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Final project for a neurobiology online course.

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<ul><li>1.ABOUT DREAMS AND SLEEPY FACTS </li></ul> <p>2. 1. INTRODUCTION: Conceptually, a dream can be defined as a set of sensations, images and hallucinations "created" by our brain while we sleep. Sleep is necessary for several reasons: - Tissue conservation - Energy recovery - Delay aging? 3. 2. THE STAGES OF SLEEP Stage 1: (or light sleep) shows a reduction in activity between wakefulness and stage 1 sleep. The eyes are closed and one can be awakened without difficulty. This stage may last for 5 to 10 minutes. Many may notice the feeling of falling during this stage of sleep, which may cause a sudden muscle contraction (hypnic myoclonia or myoclonic jerks). Stage 2: during this stage occurs spontaneous periods of muscle tone mixed with periods of muscle relaxation. The heart rate slows and the body temperature decreases. At this point, the body prepares to enter deep sleep. Around 50% of your time sleeping is spent in this stage. Stages 3 and 4: these are deep sleep stages and they are known as slow-wave, or delta, sleep. Specifically, in the stage 3 the brain waves are a combination or delta waves (slow) and faster waves. In stage 4 there is only delta waves. This phases are collectively referred to as non-REM sleep (NREM sleep). 4. 2. THE STAGES OF SLEEP: REM STAGE Dreaming occurs during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a stage of sleep characterized by the rapid and random movement of the eyes. As a rule, REM stage ocuppies 25% of total sleep time, but this range can changes during life. 5. 3. AN INTENSE EXPERIENCE: LUCID DREAMS During lucid dreams, individuals enter a state of consciousness in which they are aware that they are dreaming and can control dream events. These dreams are characterized by a high cortical (frontal and temporal regions) activity in the low gamma frequency range (40 Hz aprox). Hz Hz Hz Hz Lucid dreams are believed to occur exclusively during REM sleep. 6. 4. CAN WE CONTROL OUR DREAMS? We can induce this dreams applying electromagnetic stimulation in the gamma frequency range during REM sleep! This is because gamma frecuency is very much associated with conscious awareness in the awake state. 7. 5. REM SLEEP BEHAVIOR DISORDER (RBD) In normal conditions, dream imagery is more pronounced during stage 1 and REM sleep than during stage 2 and 3. RBD is a symptom of abnormal and dissociated REM sleep that are frequently associated in serious neurological diseases (e.g: narcolepsy, Parkinsons disease etc.). This disorder produces a violent physical response to dream. It was described in 1986. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rFXYRQ9xPUA 8. 5. REM SLEEP BEHAVIOR DISORDER (RBD) CAUSES There are many theories and studies on the possible causes of RBD: Decreased striatal dopaminergic innervation Depression of brainstem serotonergic/noradrenergic regions Decreased blood flow to brain regions during sleep The relationship of RBD with neurodegenerative diseases may be an interesting study to describe the causes of this disorder. 9. 5. REM SLEEP BEHAVIOR DISORDER (RBD) TREATMENT RBD is perfectly treatable with drugs that act (mostly) on symptoms, not on the causes. The outstanding options are Clonazepam, Melatonin or Pramipexole in many cases. In the process of treatment is necessary to accommodate the patient environment, removing anything that could cause damage during RBD episodes. 10. 5. REFERENCES ARNULF, I; Dream imagery, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and hallucinations. Japanese Society of Sleep Research. 2013. BRAY, N; Inducing lucid dreams . Nature Reviews Neuroscience 15, 428 (2014). CHELAPPA, S. L. et al. Ultradian and circadian modulation of dream recall: EEG correlates and age effects. International Journal of Psychophysiology 89, 165-170 (2013) Best practice guide for the treatment of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). </p>