final kewanna downtown revitalization plan

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K K DOWNTOWN REVITALIZATION PLAN Kewanna, Indiana Prepared by: © Diane Tesler

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Page 1: Final Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan

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Downtown Revitalization PlanKewanna, Indiana

Prepared by:© Diane Tesler

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Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 3

table of ContentsAcknowledgements

Introduction

Vision & Plan Summary

Town History & Demographic Profile

Element: Site Improvements

• Existing Conditions

• Design Vision

Element: The Economy

• Retail Analysis

• Retail Strategy

Element: The Buildings

• Overview

• Recommendations

Implementation

Appendix• Funding Sources

• Brownfield Study

• Retail Analysis Tables

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“American Gothic” © Diane Tesler

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Acknowledgements

“Oasis” © Diane Tesler

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Besides the enthusiastic participation of local leaders and business owners,

many people provided time, talent and effort that must be acknowledged.

Our work has been much enlightened and enriched through their input. We

extend our heartfelt thanks to the following:

Kewanna Town CouncilCouncil President Mark Smith

Councilman Dan Birge

Councilman Joe Hott

Town of KewannaClerk-Treasurer Jenny Kay

The Kewanna community had tremendous participation during focus groups

and public meetings. We thank the following for attending and appreciate

the information, opinions and knowledge shared:

Jeff Finke Mike Mihalik Diane SporeKathy Hobbs Vickie Molitor Diane TeslerTerry Lee Tony Pesaresi Daniel BatesSusan Mahoney Charlie RudeKate Flanagan Lindsey Kozubik

FundingThis report was prepared with grant funding from the Indiana Office of

Community and Rural Affairs (OCRA) using the Community Development

Block Grant (CDBG) program. Local Match Funds were provided by the

community.

ConsultantsFrom Strategic Development Group:

Scott Burgins

Claire Linnemeier

From Architecture Trio, Inc.:

Patricia Jacobs

Sam Miller

From Rundell Ernstberger Associates, LLC:

Eric Ernstberger

Cecil Penland

Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 5

aCknowleDgements

Kewanna Town Council Public Hearing and Adoption: 9/4/14

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Introduction

“Explorers” © Diane Tesler

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PurPosE oF THE PlAnKewanna is a town of about 613 people on the western edge of Fulton County.

Changes in the railroad system that runs through the town and changes in the

agricultural community that those trains served has altered the community.

The population has declined and many downtown buildings are empty and

need repair. Like other small, rural communities in Indiana, Kewanna will have to

reinvent itself for the future. But the most important work in Kewanna’s downtown

revitalization plan will happen long before the facades are restored or new

businesses open.

Instead, the most crucial step is for the community to take a leading role in

shaping its future. The Town of Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Study is the next

step toward re-energizing the town and fulfilling its potential.

FunDInGThis report was prepared with grant funding from the Indiana Office of Community

and Rural Affairs (OCRA) using the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG)

program. Local Match Funds were provided by the community.

sTuDY ArEA Downtown is integrated into the whole of Kewanna’s economy, but for this study

it was treated as a separate entity. The study Area Map on page 9 illustrates the

boundaries, which start at SR 17 and Main Street, and go one block west of SR 17,

two blocks east of SR 17, and one block north and south of Main Street.

intRoDuCtion

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PlAnnInG ProCEss A steering committee of town leaders and residents oversaw the planning process.

Acting as advisors and staff for the committee were representatives from Strategic

Development Group, ARCHitecture Trio and Rundell Ernstberger Associates.

Throughout the process, the committee met with the consultants to review research

and provide local input.

There were also numerous site visits to assess buildings and visualize new public

spaces. Other research included interviews with business owners, city utility workers

and building owners.

A series of focus groups was held to present preliminary ideas and gather local

suggestions and a public meeting was held to present final ideas.

ProJECT WEBsITEA website - www.sdg.us/downtownkewanna - was used to post summaries of

steering committee meetings as well as draft chapters of the plan.

nEXT sTEPsThis plan details goals for revitalizing the community and strategies to complete

those tasks. It is a comprehensive approach, including projects for streets,

sidewalks, building facades and business recruitment.

The plan itself is only the first step; local participation is absolutely vital to making it

a success. To make sure everyone is starting from the same place with the same

goals, the first step should be reviewing this plan with project volunteers. Every six

months or so, these volunteers should meet with elected officials to update the plan

and make sure its goals and strategies are current. It would be a poor use of the

resources poured into creating a plan to let it slowly grow outdated, while the need

for current planning does not.

intRoDuCtion

“Backyards” © Diane Tesler

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stuDy aRea maP

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Vision & Plan summary

“Solar Power” © Diane Tesler

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Kewanna is at a tipping point.

On one end downtown has abandoned buildings, crumbling sidewalks and few

outside visitors. On the other end, it has recently experienced a boom in invest-

ment, both by local companies and residents. These entrepreneurs have proven

themselves willing to buy and remodel buildings to launch new enterprises.

So, which way will Kewanna tip in the future?

The momentum is on the side of growth, but it will take sustained effort and public

investment to support the ongoing activity and encourage new growth. The

energy and commitment already present in town combined with the strategies

and recommendations laid out in this plan will go a long way toward Kewanna’s

revitalization.

Town AssetsThere has been renewed interested in downtown, and local leaders started this

planning process to capitalize on that interest. Some residents are leading the way

by investing in downtown.

A discussion about town assets quickly centered on Diane Tesler, a nationally known

artist and teacher who moved to Kewanna and bought and restored some local

buildings, including the 1889 Odd Fellows Lodge.

She hosts an annual art fair and has attracted other artists to move to the

community. Tesler has purchased three homes, one downtown building (her artist

studio) and the former lodge.

The Fulton Economic Development Corp. (FEDCO) is another key stakeholder

downtown. The group is committed to making the town’s abandoned buildings

available for reuse. They have an interest in 105,107 and 109 E. Main Street.

Owners of Winamac Coil have reopened the town’s diner, because they believe

the town should have one. The company, one of three local manufacturers,

employs 200 people with three shifts. Hobbs Fabrications is going to reopen the gas

station and put in a small convenience store.

Other assets and opportunities include the Kibitzer, a local bar that is well run

with good food, a fabulous Carnegie library, a bank, post office, a food pantry,

a local farm co-op, and the celebrated Kewanna-Union Township Volunteer Fire

Department.

Local events include the Kewanna Fall Festival. It is largely sponsored by Winamac

Coil and has a circus, vendors, rides, parades, garden tractor pulls, mush ball

tournament and more.

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vision & Plan summaRy

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local ChallengesThe biggest challenge will be reversing economic stagnation downtown.

Fortunately, as mentioned, there are some very exciting projects underway. The

town would like to improve its streets, sidewalks, and lighting to make the core safer

and to complement improvements that owners are making to their buildings.

There is also a need to create an active Main Street organization to pursue

state grants. Perhaps one of the biggest challenges to long-term economic

development is the shortage of actual stable building stock. There is a very limited

supply of commercial buildings in town; new structures (and infill) might be needed

to accommodate all of the future plans.

Vision for Downtown KewannaLocal leaders have clear-eyed expectations for what can likely be accomplished

downtown in the short- and mid-term. Rather than a grand – and perhaps

unobtainable– image, their vision is for an incremental, sustained effort where one

success builds upon the next. The strategy can be shown in overlapping stages:

• Work with partners to restore key buildings so they can be used.

• Improve the sidewalks, streets and other infrastructure to announce that

Kewanna is serious about investing in its downtown.

• Market the available space and improvements to attract new businesses.

• Use signage, new gateways and partnerships with other communities in the

region to lure tourists.

As simple as this vision sounds, it offers Kewanna the best chance for restoring its

central business district. Confident that local leaders can achieve the short- and

mid-term goals explained in the Recommendations Chapter, the report also offers

suggestions on a few more ambitious, long-term projects.

One is for development of multi-use trails that connect the town to nearby commu-

nities and lake-oriented developments such as Rochester, Lake Bruce, Winamac,

Tippecanoe River State Park, Bass Lake, Lake Maxinkuckee, Culver, Logansport, and

Warsaw.

The other “bold idea” builds on the branding and the excitement surrounding lo-

cal and visiting artists, and those visiting Diane Tesler’s studio, gallery and art classes.

This project would convert the underutilized storefront at 114 E. Main Street into a

destination classic car experience. Essentially, the space, as well as the adjacent

Minix Building to the east, and the adjacent parking to the west, would be recondi-

tioned to house the following:

• A dinner theater where special auto/vehicle-related programming is featured.

• A classic car lease and rental where classic cars are transformed into dazzling

mobile art by the community.

• A destination dining experience where guests are served in actual autos and

on car seats.

• A gallery space exhibiting painting, sculpture, carving, etc., all related to cars

The rest of this section summarizes other chapters of the report.

vision & Plan summaRy

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vision & Plan summaRyTown History and Demographic ProfileDuring its golden age, downtown was full of businesses, such as a theater, pool hall

and hardware store. At one point there were three groceries. In its heyday, a rail

line regularly served the community, but that service has long since discontinued.

A more recent impact on the community was the closing of Kewanna’s local

schools in the mid-1980s. This event created an exodus from town and an overall

decline in businesses. Though a few stores and the library remain on Main Street, it is

no longer a vibrant town center.

These changes are reflected in Kewanna’s statistics. For example, the town had a

population high of 728 people in 1910. The number of residents fluctuated for de-

cades before hitting another peak of 711 in the ‘80s and then dropping to about

540. It has grown slowly and sporadically since then.

The town’s rural and somewhat isolated location influence its economy. For exam-

ple, the average household income and educational attainment levels are below

the Indiana average.

report structureBecause a successful downtown has many moving parts, the planning process de-

tails strategies for three key elements of the revitalization process:

• Element: Site Improvements - What sort of ‘curb appeal’ does downtown

have? Is it pedestrian friendly? Do gateways make it clear when a visitor has

arrived downtown?

• Element: The Economy - Is downtown an economic engine for the communi-

ty? How much money do local people spend outside downtown? How much

of that leaked money can be recaptured?

• Element: The Buildings - What buildings are essential to downtown’s charac-

ter? Could previous remodeling effots be undone to restore the original charm

of some structures?

