Final Presentation for Project A.D.I.O.S.

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ADIOS - A Deimos Impact & Observation Spacecraft

Team 3

Jeff Anderson, Thomas Blachman, Andrew Fallon, John Franklin, Samuel Gaultney, David Habashy, Brian Hardie, Brandon Hing, Zujia Huang, Sung Kim, Jonathan Saenger

Sam

Mission GoalPrimary: Direct an impactor into Deimos at high velocities to launch a plume of surface and subsurface debris into space. The released plume will be analyzed by a passive infrared spectrometer to determine the composition of Deimos. This will determine whether Deimos is a C or D type asteroid, or Mars ejecta.Secondary: Prebiotic volatile concentrations will be analyzed to determine the potential asteroid contributions to early life.Alternative: Close Proximity Imaging of one face of Deimos with passive spectrometry of surface composition or total satellite impact with spectrometry conducted by Mars satellites.#

Sam

ObjectivesThe impactor shall collide with Deimos surface and generate a plume sufficient enough in size for the CubeSat Spectrometer to detect.The impactor shall release from the observer and penetrate Deimos surface deep enough to expose subsurface volatile compounds including oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water, and ammonia.The CubeSat shall analyze the plume with a spectrometer and determine the 1.3 m absorption levels, as well as the absorption levels of volatiles and successfully relay this data back to Earth.#

Sam

Key Mission RequirementsShall be ready for launch by July 14th, 2020Shall not exceed $5.6 M in total cost Shall not exceed 14 kg for all componentsBe able to deliver the impactor to the surface of Deimos 50 minutes before the observerBe able to deliver the impactor to Deimos at a speed no less than 3.5 km/s and a mass of 4 kg to produce a sufficient plume size of 0.25 km x 0.25 kmBe able to determine the 1.3 m absorption levels of the plume as well as the absorption levels of volatilesBe able to point the spectrometer at the plume for a minimum of 30 seconds at a range of no more than 600kmBe able to relay all spectrometer data back to Earth via the DSN

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Sam

Mission Science Value Key science questions areOriginCompositionRelationship to other solar system materials. Are the moons possibly re-accreted Mars ejecta [or] primitive, D-type bodies? Spectrometry can answer this question.Resolving the debate concerning the compositions (and likely origins) of... Deimos may be relevant to understanding the early history of Mars...if they turn out to be related to volatile-rich asteroids...they may be the surviving representatives of a family of bodies that originated in the outer asteroid belt or further, and reached the inner solar system to deliver volatiles and organics to the accreting terrestrial planets. -Decadal Survey

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John

Science Traceability Matrix#Science ObjectivesMeasurement objectivesMeasurement RequirementsInstrument RequirementsInstrumentsData ProductsDeimosInternal compositionMeasure ratio of iron in internal compositionSpectronomy measurements for 160 secondsBe able to measure the 1.3 m absorption levels of the plumeARGUS SpectrometerGraphs of Spectronomy ReadingsInternal volatilesDetermined the amount and type of subsurface volatilesSpectronomy measurements for 160 secondsBe able to measure the 1.0 m - 1.63 m. absorption levels of the plumeARGUS SpectrometerGraphs of Spectronomy Readings

Decadal Survey: Are the moons possibly re-accreted Mars ejecta? Or are they possibly related to primitive, D-type bodies? These questions can be investigated.mission that includes measurements of bulk properties and internal structure.

MEPAG goals Investigation A3.1: Characterize organic chemistry, including (where possible) stable isotopic composition and stereochemical configuration. Characterize co-occurring concentrations of possible bioessential elements.Mission Objective: Measure the internal subsurface composition of Deimos to determine its origins and organic volatile levels.

