo arsebul sivrceSi sxva sxeuli.

    cda I

    daamzadeT gamtari cilindri: folgisgan ga-moWeriT 3 x 3 sm zomis kvadrati da mrgval fan-qarze gadaaxvieT. fanqari frTxilad gamoaZreT da miRebul

    cilindrs erTi bolo moukariT. dakideT cilindri Stativis TaTze abreSumis

    an kapronis ZafiT da damuxteT: SeaxeT mas, mag., abreSumis qsovilze xaxunisas daeleqtroebuli mi-nis Rero. ra niSniT daimuxteba cilindri? kvlav gaaxaxuneT minis Rero abreSumze da miuaxloveT damuxtul

    cilindrs sakmaod didi manZilidan. daakvirdiT: rogor icvleba Zafis gadaxris kuTxe manZilis SemcirebasTan erTad. axseniT cdis Sedegi.

    sur. 1

    sur. 2

    33

  • gaiTvaliswineT, rom eleqtruli veli ara marto Reros garSemo, aramed damuxtuli cilindris garSemoc iqmneba da axseniT, ra aris cilindrisa da Reros urTierTqmedebis arsi.

    maS ase,1. damuxtuli sxeulis (muxtis) garSemo iqmneba eleqtruli veli, romelic

    garkveuli ZaliT moqmedebs masSi moTavsebul yvela damuxtul sxeulze (muxtze).swored damuxtul sxeulze (an nawilakze) velis mxridan moqmedi Zalis saSu-

    alebiTaa SesaZ lebeli eleqtruli velis aRmoCena. Zalas, romliTac eleqtruli veli damuxtul sxeulze (an nawilakze) mo-

    qmedebs, eleqtruli Zala ewodeba (eleqtruli velis moqmedebas neitralur sxeulze, mag., daumuxtav eleq troskopze an qaRaldis nakuwebze, momdevno gakveTilebze ganvixilavT).

    2. damuxtu

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