Element: site ImprovementsAddressing sidewalks, curbs and other infrastructure problems was the number 1

priority of the steering committee. Highlights of this chapter include:

• Roads and concrete sidewalks along Main and other downtown streets are

generally in fair to poor condition. The repeated overlay of asphalt on Main

Street’s surface has resulted in the loss of any grade separation between

the sidewalks and roadway.

• Many of the town’s historic buildings have been demolished and many of

those remaining are in need of repair. Currently, no one lives in the down-

town buildings.

• Other than a picnic table outside the Carnegie Library and the seating at

the pocket park, no downtown benches are provided. Litter receptables

are not provided.

• Small planters are located sporadically throughout downtown and no

street trees are present along Main Street.

• Lighting throughout Kewanna is limited. The only street lights provided oc-

cur downtown along Main Street.

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• While some of downtown signage is successul, other signs detract from the

overall appearance of downtown and should be updated.

• Neighborhoods surround the downtown and appear stable with structures

varying in condition from excellent to poor.

• Multiple underground storage tanks are present in Kewanna. Of these, one

is noted as leaking and one brownfield has been identified downtown.

• To attract additional visitors, stabilize, and even grow the community,

future efforts should be focused on improvements to the downtown’s

infrastructure, buildings, physical appearance, and gathering and infill

opportunities. Additionally, improved gateways, branding, and connections

into the community will help boost interest in the town.

Element: The EconomyRetail and service options have shrunk over the years and so the town faces the

challenges of slowly rebuilding its central business district. Highlights of this chapter

include:

• The region’s population has a high concentration of residents over age 45.

They make up 46 percent of the 9-mile radius’ population.

• Within the 5-mile trade area, the median household income is estimated

to be $39,085, which is projected to drop to $32,317 in 2019 – a 17 percent

decrease.

• About 780 cars drive through Kewanna’s downtown daily, although that

number has dropped off over the years.

• In an example from Kewanna’s 5-mile radius area, consumers spent

$431,240 at sporting goods, hobby, book and music stores, but area stores

only earned $12,524 from selling these materials. Thus, local people spent

the vast majority of their hobby dollars, $418,716, outside the trade area.

• Downtown Kewanna is capturing very little of the money spent by residents

because it has so few retail stores.

• Kewanna has a relatively small population pool of residents/customers.

Population growth is not predicted to change much over the next 5 or so

years. As a result of lost population and other economic factors, most retail

and services businesses have closed downtown.

• The biggest challenges to revitalizing the local economy are making the

best use of available buildings, recruiting new businesses and attract

tourists.

• It’s early in Kewanna’s revitalization efforts so it is important to manage

expectations and to prepare a long-term strategy. It took decades for

downtown to lose its vitality and it will take years to recapture it. But

even this early in the process, the town is still a shining example of what a

community can do, such as Winamac Coil’s, FEDCO’s and Diane Tesler’s

investments.

vision & Plan summaRy

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Element: The BuildingsThe existing building stock of downtown Kewanna is in fair to poor condition with

good examples of 19th and early 20th century architecture. Highlights of this

chapter include:

• Some original storefronts have been lost to later alterations. In addition,

several original storefronts remain although they are in poor condition.

• Field observations indicate that much of the original materials may be

salvageable, particularly in four of the buildings included in the section on

architectural recommendations.

• As is common in many small towns, demolition has taken its toll. Some

new construction from the mid-Twentieth Century has replaced original

building stock. Careful consideration should be given to respect defining

architectural features, preserving remaining historic character and to the

replacement of obtrusive elements.

• Five local buildings were identified by local leaders as the top priority for

renovation:

• 120 E. Main Street

• 114 E. Main Street

• 219 1/2 E. Main Street

• 109 E. Main Street

• 113 E. Main Street

• The Architectural Recommendation section provides a photograph of existing

conditions and a proposed design concept for improvements to each of the

five buildings.

ImplementationKewanna’s long-term goals are clear and widely shared: restore downtown’s

vibrancy and attract new residents and visitors.

The Implementation Chapter explains how these goal interact and what needs to

be done to accomplish them. It gives both broad strategies and specific steps.

This chapter provides years’ worth of suggestions for projects, and it can be

overwhelming to think about undertaking them all. The key points are that

revitalization requires three main areas: physical design, buildings and economic

development – and that it’s the integration of these elements that will result in the

town’s greatest chance of success.

With leadership and perseverance, this plan will be a tool to guide public and

private investment over the next 15 to 20 years and to secure additional grants and

funding from various sources.

vision & Plan summaRy

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Town History & Demographic Profile

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Kewanna was founded in 1845 by three families, the Toners, the Troutmans, and a

family whose name is unknown. The families decided to create the town along an

existing northern Indiana railroad line. They chose Kewanna’s location on that line

because they liked a small grove of trees in the area. Originally named “Pleasant

Grove” due to the trees, and later “Pinhook,” the town adopted the name “Ke-

wanna” in 1871 after Kee-waw-nee, a member of the Potawatomi Native Ameri-

can tribe, who lived in modern-day Fulton County until 1837.

At present, Kewanna is home to a few manufacturing companies, such as Wi-

namac Coil Spring and Kewanna Metal Specialties. In the past, though, Kewanna

had a vibrant, thriving economy based around multiple industries. From before the

town’s founding, Mr. Toner raised cattle, and supplied the Union Army with beef

during the Civil War. He also ran a brick factory, which produced the bricks that

built Kewanna’s main buildings and hotel.

Kewanna also attracted outside investment, such as a large Heinz Company pick-

le factory (which shut down in the 1920s or 1930s) and a manufacturing plant run

by Hart Schaffner Marx, an upscale clothing company.

Furthermore, Kewanna was the home of a major railroad switch, which two rail-

road companies used for transporting goods across the country, and so was home

to many railroad workers. The town also gained business from traveling railroad

employees, who would stop in Kewanna before switching their trains over to an-

other set of tracks.

Besides these industries, Kewanna served tourists and individuals with property on

Lake Bruce, on the northwest side of Union Township. While the area is still home

to many small cottages, which draw in tourists and retirees, Lake Bruce also had

multiple hotels and an amusement park with a water slide. Kewanna, as one of the

closest towns to the lake, was able to supply these individuals with food, clothing,

and entertainment.

Within the last 30 or 40 years, Kewanna has seen a decline in population and indus-

try for multiple reasons. Major manufacturers, including the textile industry, left Ke-

wanna as a result of the removal of tariffs on imports of their supplies and products.

They found it both difficult to compete with cheaper foreign goods and more cost-

effective to relocate outside of the United States themselves, since they would not

be subject to high import taxes.

Also in the 1970s, Kewanna lost its train switch for its two railroad lines; the railroad

companies decided to move the switch to Middletown, Ohio, and relocated

their workers there. Finally, in the late 1980s, Union Township’s trustee decided to

close Kewanna’s schools, and transfer Kewanna students to other schools in Ful-

ton County. After the schools consolidated in this manner, fewer individuals had

reason to come to Kewanna, either for shopping or church, leading to a closing of

restaurants, barbershops, and grocery stores. Indeed, Charlie Rude, director of the

Kewanna Union Township Public Library, cites the school closures as the event with

the greatest negative impact on Kewanna’s commercial spaces, followed by the

railroads’ movement to Middletown, Ohio.

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town HistoRy & DemogRaPHiC PRofile

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Introduction Demographic reports can be useful tools in helping elected officials, community

leaders, and ordinary citizens make informed decisions and craft policies. While

these reports provide only a limited snapshot of communities, the information

provided is instrumental in the decision-making process. As Kewanna works

towards solutions in the community, the trajectory of population growth, age,

income distribution, and poverty statistics can provide necessary information.

The majority of the demographic data available to Kewanna comes from the

U.S. Census Bureau. The Census Bureau conducts the official population census

of the United States, the decennial census, every ten years. The 2010 Census, the

most recent one conducted, collected information on population, race, age,

relationship status, and housing. All other statistical information including income,

poverty, educational attainment, employment, etc. is now estimated through the

American Community Survey, which releases information in one-, three-, and five-

year estimates as a compilation from multiple surveys.

Additional sources utilized in this section include the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics,

the Indiana Department of Education, and the Indiana Business Research Center.

In some instances, information specifically on Kewanna was unavailable; in such

cases, information on Union Township or Fulton County, or both, was used instead.

In every instance, the most current and specific data available were used.

PopulationAccording to the most current Census data available, there are approximately

584 people residing in the town of Kewanna. According the graph below, the

town’s population has decreased slightly from the 2010 Census, but is not overly

small considering Kewanna’s population range over the last twenty years. The

larger areas of Union Township and Fulton County have also experienced slight

drops in population over the last few years, as shown on the following page.

town HistoRy & DemogRaPHiC PRofile

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town HistoRy & DemogRaPHiC PRofile

Source: Indiana Business Research Center Source: Indiana Business Research Center

Source: Indiana Business Research Center

The larger areas of Union Township and Fulton County have also experienced

slight drops in population over the last few years, as shown above.

Information on Kewanna’s future population growth is not available, but the In-

diana Business Research Center predicts that Fulton County’s population will in-

crease over the next 15 years to 21,130 people, before decreasing afterwards. This

is opposite of the state of Indiana, which the Indiana Business Research Center

expects will have an increasing population for the next four decades.

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AgeThe age distribution in a geographic area has important effects on both the local

economy and the community structure. Figure 5 shows the age distribution of the

population in Indiana (light green) compared to the age distribution in Kewanna (dark

green). This graph reveals that Kewanna’s age distribution is fairly in line with Indiana’s,

except for a higher concentration of the population in the 35-44-year-old age group

and a significantly lower concentration in the 25-34-year-old age group. Additionally,

Kewanna has a slightly smaller percentage of its population between the “working” ages

of 15 to 65, 65 percent, compared to Indiana, 66 percent. Kewanna’s median age, at

38.7 is slightly higher than Indiana’s median age, 37.0. However, the town’s median age

decreased between 2000 and 2010, while the county’s and state’s have increased over

the last twenty years.