John

Requirement FlowdownProject ADIOS will determine the surface and subsurface composition of Deimos through spectrometry using a CubeSat and detachable impactorThe impactor shall strike Deimos with a mass and velocity sufficient to generate an analyzable plumeThe impactor must detach safely from the CubeSatSeparation mechanism requirementsThe impactor must navigate to DeimosGNC, ADCS, propulsion requirementsThe impactor must arrive with a mass of 4 kg and a speed of 3.5 km/sThe CubeSat shall perform spectrometry on the generated plume and transmit the data back to Earth for analysisThe CubeSat must pass within 600 km of the plume ~1 hr after impactGNC, ADCS, propulsion requirementsThe CubeSat must analyze the 1.3 m absorption and absorption levels of volatilesADCS, spectrometer, C&DH requirementsThe CubeSat must transmit the data to the DSNComms requirements#

Jonathan

OV-1

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Launch with Mars 2020Separate from Mars 2020Arrive at Mars SOIJohnRelease impactorImpactor collides ~1 hr before observer flybyFlyby spectrometryData transmissionData analysis

TrajectoryOverview and ManeuversSeparation from Mars 2020Initial burn Vi ~ 41.46 m/sOccurs after 4 daysAchieve Martian altitude of 30,000 kmAchieve inclination of 0 relative to Deimos orbitImpact burn Vc ~ 19 m/sat Mars SOIAchieve impact with DeimosSeparation of Observer and ImpactorObserver burn Vo ~ 75.17 m/sCauses observer to arrive an hour after impactFlyby of observerData collectionPost mission objectives

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VIDEO HERE

Zujia

Good windowOptimal caseRequired Vc over one Deimos orbital period Trajectory: Lining up with Deimos#Retrograde Hyperbolic Trajectory for maximum impact velocityOver 12 hours window available each 30 hours (Deimos orbital period) to keep Vc lowAdjustment to delay/advance arrival time can be done at initial separation

Worst caseOptimal caseSatisfactory

Deimos

Zujia

Spacecraft Architecture Overview#4U Observer ModuleSelf-contained, self-controlledADCS: star trackers, sun sensors, reaction wheelsGNC: DDORComms: transceiverC&DH: Cube ComputerEPS: solar panels, batteriesPropulsion: chemicalPayload: spectrometer2U Impactor ModuleSelf-contained, self-controlledADCS: star trackers, sun sensors, reaction wheelsGNC: cameraC&DH: NanoMind A 3200EPS: batteriesPropulsion: cold gasPayload:4 kg empty mass6U CubeSat

David

ArchitectureOverview#

Overall DimensionsImpactor DimensionsObserver Dimensions205.1x357.3x103.7 mm205.1x153.7x103.7 mm 203.7x203.7x103.7 mm

Jonathan

Payload: SpectrometerSelected Instrument: ARGUS Passive infrared spectrometerOperates in 1 m to 1.7 m rangeExtended range version goes to 2400 nm Range: 600 kmFOV: 0.15Power: 1.4 WVolume: 0.18UIntegration Time Ranges: 500 s to ~4 secondsData transmitted in 100 ms Can adjust number of scans for co-adding spectraRequirements Necessary:Must have a spectronomy range of 1.0 m to 1.63 m. Physical range of greater than 400 kmSize must be less than 2UMust make measurements in under 80 seconds

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John

Impact Design

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Average Density of plume at arrival 0.02 kg/m3

John 9-3km scan cone

Flight Systems#

StructureCustom-built aluminum framesInsulating layers for thermal containmentObserver has 0.5U modules attached to the central propulsion frameImpactor has a single frameComponents slot in individuallyProtection from 35 rads is accommodated by 0.8 mm aluminum on necessary parts#

Jonathan

PowerObserverClyde Space Deployable, Double-Sided Solar Cells5 mm Profile fits to 4U structure40 W Peak Power at Mars, 20.8 W Average Orbit PowerClyde Space FlexU CubeSat EPSUp to 12 Solar Panels98% Efficient at 5 V and 3.3 V RegulatorsClyde Space 60 Wh Battery10.4 Ah at 8.0 V to 6.4 VCustom battery protection circuitry ImpactorClyde Space FlexU CubeSat EPSUp to 12 Solar Panels98% Efficient at 5 V and 3.3 V Regulators3x Clyde Space 40 Wh Battery10.4 Ah at 8.0 V to 6.4 VCustom battery protection circuitry #