Figure 6: Median Age (Years)Year Kewanna Fulton County Indiana1990 N/A 35.3 32.82000 39.0 37.9 35.22010 35.2 40.3 37.0

Educational AttainmentFigure 7 below shows educational attainment comparisons of populations 25 years

and older in Kewanna, Fulton County, and Indiana as a whole. The graph shows

that the percentage of Kewanna’s population with at least a high school diploma

(including equivalency), 73 percent, is lower than Fulton County’s and Indiana’s

percentages of 85 percent and 87 percent, respectively. Notably, Kewanna has a

significantly larger percentage of residents completing 9th to 12th grade without

receiving a diploma, 23 percent, than the county (10.6%) and state (8.8%).

town HistoRy & DemogRaPHiC PRofile

Source:2008-2012 ACS 5-Year Estimates

Source:2008-2012 ACS 5-Year Estimates

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PovertyPoverty rates track the percentage of individuals who are at or below the poverty

threshold (or poverty line). The poverty threshold is an income amount determined

by the U.S. Census Bureau to be necessary for a family of a given size to meet its

basic needs. While adjustments are made according to the size and age of family

members, the same thresholds are used throughout the United States and do not

vary geographically. This means that the thresholds do not take differences in the

cost of living between different regions into account, resulting in potential over- or

under-estimation of the number of people living in poverty in a given area.

Figure 8 to the right shows comparisons between the percentage of individuals

living below the poverty threshold at various age ranges in Kewanna, Fulton

County, and Indiana. The chart reveals that a large percentage of individuals

under 18 years of age in Kewanna, 36 percent, are living below the poverty

level. This is larger than Fulton County (19.8%) and Indiana as a whole (20.9%).

Additionally, Kewanna has a higher percentage of its population aged 18 to 64

living in poverty.

town HistoRy & DemogRaPHiC PRofile

Source:2008-2012 ACS 5-Year Estimates

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IncomeFigure 9 below describes the income distribution of Kewanna’s households (defined by the

Census Bureau as groups of individuals sharing a dwelling, whether they are related or not). The

Census Bureau includes all types of income in its calculations, including government payments.

The majority of Kewanna’s households (96%) make under $100,000 per year, with roughly

equal proportions making between $25,000 and $34,999, $35,000 and $49,999, and $50,000

and $74,999 annually. 55 percent of Kewanna households fall into one of these three income

brackets. Additionally, 22 percent of households in Kewanna make between $15,000 and

$24,999 per year. Kewanna’s median household income is $27,500.

town HistoRy & DemogRaPHiC PRofile

Source:2008-2012 ACS 5-Year Estimates

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Source:2008-2012 ACS 5-Year Estimates and Indiana Business Research Center

Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 23K

EmploymentEmployment status is an important determinant for an area’s possible future

economic development and expansion. Within the Kewanna civilian labor

force, 45 percent of the population is not in the labor force, while 48 percent

are currently employed and 7 percent are unemployed.

Median Earnings by Industry is also an important determinant for an area’s

future economic development. In Kewanna, the median earnings are lower

than the state’s in most categories except for Transportation, warehousing,

and utilities, in which the state median earning is $42,183 and the Kewanna

median earning is $48,750.

town HistoRy & DemogRaPHiC PRofile

Source:2008-2012 ACS 5-Year Estimates

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CommutingThe mean commute time for Kewanna residents is nearly 25 minutes.

Additionally, data is unavailable to determine how many Kewanna residents

work in the town of Kewanna, but employment data for the Fulton County

indicates that a clear majority, 74 percent work in Fulton County. This likely

means that most Kewanna residents do as well.

Figure 12: Commuting DataMean Travel Time to Work (minutes) 24.8Percent of Population Working in Fulton County 74.3%Percent of Population Working Outside Fulton County 25.2%Percent of Population Working Outside Indiana 0.5%

HousingFigure 12 to the right details homeowner and rental vacancy rates for Fulton

County and Indiana. These rates were not available for Kewanna. However,

one can glean from the county rates that a similar rate is present in Kewanna.

Vacancy rates are important indicators for a community because they can

inform decision makers about the housing needs of a community. Kewanna’s

overall vacancy rate is 15 percent compared to 13 percent in Fulton County

and 11 percent in Indiana.

Housing ValuesAs shown in Figure 14 to the right, Kewanna has the highest percentage of

homes valued between $50,000 and $100,000 when compared to the county

and state. After that value range, Kewanna’s distribution drops sharply.

2.5

8.8

1.8

4.2

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Indiana Fulton County

Figure 13: Vacancy Rates

Homeowner

Rental

Source:2008-2012 ACS 5-Year Estimates

35.3%

60.1%

3.3%1.3%

0.0%

10.0%

20.0%

30.0%

40.0%

50.0%

60.0%

70.0%

Less than$50,000

$50,000 to$99,999

$100,000 to$149,999

$150,000 to$199,999

$200,000 to$299,999

$300,000 to$499,999

$500,000 to$999,999

$1,000,000or more

Figure 14: Housing Value Distribution

Kewanna

Fulton County

Indiana

Source:2008-2012 ACS 5-Year Estimates

town HistoRy & DemogRaPHiC PRofile

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Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 25K

Housing Tenure

Housing tenure refers to the perentage of a community’s housing stock that is either

owner or renter-occupied. In Kewanna (as shown in Figure 15), the percentage of

owner-occupied housing units is slightly lower, at 69 percent, than Fulton County’s,

at 74 percent. Conversely, Kewanna’s percentage of renter-occupied units is higher

than both the county and the state at 31 percent.

This indicates that Kewanna has more renters than owners than the county and

state and is an important factor to consider when making future housing decisions

within the community.

Source:2008-2012 ACS 5-Year Estimates

68.9%73.5%

70.6%

31.1%26.5%

29.4%

0.0%

10.0%

20.0%

30.0%

40.0%

50.0%

60.0%

70.0%

80.0%

Kewanna Fulton County Indiana

Figure 15: Housing Tenure

Owner-Occupied

Renter-Occupied

town HistoRy & DemogRaPHiC PRofile

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26 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization PlanK

Element: site Improvements• Existing Conditions• Design Vision

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Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 27

Streets and Traffic PatternsThe Town of Kewanna can trace its current physical configuration back to the

development of the railroad that once traveled north and south through the eastern edge

of the town, the site of present day Railroad Street. The town developed west from this

location, siting buildings and streets in a grid pattern toward Logan Street, SR 17, on the

west.

The primary street connecting the former railroad and SR 17 is Main Street. This corridor

serves as the commercial core and “downtown” of the community. North and south of

Main Street, residential neighborhoods continue for approximately four blocks in each

direction and some industry is located on the east, west, and north edges of the town’s

corporate limits.

Other than SR 17, Main Street is the most heavily traveled corridor through town. Although

mostly local traffic, large trucks can often be found on Main Street as they travel to one of

the local industries. It has been noted that an alternate truck route may be appropriate

to minimize large trucks through downtown. Main Street is comprised of two travel lanes,

one in each direction, with on-street parking occurring throughout. Between Logan Street

(SR 17) and Smith Street, parking on the south side is angle parking and parking on the

north side is parallel parking. Other than this two block stretch of Main, all other parking

is parallel parking. Concrete sidewalks along Main Street are generally in fair to poor

condition. The repeated overlay of asphalt on Main Street’s surface has resulted in the

loss of any grade separation between the walks and roadway. In many instances, the

sidewalks are below or level with the elevation of the street.

K

site imPRovements: existing ConDitions

Railroad Street

Main Street Looking West

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stReets anD tRaffiC PatteRns maP

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Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 29K

The asphalt surface along Main can also be characterized as in fair to poor

condition. As referenced above, multiple asphalt overlays on the roadway

may require that future improvements consist of milling and reconstruction to

reestablish appropriate drainage and more traditional street cross sections.

Currently, stormwater drains to low points at intersections where storm inlets occur.

Although not confirmed, it is also a strong possibility that the original brick street

still exists beneath the asphalt pavement, which could be important to consider

as improvements are investigated. Brick roads are considered desirable to many

communities because of their aesthetic appeal, durability, and ability to calm

traffic.

Logan Street, or SR 17, is the most heavily traveled corridor through Kewanna

and connects Logansport on the south to SR 14 and the communities of Culver

and Plymouth north of SR 14. According to INDOT traffic counts, an average

of approximately 800 vehicles pass through Kewanna on a daily basis via SR

17. As this traffic must stop at the intersection of Main and Logan Streets, there

is an opportunity to encourage some of this traffic to travel immediately east to

downtown, rather than through town and to the north or south.

Through Kewanna, SR 17 is comprised of two travel lanes, one headed north and

one south. The asphalt is in relatively poor condition and curbs are deteriorated

or non-existent. South of Main Street, large tree lawns separate the road from

adjacent concrete sidewalks. The sidewalks are narrow, in poor condition, and

large stretches exist where sidewalks have been removed or were never installed.

site imPRovements: existing ConDitions

Main Street Sidewalk & Road

Main Street Drainage

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30 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization PlanK

At Main Street, SR 17 jogs west before heading north out of town. North of Main

Street, sidewalks adjacent to the roadway are sporadic. Residential lawns lie

immediately adjacent to the roadway and there is no prominent gateway into

Kewanna from the north. INDOT has improvements scheduled for SR 17 beginning

in 2015 that would improve the roadway from SR 16 to SR 14. Consisting primarily

of asphalt improvements, the town should work to coordinate with INDOT and

investigate what options might be available for making improvements through

town.

Residential streets throughout Kewanna are similar in nature. They are

characterized by two travel lanes heading north/south or east/west depending

on their orientation and they generally have sporadic sidewalks separated by tree

lawns containing mature shade trees.

These trees add to the street appeal of the neighborhoods and have been noted

as an asset by the community. There is a need, however, for a tree inventory within

the community to identify those in need of selective trimming and/or removal

to reduce any liability. Curbs along streets are not present or are dilapidated,

allowing parking to occur without much order. Storm drains are generally located

at intersections where low points occur.

site imPRovements: existing ConDitions

SR 17 Looking South SR 17 Looking North

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31 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan

Downtown usesAn active commercial district during its peak, Kewanna’s downtown is underutilized

today as a result of social and economic changes and, specifically, the loss of the

railroad. Many of the town’s historic buildings have been demolished and many

of those remaining are in need of repair. Currently, no one lives in the downtown

buildings. Although much smaller than the inventory of businesses that originally

occupied the downtown, several businesses are still located there that provide

stability and hope for the future of the downtown. Although not an exhaustive

list, some of the businesses include: a bank, post office, bar/restaurant, café,

hardware store, an auto parts store, funeral home, and an artist’s studio. For the

vast majority of service and shipping needs, the people of Kewanna travel outside

of the community. Additionally, work is underway to reopen a gas station, which

will house a convenience store, and to open a small grocery store. Futhermore,

local citizens have taken an interest in the historic building stock and are working

to renovate and repurpose some of the existing buildings into commercial space

once again.

The local Carnegie Library, which is prominently sited on Main Street, recently

received substantial renovations and is actively used by the community.

Momentum and energy is apparent in the downtown.

Looking forward, as the town begins to redevelop and existing buildings are

stabilized, renovated, and occupied, several open spaces are available in the

downtown that could accommodate future infill.

Adjacent neighborhoodsResidential neighborhoods surround the downtown on all sides. Although some

ornate, mid-19th century homes are located near the downtown, the surrounding

neighborhoods are predominately comprised of early to mid-20th century homes.

Neighborhoods appear stable with structures varying in condition from excellent to

poor.

Adding to the aesthetic

of the neighborhoods are

mature trees that line the

streets and are scattered

throughout the properties.

Generally lacking, however,

are street lights, curbs,

connected sidewalks, and

crosswalks.

K

site imPRovements: existing ConDitions

20th Century Homes

Main Street Buildings

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CultuRal featuRes maP

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Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 33K

Cultural FeaturesFor a town of its size, Kewanna offers several cultural amenities. Perhaps one of the

most notable is the Carnegie Library. Prominently located on the north side of Main

Street, mid-block between Toner and Smith Streets, the Carnegie Library serves as

a hub of activity for the community. The facility not only offers a large book, audio,

and visual collection, but also provides internet access for local citizens, offers

affordable day care, and provides a small performance stage and auditorium.

Having recently undergone renovations and a new addition, this facility is an

important asset within the community.

Another civic and cultural asset within the community is the local fire department.

Not only is the Kewanna-Union Township Volunteer Fire Department a highly

rated organization that helps keep local insurance rates low, but the organization

sponsors local activities such as pancake breakfasts and is actively involved in

community events such as the Kewanna Fall Festival.

Additional cultural amenities within

Kewanna can be found in local

businesses such as Winamac Coil Spring,

Kewanna Metal Specialties, and others.

Not only do these companies provide

employment for the local citizenry, but

they are truly invested in the community,

helping sponsor annual events such as

the Kewanna Fall Festival. An annual

event, the Kewanna Fall Festival is a

primarily free event that has offered

activities such as circuses, parades,

carnival rides, magicians, other live

entertainment, craft booths, and food.

Additionally, local businesses are helping

support and reopen other businesses

within the community such as the local

café and gas station/convenience store.

The Kibitzer, a local bar and eatery, also

serves as a cultural asset and gathering

point for the community.

site imPRovements: existing ConDitions

The Kibitzer

Carnegie Library

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34 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization PlanK

Diane Tesler, a local artist and entrepreneur, is a major cultural asset to Kewanna.

Nationally recognized for her artwork, Diane attracts thousands of visitors annually

to Kewanna to attend one of her art shows and/or painting courses. She is strongly

invested in the community, having bought multiple structures within the town.

Diane has purchased, renovated, and established her art studio in the former Odd

Fellows Hall at the corner of Main and Logan Streets. She has also purchased the

former Masonic Lodge located on Logan Street and is in the process of renovating

it. Additionally, Diane has purchased two residences, one in which she lives, and

one which she uses to house art students during the summer. Diane’s presence

within the community over the past twenty plus years has helped to breathe new

life into the Town of Kewanna. Although not currently actively used, another cultural

asset to the community is in the former railroad station located on Railroad Street.

The only remaining artifact from the amenity that was the initial impetus to

Kewanna’s development, this structure has the potential to be repurposed into

something culturally significant.

natural FeaturesBoth a natural and cultural amenity, Kewanna’s local Union Township Park provides

a gathering place for the community. Offering amenities including a playground,

shelter, walking path, tennis court, basketball courts, and baseball field, this space

is actively used during warm weather. Annual events, including portions of the

Kewanna Fall Festival, are held within the park.

Located on the south side of Main Street across from the Carnegie Library,

and between the bank and post office, a small pocket park is sited where a

commercial building once stood. Offering plantings and a shelter, this space is

used for gathering

during the summer. This

space is too small and

confined to offer large

gathering opportunities,

and another space

downtown may be

more appropriate for

downtown gathering or

an urban/community

park.

site imPRovements: existing ConDitions

Union Township Park

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Union Township ParkKewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 35

KKK

natuRal featuRes maP

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36 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization PlanK

Although not within the town’s corporate limits, Bruce Lake is located

approximately 4.5 miles northeast of Kewanna. A lake community featuring a 290

acre spring fed lake, this area is very active during the summer. Opportunities may

exist to connect Lake Bruce to Kewanna via a multi-use trail that would allow the

two communities access to each other’s amenities. This would not only provide

additional recreational opportunities, but could spur some additional economic

development.

lightingLighting throughout Kewanna is limited. The only street lights provided occur

downtown along Main Street. The lights are a cobra head style fixture mounted

on large, twenty feet tall poles. These lights do not appear to have been recently

updated and are most likely inefficient. As improvements to the town are made,

the community would like to invest in more aesthetically appealing, efficient, and

pedestrian scale lights.

site imPRovements: existing ConDitions

Bruce Lake Existing Street Light

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Existing Street Light

Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 37K

site FurnishingsOther than a picnic table outside the Carnegie Library and the seating at the

downtown pocket park, no benches are provided. Site furnishings are limited to a

few planters scattered along Main Street. Litter receptacles are not provided.

signageSignage within Kewanna varies in size, style, and placement and includes appliques

on windows, lettering affixed to the buildings, and signs suspended from the face

of buildings. While some of the signage is successful, other signs detract from

the overall appearance of downtown and should be updated. Standards for

sign design and placement should be used to create a cleaner, more cohesive

environment.

Additionally, wayfinding signage is limited through town. While Kewanna does

have a dedicated truck route through town, semi trucks can often be found in

undesirable locations partially due to inadequate signage.

site imPRovements: existing ConDitions

Existing Planters

Existing Signage

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38 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization PlanK

PlantingsSmall planters are located sporadically throughout downtown and no street trees

are present along Main Street. The community has indicated a desire for additional

plantings and trees to help soften the appearance of downtown and provide

additional color, shade, and visual interest.

As previously mentioned, mature street trees are a common occurrence in

Kewanna’s residential neighborhoods. While these trees are an asset to the

community, a tree inventory needs to be completed in order to identify those in

need of trimming and/or removal. For those trees needing removal, additional

accommodations should be made for their replacement.

utilitiesTypical of most downtowns, Kewanna’s infrastructure is located above and below

ground and within the alley and street right-of-ways throughout the city. Utilities

within the target area include, but are not limited to: storm sewers, sanitary sewers,

water, gas, electric, and telecommunications.

Comparatively speaking, Kewanna’s downtown has fewer above ground, visible

utilities than many communities its size. This is an asset to Kewanna that improves

the aesthetic appeal of the downtown and should be maintained.

Generally, storm sewers are located within the streets and sanitary sewers within

both the alleys and streets. Storm inlets typically occur at low points in street

intersections. Recent improvements to the storm and sanitary system were

completed and are believed to be in relatively good shape.

site imPRovements: existing ConDitions

Mature Street Trees Typical utilities

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Typical utilities

Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 39K

Existing Environmental ConditionsAccording to the IndianaMap website, http://www.indianamap.org, multiple

underground storage tanks are present in Kewanna. Of these, one is noted

as leaking. Additionally, one brownfield is noted in downtown and two

NPDES facilities are located within the corporate limits. One industrial waste

site is noted immediately west of the town’s corporate limits.

As redevelopment of the downtown occurs and select buildings and/or sites

are razed/renovated/reused, it may be necessary to conduct additional

environmental assessments to identify specific hazards and remediation

procedures.

It is also worth noting that the Fulton County Economic Development

Corporation recently received a grant and is working with a local agency to

conduct environmental investigation in Fulton County facilities. This may be

an opportunity to investigate select sites within Kewanna. The areas marked

in blue are former NPDES sites.

site imPRovements: existing ConDitions

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40 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization PlanK

kewanna stReetsCaPe imPRovement Plan

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41 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization PlanK

overviewThrough a review and analysis of the existing conditions present in Kewanna’s

downtown and surrounding neighborhoods, the potential of the community begins

to reveal itself. While much of the downtown and surrounding neighborhoods

could benefit from attention to their infrastructure and physical appearance,

Kewanna currently attracts numerous visitors annually who travel to the community

for business, food, art, and the small town appeal. In an effort to attract additional

visitors, stabilize, and even grow the community, future efforts should be focused on

improvements to the downtown’s infrastructure, buildings, physical appearance,

and gathering and infill opportunities. Additionally, improved gateways, branding,

and connections into the community will help boost interest in the town.

Main street CorridorThe most important area of focus for this study is the Main Street Corridor. As

depicted in the “Streetscape Improvement Plan” and “Main Street Section/

Perspective,” initial improvements to this corridor should include milling and

resurfacing the street, new concrete curbs, sidewalks, and lighting. With these

improvements, the traditional street section will be restored allowing streets to

be lower than buildings, minimizing standing water, and prohibiting vehicles

from conflicting with pedestrians and/or buildings. In conjunction with these

improvements, new accessible curb ramps, intersection treatments with crosswalks,

on-street parking, site furnishings, and plantings should be provided.