Observer Solar Panel Configuration

David

PropulsionObserverAerojet Rocketdyne 2U MPS-130Chemical Monopropellant: AF-M315EExpected Isp of 240 secondsGreen PropellantAvailable V = 229 m/sAssuming Total Spacecraft Mass: 14 kgCost SavingsSimplified range operationsReduction of thermal management

ImpactorVACCO End-Mounted 0.5U MiPS Cold-Gas Propellant: R134aIsp of 40 secondsNon-ToxicAvailable V = 39 m/s for correctionsAssuming Total Impactor Mass: 4.5 kg

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MPS-1303.5 kg Wet, 2.2 kg DryTRL: 645% more dense than hydrazineGlass transition (cannot freeze)10 cm x 10 cm x 22.4 cmGreen propellantdV = Isp g0 ln(m0/mf)GPIM Launch 2017

MiPS0.924 kg Wet, 0.501 kg DryTRL:6David

ADCSBCT XACT0.5 U3-axis controlContains Star Trackers, Reaction Wheels1-sigma cross-axis pointing error better than 8 arcsecondsPointing Accuracy: 0.003 (2 axis), 0.007 (3rd axis)Slew Rate: 10 deg/s

GNCObserverDelta-DORUtilize DSN and IRIS Comm. System on CubeSatUsed by ESA for interplanetary missions such as Mars Express

ImpactorMSSS ECAM-M50 (Camera)

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Brandon

Telecommunications#

Iris V2Antenna8x8 Tx Patch1000-62 bpsCapable of transmitting 5.16 MB in less than 10 minutesCovers 2x2 U surfaceRx patch integrated into TX board1.2 kg, 0.5U26 W at full transpondX-band transpond

Pictured Above: Iris TransponderPictured Above: 4x4 Graphical representation of Tx patch.

Sam

Command and Data HandlingCube ComputerOff-the-shelfOperating Voltage: 3.3VPC/104 Form Factor compatible with CubeSatInternal and external watchdog400 MHz processorTwo 1 MB SRAM for data storage2 GB MicroSD socketRedundant clocksHeritage from ADCS OBC on QB50 precursor satellites and DeorbitSail#ObserverImpactorNanoMind A 3200Off-the-shelfReal Time ClockOperating Voltage: 3.3V3-Axis gyroscopeOn-board temperature sensors32 MB SDRAM512 KB built-in flashTwo 64 MB NOR flashIPC-A-610 Class C assembly certification

http://www.gomspace.com/index.php?p=products-a3200David

Payload Separation:NiChrome Wire Cutter#NiChrome Wire Cutter Release MechanismCreated by Adam ThurnThe two saddles (see green in model) are only non-commercial partsDimensions: 32 x 16.5 x 11.5 mmAverage Vacuum Cut Time of Vectran200 Denier: 2.6 Seconds400 Denier: 6.2 SecondsUsed on Tether Electrodynamics Propulsion Cubesat Experiment (TEPCE)Total Cost per Unit: $166.21

David

System Engineering#

Observer Mass Budget & TRLsSubsystemComponent (Quantity)Current Best Estimate (kg)TRLContingency (%)Maximum Expected Value (kg)ADCSBCT XACT0.91950.956CommunicationIris V21.25251.5C&DHCube Computer0.07950.074 EPSClyde Space FlexU EPS0.1488100.163Clyde Space 60 Wh Battery0.4758100.523Clyde Space 2U Deployable Array (4)0.88100.88PayloadArgus 1000 IR Spectrometer0.23950.242Propulsion (Wet)Rocketdyne MPS-1303.56254.375StructureAluminum Frame (2)0.201950.211Fasteners (50)0.25950.263Radiation Shielding.2590.25Misc.Cables, Wires (20)0.1950.105Subtotal (Dry)6.8348.239Subtotal (Wet)8.2349.539

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Quantity is 1 unless stated otherwiseJonathan