The improved Main Street as described will be pedestrian focused but also

accommodating to vehicles. Intersection treatments may include special

pavements to act as visual warnings at all intersections and pedestrian signalization

should be considered at the intersection of Main and SR 17. These treatments will

also help calm traffic through downtown. As most of the stormwater inlets are

currently sited in or near intersections, curb extensions acting as stormwater planters

may also be appropriate and desirable. Essentially, stormwater planters are curbed

depressions within the ROW (right-of-way) containing water-loving plants and an

engineered soil mix.

Stormwater is allowed to flow into the planters where plants transpire and cleanse

the stormwater over time. During large rain events, stand pipes are provided

that allow excess water to travel into the conventional storm sewer system. These

green constructions also increase pedestrian safety by narrowing the extent of the

roadway that a pedestrian must cross. On-street parking, which is currently angled,

should be reconfigured as parallel parking. This would allow the curb line to shift

more towards the center line of the street and would allow for wider sidewalks and

amenity zones. With these wider sidewalks, outdoor vendor and display space will

make outdoor eating and commerce more accessible and achievable.

site imPRovements: Design vision

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42 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization PlanK

stReetsCaPe imPRovement Plan

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Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 43KK

While the style of the street lighting should be chosen by the community, street

lights should be visually appealing, and at a pedestrian scale similar to the image

below. Light poles should be twelve to fourteen feet tall and should light the

pedestrian pathway. LED fixtures should be strongly considered in an effort

to increase energy efficiency. Accommodations for banners should also be

considered on light poles, which allow for seasonal decoration and advertisement

of local events.

Along the Main Street corridor, new site furnishings including litter receptacles,

benches, and wayfinding signage are recommended. These items should have an

aesthetic similar to the site lighting so that a common vocabulary in appearance is

presented in the community. The furnishings should occur at regular intervals and

should be placed in a manner that does not impede pedestrian traffic.

site imPRovements: Design vision

An example of design streetscape features that are pedestrian-friendly. A stormwater planter is depicted on the left-hand side of the image.

Streetlight design examples

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44 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization PlanK

With the suggested improvements, opportunities for new plantings will occur.

These can be accommodated through cutouts in the concrete sidewalk or

through above-grade planters. Moveable urns are recommended in lieu of fixed

constructions. Additionally, many communities use the optional banner poles

present on street lights to place hanging baskets. Colorful plantings are attractive

to visitors and help to soften the appearance of the buildings and paved surfaces

found downtown. If cutouts in the concrete sidewalk are chosen, there will be an

opportunity for street trees as well. If street trees are a desirable amenity, careful

consideration should be given to the species chosen. Typically, nut or fruit bearing

trees are not desirable as they can be messy on street sidewalks, and can cause

issues with storm drainage. Additionally, trees with higher branching heights and an

upright branching pattern should be chosen to minimize the need for pruning and

to minimize conflict with pedestrians and vehicles.

site imPRovements: Design vision

Sample Litter Receptacle

Sample Complete Street

Sample Corridor Street BenchSample Wayfinding Signage

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Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 45K

Outdated Business Signage

Unattrative utility poles and street lighting focused on automobiles

Before Visual / Gateway / Landmark Opportunity

Abundance of wires in intersection are unattrative and create visual clutter

Additional vegetation would help soften downtown structures and increase apparent density

Sidewalks below elevation of street create drainage issues - No curbs are present

Vacant property creates lack of density and friendly pedestrian scale

No designated pedestrian crossings

Milling and resurfacing necessary to lower asphalt elevation below first floor elevations of buildings

site imPRovements: existing inteRseCtion of main anD logan

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imPRoveD main stReet anD s.R. 17 inteRseCtion ConCePt

After

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47 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization PlanK K

sr 17 (logan street)As it is the primary route into and out of the community, SR 17 plays an integral role

in forming a first impression of Kewanna. With that in mind, several improvements

are suggested for the corridor. Many of the improvements would be similar to the

Main Street corridor and would include milling and resurfacing of the street, new

concrete curbs, sidewalks, lighting, defined on-street parking, stormwater planters,

intersection treatments, and some new street trees. In addition, new vehicular and

pedestrian signalization would occur at the intersection of Main Street and SR 17 to

ensure safe pedestrian crossing at this key intersection.

Because SR 17 is the most heavily traveled roadway into, through, and out of

town, it should also be considered for gateway enhancements in key locations

as discussed later in this chapter. All of these suggested improvements will need

to be coordinated with INDOT. Improvements are currently planned for SR 17 in

the near future and the town should actively work with the state to make sure

the improvements enhance the town, contributing to the long term goals of the

community.

neighborhood streetsIn addition to the improvements suggested for the primary corridors through

town, improvements can also be considered for many of the local, neighborhood

streets. Improvements to these streets will enhance their walkability, help stabilize

the neighborhoods, and enhance their visual appearance. Improvements would

include milling and resurfacing of the streets where necessary, new concrete

curbs, accessible sidewalks, lighting, on-street parking, stormwater planters at

intersections, intersection treatments, and cross walks. Selective trimming, removal,

and replacement of existing street trees will also need to occur to accommodate

the improvements. Below is an example of an improved neighborhood street that

Kewanna should strive for.

site imPRovements: Design vision

An example of an improved neighborhood street

Page 48: Final Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan

Downtown ParkIn addition to the previously suggested improvements suggested along Main Street,

a new downtown park is proposed for the space between 109 E. Main Street and

113 E. Main Street. While a small pocket park does currently exist across from the

library, the space is too small to be used for larger community gatherings. This park

would be larger in scale, and would be intended to act as an urban gathering spot

where performances and events such as movies on the lawn, ice skating, poetry

reading, concerts, and small plays could occur. Individuals, groups, and families

could gather in this park to meet, socialize, throw a frisbee, read, and dine outdoors

among other activities. The intent would be for the space to be active seven days

and evenings a week, and all year round.

As depicted in the enlarged park plan, amenities within this space would include

public art, a splash pad, lawn steps, a gathering lawn, seating areas, a performance

stage, and plantings to provide shade and visual appeal. Public art attracts visitors

and attention and can take many shapes

and sizes. Whether a sculpture or some

other medium, the siting of the public art as

depicted in the enlargement would provide

a visual anchor to the park and could be

interactive. It could incorporate sound and/

or water and the art work could be switched

out regularly to maintain interest.

Immediately south of the public art, a

splash pad is depicted. This splash pad

would act as an urban plaza, and would

be comprised of water jets emerging from

the pavement surface. An attraction to

children and families during warm seasons,

the splash pad may also incorporate color

changing lighting, giving it night time

appeal. Additionally, if properly designed,

the water jets can be choreographed to

music or performances occurring on the

performance stage at the south end of the park.Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 48

K

site imPRovements: Design vision

Sample Public ArtSample Downtown Splash Pad

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site imPRovements: Design vision

49 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization PlanK K

South of the splash pad, a new, slightly recessed, gathering lawn is envisioned.

Surrounded by lawn steps on all sides that act as seats during events, the lawn

could be used for vendor space during art shows and festivals, seating during

events, or simply as a space for passive recreation. A temporary ice rink could be

erected to provide interest throughout the winter months. Surrounding the lawn,

strategically placed towers could provide lighting and sound for the park.

Flanking the gathering lawn on both the east and west sides, seating areas are

proposed that would contain tables and chairs. These areas may be used for

passive activities such as dining, reading, relaxing, and/or watching events on the

gathering lawn and/or performance stage. The site furniture should be moveable,

allowing patrons the ability to arrange the furniture as they please.

This strategy has proven to be

much more successful in urban

parks than fixed benches, tables,

and/or chairs which require

individuals to sit in a very specific

spot or position. This is not to

say, however, that benches are

inappropriate for specific locations

in parks and along streetscapes.

At the south end of the park,

on axis with the public art and

gathering lawn to the north,

a small performance stage is

recommended. This stage would

be multi-functional and could

be used for small to medium size

performances, as well as movies on

the lawn, and shelter. The stage

would offer a variety of sound and

electrical capabilities that could

accommodate bands, plays, etc.,

and would be lighted for use at night.

site imPRovements: Design vision

Sample Gathering Lawn, Steps and Movable Furniture

Sample Downtown Park Performance Stage

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Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 50K

Downtown PaRk Design ConCePt

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K

Vacant Store Front

Vacant Store Front

Vacant Space where building once stood decreases density of downtown and detracts from pedestrian scale and friendliness

Street is higher than adjacent sidewalk. No curb definition, street lights, benches, litter receptacles, or other general streetscape amenities.

Before

site imPRovements: existing PaRk loCation

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52 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization PlanKK

Downtown PaRk Design ConCePt

After

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52 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 53K

Infill OpportunitiesThe infrastructure, economic, and architectural improvements suggested within

this report will help stabilize the downtown and set the stage for new growth. As

existing buildings fill up and new buildings and spaces are needed, new building

infill may be required. If so, key parcels are highlighted in the previously referenced

Streetscape Improvement Plan that should be targeted for new infill. Perhaps the

most important of these would be the empty parcels at the northeast and northwest

corners of the intersection of Main Street and Logan Street (SR 17). Construction

of new buildings at this key intersection, as depicted in the sketch on page 32,

would greatly improve the appearance of the community upon arrival in the town

on SR 17 and would provide the most visible location for new business. Additional

potential infill locations are noted where buildings once stood. Where new infill

occurs, buildings should be designed to complement the historical character of

the downtown and the architectural recommendations following in this report.

Additionally, development should occur as it has historically, with building facades

positioned immediately adjacent to the sidewalk on Main Street.

site imPRovements: Design vision

Sample Infill Building

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54 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization PlanK

Gateways and BrandingBecause Kewanna is somewhat geographically isolated, branding and gateways are

critical to attracting visitors to the community. Essentially, a gateway is a marker that

announces arrival, or gives direction, to a place. Branding and gateways can be very

closely linked, in the way a community chooses to represent itself. Its brand should inform

the design of a gateway. Gateways can take a variety of shapes and sizes, and may

include signs, walls, artworks, archways, etc. Currently, the town has a sign near the south

side of its corporate limit on SR 17, as seen in the adjacent photo, that is acting as a gate-

way and represents the community’s current brand as a “Little Town with a Big Heart.”

While the current sign does its job to announce arrival at Kewanna, people who see the

sign are most likely already travelling to Kewanna anyway. In order to attract new visitors

to Kewanna, additional gateways may need to be sited in heavily trafficked areas where

people currently bypass Kewanna. It appears the most logical locations for gateways

involve the intersection of SR 114 and SR 17, shown

in the adjacent photo, and the intersection of SR 14

and SR 17, also shown in an adjacent photo. These

two locations offer opportunities to capture the at-

tention of travelers who might not otherwise be

aware of Kewanna. By making an announcement

of the community, its assets, and offerings, there is a

better chance of attracting additional visitors and

new residents. Additional gateways, similar to the

existing sign, are important to announce arrival in

Kewanna as well.

site imPRovements: Design vision

SR 14 & SR 17 Gateway

SR 114 & SR 17 Gateway

Existing Gateway

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In the adjacent graphics, you will see some examples of gateways that have been

designed and/or constructed in other communities, as well as a suggestion for a

new logo for the Town of Kewanna. In keeping with the theme of a “Little Town with

a Big Heart,” the logo below represents some of the local businesses, buildings, arts,

food, and citizenry that Kewanna has to offer. This logo, or one similar to it, could be

extrapolated and made part of a single gateway or series of gateways. It could also

be used on banners and in publications, etc. Ultimately, it will be up to the citizens and

leadership of the community to decide how they want to promote the town but it is an

essential part of Kewanna’s future success.

site imPRovements: Design vision

Sample Gateway - Alexandria, IN

Sample Gateway - Mooresville, INProposed SR 14 & SR 17 Gateway Signage

Branding Suggestion

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A Big Idea: Classic Art CarsBuilding on the idea of branding, one big idea is to capture the excitement surrounding

local and visiting artists, and those visiting Diane Tesler’s studio, gallery, and art classes

with a profitable venture featuring classic cars that celebrates them in a one-of-a-kind

attraction. This suggestion would target the underutilized storefront space at 114 E. Main

Street and would convert it into a destination classic car experience. Essentially, the

space, as well as the adjacent Minix Building to the east, and the adjacent parking to the

west, would be reconditioned to house the following:

• A dinner theater where special auto/vehicle related programming is featured.

• A classic car lease and rental where classic cars are transformed into dazzling

mobile art by the local community

• A destination dining experience where guests are served in actual autos and on car

seats

• A gallery space exhibiting painting, sculpture, carving, etc., all related to cars

The adjacent graphics gives a diagrammatic depiction of how these spaces may be

arranged, as well as some imagery of art cars. While nothing is a guaranteed success,

it is through unique offerings such as this that Kewanna may create a new market in the

community that could help spur new economic development and tourism.

site imPRovements: Design vision

56 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan

Sample Art Car

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Trail systemAnother possibility for attracting visitors and activity to Kewanna is through the

development of multi-use trails that connect the town to nearby communities and

lake-oriented developments such as Rochester, Lake Bruce, Winamac, Tippecanoe

River State Park, Bass Lake, Lake Maxinkuckee, Culver, Logansport, and Warsaw.

As seen in the graphic on the following page, Kewanna is already one stop as

a part of a series of “Fulton County Round Barn Cycle Routes” that leads cyclists

along scenic routes traveling along county roads and connecting to Rochester.

Current routes do not use dedicated cycle lanes or separate trail paths, and are

poorly marked. Additionally, both Rochester and Winamac have regional trails

connecting to communities to the south. Rochester’s Nickel Plate Trail connects

to Cassville in Howard County and Winamac’s Panhandle Pathway connects

to France Park just outside of Logansport. Warsaw also has a fairly extensive

trail system, but no apparent connections to Rochester or other Fulton County

communities.

Moving forward, it would be best if Kewanna and other Fulton County communities

could pool their resources to create regional, dedicated cycle lanes or dedicated

multi-modal trails for the above routes. Additional connections are shown in the

graphic on the following page. These cycle lanes or trails should be well marked,

making them attractive to individuals and families alike. These connections will

encourage travel around Fulton County and through the various communities. This

activity will encourage healthy living and will ultimately help to bolster the tourism

and economy of Kewanna and Fulton County.

site imPRovements: Design vision

Sample Urban Trail - Indianapolis Cultural Trail

Sample Greenway - Monon Trail, Indianapolis

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Regional tRail maP

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Element: The Economy• Retail Analysis• Retail Strategy

“Evening Light” © Diane Tesler

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This retail analysis is the first step toward revitalizing a town’s economy. Other steps

include determining the preferences of local residents, matching existing buildings

to new retail uses, and, of course, creating a recruitment campaign to attract new

stores.

Another key ingredient is assessing what investments the community itself (as op-

posed to the private sector) is willing to direct toward revitalization. These invest-

ments can include everything from buying property to creating ordinances.

Trade Area and Market AnalysisA study of Kewanna’s economy starts with two questions:

1. How much do local people spend on food, clothes, etc.?

2. How much do local businesses earn on sales of food, clothes, etc.?

Ideally, local businesses would receive almost all of the money that local people

spend on everyday items. In the real world, though, consumers are willing to travel

longer distances for the right sale or hard-to-get item, or because a store is conve-

nient to their commuting pattern.

Money is said to “leak” from downtown if residents spend more for goods and ser-

vices than local businesses earn. The chart to the right has a hypothetical example

showing that local shoppers in an area spent $5 million on electronic equipment in

a year, but local businesses earned only $3 million.

In other words, local consumers spent $2 million on electronic equipment that

leaked outside the trade area (people bought the items in another city, online,

etc.). A retail strategy looks at ways to recapture some of that money locally, not

just for electronic equipment but for food, clothes, dairy products, etc.

The following steps are needed to create a recruiting plan:

1. Define a retail trade area.

2. Analyze demographic and traffic patterns inside the trade area.

3. Run a gap analysis.

4. Define local market segments.

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Defining the Trade AreaThe trade area, shown in the map to the right, is a set of imaginary circles around Kewanna.

People outside the boundary are more likely to do their shopping elsewhere. People inside are

likely to head to Kewanna for at least some products and services.

The Kewanna trade area is broken up into three areas, 1 mile, 5 miles, and 9 miles from the cen-

ter of the town. People who live within 5 miles of Kewanna are likely to regularly head there for

products and services. In other words, these are the city’s core customers. People located in the

0-9 mile radius, or 1-9 miles outside of Kewanna, are also potential customers. At this distance,

people will be willing to travel to Kewanna for products and services that they cannot find near

them or that they see as a better deal.

Beyond the 9-mile radius, individuals are less likely to routinely travel to Kewanna unless there is a

regional draw. People in this region have necessary services and products closer to them. How-

ever, they might drive the distance for a restaurant, entertainment event or specialty store.

The boundaries of the trade area will change based on the type of customer, such as local

resident, daytime employee or tourist. Boundaries also depend upon the product – a Kewanna

resident wouldn’t drive 9 miles to buy a gallon of milk if they could get it closer, but they might for

a favorite restaurant. For these reasons the boundaries are never exact; they are simply a starting

point to roughly estimate the city’s pool of regular customers.

The trade area boundaries are for Kewanna as a whole, not just for its downtown.

Source: Nielsen Solution Center

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DemographicsDemographic data from 2014 for the Kewanna trade area reveal useful information

for the retail analysis. Because people are willing to drive various distances to shop,

the study includes information on people in two concentric rings – 5 miles and 9

miles – moving out from downtown.

Population projections indicate that the 5-mile area surrounding Kewanna will lose

about 34 residents between 2014 and 2019, a decrease of 2 percent. When the

radius is stretched out to 9 miles, the population loss is similarly small at 133 residents

lost, a 2-percent decrease. This means that local businesses and prospective devel-

opers can expect a very small decrease in the local consumer base. More impor-

tantly, the region’s population has a high concentration of residents over age 45. In

2014, people 45 and older make up 46.3 percent of the 9-mile radius’ population.

Table 1: 9-Mile Radius Demographic Profile

Characteristic 2014 2019 (projection)% Change, 2014-2019

(projection)Population 6,049 5,916 -2.20%Households 2,412 2,370 -1.73%Families 1,731 1,699 -1.85%Housing Units 2,926 2,915 -0.38%Average Household Size 2.50 2.49 -0.40%Median Age 41.8 41.9 0.24%Median Household Income $44,918 $35,935 -20%Median All Owner-Occupied Housing Value $96,672 $79,661 -17.60%

Source: Nielsen Solution Center

In the current population, it is worth mentioning that the areas around Kewanna are

not ethnically diverse. About 95 percent of residents residing within 9 miles of the

downtown area are white.

Within the 5-mile trade area, the median household income is estimated to be

$39,085, which is projected to drop to $32,317 in 2019 – a 17 percent decrease.

Within the 9-mile trade area, the median household income is expected to fall by 20

percent. It is important to note these estimates were taken during a national reces-

sion, and are likely to be adjusted upward as the economy improves.

Another way to look at household incomes in Kewanna is by Effective Buying In-

come (EBI) or disposable income. EBI estimates reflect income earned after taxes.

EBI is a derivative of household income, with the correspondence between before-

tax and after-tax income based on three-year combinations of Current Population

Survey (CPS) data.

tHe eConomy: Retail analysis

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Source: Nielsen Solution Center

Source: Nielsen Solution Center

Figures 1 and 2 to the left show the percentage of individuals in different EBI ranges

for 2014 and the estimates for 2019. About 54 percent of individuals living within 5

miles of downtown Kewanna have less than $35,000 in disposable income. Also, the

percentages of individuals with EBIs greater than $50,000 are projected to drop from

2014 to 2019 for both the 5-mile and 9-mile areas around Kewanna.

Traffic PatternsAbout 780 cars drive through Kewanna’s downtown daily, although that number

has dropped off over the years.

According to 2011 traffic count data from the Indiana Department of Transporta-

tion (INDOT), each day (on average), 779.5 vehicles pass through Kewanna be-

tween the intersection of SR 17 and W 250 S and the intersection of SR 17 and SR 14

(located north of the first intersection).