Impactor Mass Budget & TRLsSubsystemComponent (Quantity)Current Best Estimate (kg)TRLContingency (%)Maximum Expected Value (kg)ADCSBCT XACT0.91950.956C&DHNanoMind A32000.0146250.018EPSClyde Space FlexU EPS0.1488100.163Clyde Space 40Wh Battery (3)0.9548101.05GNCMSSS ECAM-M500.2567200.307Propulsion (Wet)VACCO End-Mounted MiPS0.9246301.201StructureAluminum Frame0.617950.648Fasteners (25)0.125950.131Radiation Shielding0.150.15Misc.Cables, Wires (10)0.05950.053Subtotal (Dry)3.7254.252Subtotal (Wet)4.1484.675 Maximum Expected Total Dry Mass (kg)12.491 Maximum Expected Total Wet Mass (kg)14.214

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Jonathan

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Observer Power BudgetSolar panels will provide enough power for majority of modesBattery will be fully charged from Earth and will be used during Downlink Mode2726.066021.5125.6952.51

David

Impactor Power Budget#Impactor Power BudgetAverage Component Estimated DrawSubsystemCBE Power (W)Contingency (%)MEV Power (W)Structure and Mechanisms0.000.200.00Thermal Control0.000.200.00Power (inc. harness)0.000.100.00On-Board Processing0.550.050.585Attitude Determination and Control2.000.152.30Propulsion10.000.0510.5Guidance and Navigation Control2.000.152.3Total Power14.5515.68

Only one Mode120 Wh battery will allow for multiple maneuvers since propulsion will only use power for minutes at a timeBattery will be fully charged from Earth

David

Telecom Link Budget, Data Volume and Return Strategy#

Utilize 8x8 Tx PatchOpposition: 1000 bpsConjunction: 62 bpsTotal Data Accumulated:5.16 MBEntire end of life utilized to transmit dataAt peak rate, ~10 minutes.

Sam

Thermal Energy Balance and ManagementObserver + ImpactorObserverImpactor = absorbed 0.920.920.92 = emitted 0.850.850.79So = Earth Solar Flux137013701370So = Mars Solar Flux608.9608.9608.9A=Area absorbed0.060.040.04Ar=Area emitted0.220.20.1 = constant5.67E-85.67E-85.67E-8Watts (min)25.6925.69.55Watts (max)265214.55Watts (heater)0100Earth cruise37.65199138Mars cruise 0.470100687811.49890-8.67Mars full power0.826796394423.3843416.45723844

Q e = ArTr^4Qa = SoAcos()+Watts+heater

ConfigMax Tolerable Temperature (C)PartMin Tolerable Temperature (C)PartObserver + Impactor40Argus Spectrometer5Rocketdyne MPS-130Observer40Argus Spectrometer5Rocketdyne MPS-130Impactor40Clyde Space Battery-10VACCO End-Mounted MiPS

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John

Radiation ShieldingADIOS will experience approximately 35 rads during its missionCalculated from Curiosity measurementsAn adequate amount of aluminum shielding will be applied to protect vital components0.8 mm thick400 gReduces radiation by 90% 3.15 rads

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John

Risk Identification & Mitigation

Damage to key systems from Radiation All components have radiation hardening for mission time or are otherwise insulated. Trajectory Mishap33% extra fuel for course correctionsCommunication directly back to earth possible Impactor Fails SeparationSurface SpectrometryRedundant release systemPlume Size FailurePlume is adjusted to be larger than needed by having a heavy 4 kg impactor.Power failureContingency 12% for peak power requirements Temperature failureSpacecraft passively maintains correct temperature ranges

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Zujia

Management, Schedule, Cost#

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Stpehen

Program Schedule

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Brandon

Cost Estimate#Total Project Cost$3,783,955With Contingency$3,947,944

Stephen

Cost: Personnel#

$601,955$173,363$669,794

Make sure to mention what the number in the middle of each graph is! (Total sum over 5 years of that component)Stephen

Cost: Equipment#

1718192021

Year of Purchase

Make sure to mention what the number in the middle of each graph is! (Total sum over 5 years of that component)Stephen

Cost: Other Direct#

$100,000$5,000$401,877$31,480$12,949

Make sure to mention what the number in the middle of each graph is! (Total sum over 5 years of that component)Stephen

Descope OptionsUse MRO or future spacecraft to do spectronomySaves $49,000 for Argus and no longer need separate impactor Have impactor be unguidedSaves $200,000 in...