About 839 vehicles travel between the intersection of SR 17 and W 250 S and the

intersection of SR 17 and Maple Street (located south of the first intersection). Histori-

cal traffic counts can be found in the table on the following page.

tHe eConomy: Retail analysis

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Table 2: Historical Traffic Counts for Intersection of SR17 and W 250 SYear 1995 1999 2002 2011

Average Daily Traffic North of IntersectionFrom SR 17 & W 250 S to SR 17 & SR 14

1,080 1,160 950 779.5

Average Daily Traffic South of IntersectionFrom SR 17 & W 250 S to SR 17 & Maple Street

930 1,010 830 839

Source: INDOT Traffic Counts - Fulton County

Gap Analysis: spending vs. EarningThis section compares what local residents spend to what local companies earn.

The difference reveals how much money “leaks” out of the trade area.

In an example from Kewanna’s 5-mile radius area, consumers spent $431,240 at

sporting goods, hobby, book and music stores in 2013, but area stores only earned

$12,524 from selling these materials. Thus, local people spent the vast majority of

their hobby dollars, $418,716, outside the trade area.

This market analysis is the first step toward helping local businesses or new

entrepreneurs recapture some of those lost sales. However, the sporting goods and

hobby data provide only broad strokes about buying habits. For instance, the sales

information does not account for sales at large, “Big Box” retailers. The reporting

system requires businesses to classify themselves by one dominant North American

Industry Classification System (NAICS) code rather than provide their mix of

merchandise lines, so “Big Box “ stores’ sales of these products are captured under

“general merchandise stores.”

Additionally, although they sell a range of items, it is not entirely accurate to say

that national chains keep money from “leaking” out of the Kewanna trade area.

While local employment figures may benefit from large chain stores, chain stores

capture a lot of the money that might otherwise be spent at locally-owned stores,

and send much of that money back to their headquarters.

In small communities, the presence of big-box or discount chains can greatly

affect product supply. When identifying potential retail categories to explore,

communities should determine the product supply, hypothetical sales and price

points of competing discount chains and adjust research and recruitment strategies

accordingly.

While this data can reveal opportunities for new businesses, it should serve only as

a starting point and does not guarantee a “sure thing.” On the other hand, retail

history is filled with entrepreneurs who bucked gloomy statistics by “building a better

mousetrap.”

In summary, this economic activity information should serve as a starting point for

strengthening the downtown mix of goods and services.

tHe eConomy: Retail analysis

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Tables B.1 and B.2, which can be found in the Appendix, show opportunity gaps by

type of store. In the example from Table 3 below, people living in the 5-mile trade

area spend 72 percent of their money at building material and garden equipment

stores outside the trade area. A local entrepreneur could decide to open a store or

expand the type of merchandise they offer to capture a larger percentage of the

$2.2 million that people are already spending.

Table 3: 5-Mile radius opportunity Gap by retail store, 2013 (sample)retail store Total spending % spent in Trade Area % lost to other Trade AreasBuilding Material and Garden Equipment

$2,226,588 28.3% 71.7%

Tables B.1 and B.2 in the Appendix show that the city is not capturing much of the

market in most of the broad categories listed. Types of stores with the biggest leaks

(where the most money is lost outside of the trade area) are:

5-Mile Trade Area (leak amount):• Food and beverage stores ($5.7 million)

• Motor vehicle parts and dealers ($3.2 million)

• General merchandise stores ($3.2 million)

• Foodservice and drinking places ($2.1 million)

9-Mile Trade Area (leak amount):• General merchandise stores ($11.3 million)

• Motor vehicle parts and dealers ($11.3 million)

• Food and beverage stores ($9.1 million)

• Automotive dealers ($8.9 million)

Market segmentsWhen looking to locate a new retail store or restaurant, national chains want to

know more than how many people live within the trade area and how much they

earn. They also want to know the trade area population’s lifestyle characteristics

and habits. This is known as a psychographic profile.

SDG uses the services of an international firm, Nielsen, which collects information

on the lifestyles of Americans. Nielsen breaks down local populations into individual

market segments, giving names to each segment. It also determines what percent

of the local population falls into each group.

Consumer expenditure data is drawn from Consumer Buying Power, Nielsen’s data-

base of estimated expenditures based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer

Expenditure Survey. Business data come from Business-Facts, Nielsen’s database of

over 12 million business and professional records. Nielsen’s partner, infoUSA, collects

the base Business-Facts data which Nielsen enhance with additional information.

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Nielsen bundles all of this consumer information into 66 different categories of

imaginary consumers, with names like “Heartlanders” and “Bedrock America.”

Nielsen then describes what percentage of each consumer category live in the

trade area. In Kewanna, the top categories of consumers can be found in the

tables below.

Table 3: 5-Mile Trade Area - Top Market segmentssegment Percent of Trade Area

Heartlanders 21.75%Back Country Folks 17.02%Blue Highways 7.87%Crossroads Villagers 7.73%Big Sky Families 6.87%Bedrock America 6.58%Shotguns and Pickups 6.29%Golden Ponds 6.01%Simple Pleasures 5.44%Mayberry-ville 4.86%

Table 4: 9-Mile Trade Area - Top Market segmentssegment Percent of Trade Area

Back Country Folks 13.85%Heartlanders 13.76%Blue HIghways 9.16%Shotguns and Pickups 9.04%Big Sky Families 7.79%Simple Pleasures 7.50%Crossroads Villagers 7.50%Mayberry-ville 6.88%Bedrock America 5.93%Traditional Times 5.18%

Among Kewanna’s trade area populations, “Heartlanders,” “Back Country Folks,”

and “Blue Highways” are the three largest consumer categories. Descriptions of

these market groups may be found on the following pages.

tHe eConomy: Retail analysis

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Heartlanders: lower-Mid older Mostly without KidsAmerica was once a land of small middle-class towns, which

can still be found today among Heartlanders. This widespread

segment consists of older couples with white-collar jobs living in

sturdy, unpretentious homes. In these communities of small fami-

lies and empty-nesting couples, Heartlanders residents pursue

a rustic lifestyle where hunting and fishing remain prime leisure

activities along with cooking, sewing, camping, and boating.

lifestyle Traits Demographic TraitsOrder from QVC Urbanicity: Town/RuralOwn motor home Income: Lower MidRead North American Hunter Age Ranges: 55+Watch The New Yankee Workshop Presence of Kids: Mostly without KidsDodge Dakota Homeownership: Mostly Owners

Employment Levels: White Collar, MixEducation Levels: High School GraduateEthnic Diversity: White2013 US Households: 2,293,656 (1.92%)Median Household Income: $43,018

Back Country Folks: Downscale Mature Mostly without KidsStrewn among remote farm communities across the nation, Back

Country Folks are a long way away from economic paradise. The

residents tend to be poor, over 65 years old, and living in older,

modest-sized homes and manufactured housing. Typically, life

in this segment is a throwback to an earlier era when farming

dominated the American landscape.

lifestyle Traits Demographic TraitsShop at Tractor Supply Company Urbanicity: RuralOwn recreational vehicle Income: DownscaleRead VFW Magazine Age Ranges: 65+Watch The Bold and the Beautiful Presence of Kids: Mostly without KidsChevy Colorado Homeownership: Mostly Owners

Employment Levels: Mostly RetiredEducation Levels: High School GradEthnic Diversity: White, Black, Mix2013 US Households: 2,661,520 (2.23%)Median Household Income: $32,196

68 —Kewanna Downtown Revitalization PlanK

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Blue Highways Folks: lower-Mid older Mostly Without KidsOn maps, Blue Highways are often two-lane roads that wind

through remote stretches of the American landscape. Among

lifestyles, Blue Highways is the standout for lower-middle-class

residents who live in isolated towns and farmsteads. Here,

Boomer men like to hunt and fish, the women enjoy sewing

and crafts, and everyone looks forward to going out to a

country music concert.

lifestyle Traits Demographic TraitsOrder from drugstore.com Urbanicity: RuralDo crafting Income: Lower MidRead Bassmaster Age Ranges: 45-64Watch Country Music Television Presence of Kids: HH w/o KidsChevrolet Silverado Diesel Homeownership: Homeowners

Employment Levels, BC, Service, MixEducation Levels: High School GradEthnic Diversity: White2013 US Households: 1,979,351 (1.66%)Median Household Income: $42,332

summaryKewanna has a relatively small population pool of residents/customers. Popula-

tion growth is not predicted to change much over the next 5 or so years.

As a result of lost population and other economic factors, most retail and services

businesses have closed downtown. Over time, residents have grown accus-

tomed to buying almost everything from groceries to clothes elsewhere. Tourism

has also dropped off because the town lacks attractions.

These trends, while bleak, should not lead to hopelessness. The Retail Strategy

Chapter outlines the systematic steps needed to rebuild downtown Kewanna’s

economy.

tHe eConomy: Retail analysis

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The previous chapter described the current state of downtown Kewanna’s

customer base and inventory of businesses. This chapter outlines the primary

challenges facing revitalization, explains the basic principles that guide new growth

and suggests strategies for achieving the community’s goals.

At the most basic level, certain “raw materials” are needed to pump new life back

into a downtown. Those building blocks include:

1. An inventory of available buildings (and some cooperating business owners).

2. An acceptable amount of pedestrian and automobile traffic.

3. A belief by at least some local business people that revitalization is possible.

4. The political will to plan for – and invest in – downtown.

Kewanna meets the first standard; it has a stock of downtown buildings, although

some will need extensive remodeling before they can be used.

As for the second point, the Indiana Department of Transportation estimates that

about 780 cars drive through downtown daily. That number has dropped off over

the years, but that is still almost 1,000 cars with potential customers.

Kewanna scores high on the third point. Investments made in downtown businesses

by private citizens and local companies have shown that revitalization efforts are

already underway. By undertaking this plan, the Town of Kewanna has shown its

commitment to the fourth point: revitalizing downtown. However, the work is just

beginning.

Because it is early in Kewanna’s revitalization efforts, it is important to manage

expectations and to prepare a long-term strategy. It took decades for downtown

to lose its vitality and it will take years to recapture it. But even this early in the

process, the town is still a shining example of what a community can do, such as

Winamac Coil’s investment in the diner or Diane Tesler’s many projects.

Primary ChallengesChallenge 1: Making the Best use of Available Buildings On one hand, almost any new business would be welcomed downtown. On the

other, the business district only has a handful of available buildings, and local

leaders have to be strategic about their best long-term uses.

Five downtown buildings are

singled out for attention in this

report, and the Combining

the Elements Chapter has

suggestions for their best uses.

But it is important to realize that

town leaders have very little say

in what happens to a building

unless they have direct control

over it.

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For this reason, the Fulton Economic Development Corporation’s (FEDC) plans to

buy a few buildings downtown are the town’s best immediate hope for steering

new growth. Both FEDC and town leaders will need patience and resolve in

getting a new business located in a building they control downtown. For example,

they might want to deny a proposal for a small real estate office that has only one

full-time employee and pulls few people downtown.

At the same time, energy should be directed toward actively seeking the types

of businesses that might draw both locals and visitors, such as a BBQ or Mexican

restaurant.

Challenge 2: recruiting new BusinessesThis is a chicken/egg issue related to the previous challenge: people won’t come

downtown unless there are the types of stores they want, but stores won’t open

unless they can draw a good crowd.

Ideally, the two sides develop simultaneously. Kewanna could attempt to fill

some of its empty storefronts with small, service-oriented businesses that generate

customers. The increased foot traffic might then embolden an entrepreneur to

take a chance on a new business that serves both locals and out-of-towners.

This can be a slow process but, as mentioned above, local leaders can accelerate

the growth by buying and restoring a building and then working to recruit desirable

new businesses.

Challenge 3: Drawing a Crowd Few Kewanna residents work downtown, and most commute to jobs in another

city or even county; they don’t routinely visit the central business district. And

because the town is somewhat off the beaten track, few outsiders find it. Both

of those circumstances have to change for revitalization to be successful. While

the two previous challenges are being addressed, the town has to build up its

capacity for marketing. As mentioned in the Implementation section, a Main

Street organization and becoming part of regional tourism promotion offer the best

options for spreading the word.

tHe eConomy: Retail stRategy

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tHe eConomy: Retail stRategy

Downtown revitAlizAtion PrinciPles

These principles provide a framework for understanding downtown

revitalization. They are a blend of history and current trends that underlie

much of the work being done to restore central business districts across

America. The following section briefly describes these national trends and

then compares them against Kewanna’s current market.

Local Investment

Business owners can’t be expected to pour their livelihoods into a

struggling downtown unless they see that the town is backing them up.

Are the streets clean and policed? Is the town going to do anything about

empty, crumbling buildings on the main road? Is the town’s own property

well maintained?

As a general rule, public investment must come before private investment.

In Kewanna: As noted by the steering committee that oversaw this plan,

work is needed on downtown’s curbs, sidewalks, etc. Getting these

projects completed, even in piecemeal fashion over time, is vital to future

redevelopment plans.

Local Money vs. Out-of-Town Money

When recruiting new businesses, a key decision is knowing who the new

business will serve: local residents or out-of-town visitors? Will the new

enterprise make life easier for residents by providing the goods and

services they now must leave town for, or will it lure tourists with specialty

stores or regional attractions?

If a business serves mostly residents, it means that dollars are just

circulating from local business owner to business owner; there is little

outside money enriching the community. On the other hand, there are

many examples where a small restaurant or specialty store attracted loyal

customers from far away. It is great to have money come into town from

outside the community, of course, but a downtown must make sure it has

something for out-of-towners to spend their money on.

In Kewanna: While it should always be on the lookout for businesses that

will pull people from a wider area, the town probably has some work

to do before it can recruit operations that consistently attract tourists

throughout the year (and not just for short-term events or festivals).

Businesses that serve local people will have a greater potential for

success.

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tHe eConomy: Retail stRategyRisk and Experimentation

The decline of America’s small downtowns happened over many years and

was not an unforeseeable accident. Changes in consumer shopping and

commuting patterns – and the business community’s adaptation to them –

will not be reversed in the immediate future. In other words, waiting for the

good old days to return is not a productive strategy.

Instead, some boldness is required, and boldness requires risk. What’s at

risk is not only money and time, but morale. It can be discouraging to see

the community launch a new business only to see it fail. Too many of these

unsuccessful launches can lead to paralysis; where business owners grow

increasingly reluctant to take a chance and residents don’t give them

much encouragement.

A community can break this cycle in one of two ways. They can get lucky:

someone with all the right skills and resources starts a business at just the right

time in just the right place and is smashingly successful.

If that seems like a long shot, a community must create an atmosphere of

experimentation in the recruiting and support of new businesses.

In Kewanna: As mentioned, the town has had some success with

entrepreneurs, and they will be a key ingredient to new business growth.

Baiting the Hook

Many businesses have been launched after an entrepreneur glanced

out the windshield at a beautiful streetscape and thought, “What a nice

looking little town. You know, this is just the kind of place I’ve always

dreamed about starting a business in.”

Baiting the hook can include landscaping (that hasn’t become

withered), banners and storefront lighting even for buildings that are

empty.

In Kewanna: Kewanna is a living embodiment of this principle, as artist

Diane Tesler “discovered” the town while passing through and decided

to set up shop. Lightning may strike twice and the town be discovered by

other energetic entrepreneurs, but in the meantime local leaders should

focus on supporting her efforts and preparing the town for future growth.

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The Lone Pioneer SyndromeAfter a long dry spell a community may rejoice when a new business, such

as a

restaurant or coffee shop, finally opens. In their excitement, the new

owner may decide to be the only business downtown that’s open

evenings or on Saturday.

Sometimes the owner can make it work, but more often they find

themselves stranded. There is not enough supporting business to buffer

them. If other businesses don’t follow along, the pioneer may have to cut

back on hours or days. Some businesses survive the scale-back and some

don’t. Any new business in a fragile economy needs a support system.

Leaving individual businesses entirely to the mercy of market forces is one

reason that many downtowns struggle like they do.

In Kewanna: The town should focus on recruiting or help launch a suite

of small, complementary businesses. Downtown boosters can use the

information in the Retail Analysis Chapter of this report for recruiting efforts.

tHe eConomy: Retail stRategyLocally GrownNational chains will show interest in a community when – and only when

– all the correct variables are in place. These factors include population

density and spending patterns. National chains don’t all have the same

requirements, but few vary from their patterns. For example, have you

ever seen a Cracker Barrel any place except off a busy interstate or a

Dollar Store at a thriving urban mall?

Because their requirements are so exact, these chains use their own

researchers to determine when and where to put their next store. This

means it is very difficult to recruit them.

That leaves smaller regional chains, independent business owners

and entrepreneurs as the prime candidates for recruitment. Generally

speaking, regional chains are the hardest to attract because they have

the biggest investments to protect. Independent business owners, in order

to move, would have to increase the size of their business or relocate

the whole operation to the new location. Entrepreneurs can be the

most flexible and ready to go but often carry the risk of having unproven

business skills.

In Kewanna: Until it builds its capacity to support more regional-drawing

businesses, Kewanna should probably concentrate on independent

business owners and entrepreneurs. Committing to this decision can help

focus marketing efforts.

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Expectation ManagementIt took decades for most downtowns to sink into underutilization and

it will take years to even partially restore them. In some cases it may

not be possible at all. An additional miserable thought is the current

economy, where frozen credit and the aftermath of a national recession

make it even harder for new businesses to launch.

It is important, though, to coldly study these conditions in order to not be

discouraged. Simply realizing that it’s a long, steep hill – with guaranteed

setbacks - can help the community settle in for the long haul.

In Kewanna: Success will require persistence, planning and commitment.

Local leadership with a clear vision is essential. Creating steady, organic

growth is the catalyst for a successful long term plan. Remember this is

a marathon – there are no sprinters in this race. As a marathon runner

prepares through physical training and mental conditioning, so must

Kewanna prepare to seek continuing improvement of infrastructure

and buildings, greater local participation, and an exciting vision. The

shape of this vision is critical, too, to galvanize support and focus. As

consultants we offer a variety of ideas for Kewanna’s consideration; how

the vision is shaped and shared is a local task.

tHe eConomy: Retail stRategy

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ReCommenDations

road TripsNothing fires up the imagination and optimism like seeing success stories from other

small Indiana towns. For example Converse (population 1,148), landed the new

Jefferson St. BBQ restaurant, which draws people from around the region. Farmland

(population 1,317), offers a virtual playbook on downtown restoration, including

websites and live webcasts to promote their many projects (learn more at www.

farmlandindiana.org).

Fortunately, local leaders can tap into some of these case studies easily. The “Our

Small Towns-Thinking Regionally” is an annual conference held every June 27 at

Taylor University in Upland, IN. Each year, the volunteer-run group highlights small

town revitalization efforts. For more information contact LaRea Slater at 765-661-

6990 or [email protected].

restore a Key AreaThis is known as a “toe hold” approach. Having new businesses spring up at

different spots around town would be great; having them all grouped in one area

would be even better.

Shops clustered together, creating a density of opportunities, have a stronger pull

on shoppers. In fact, this truism is what got “downtowns” started in the first place.

The Site Improvements Chapter suggests areas to start, such as the intersection of

SR 17 and Main Street. Diane Tesler’s restored studio and the popular Kewanna Pro

Hardware & Supply make for a solid foundation on this corner.

Put Economic Development Tools in PlaceA town of Kewanna’s size needs every advantage to build its economy. Four basic

development tools include:

• A Main Street group.

• Design Standards.

• A low-interest loan program.

• A downtown investment group.

To be competitive for downtown grants from the Indiana Office of Community and

Rural Affairs, Kewanna must be a certified Main street organization. Certification

is not difficult, but it does require time and some sustained effort. Rochester is

considering its application, and Kewanna might be able to work with them on a

joint approach.

Design standards, which are explained in more detail under the Architectural

Recommendations Chapter, are an economic development tool because they

assure some level of quality in downtown growth. After the conscious restoration

efforts put forward by Diane Tesler, it would a step backward to allow new

construction or remodeling with a design totally out of character with downtown

Kewanna.

tHe eConomy: Retail stRategy

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Design standards do not have to be absurdly strict, such as demanding only

certain types of paint or requiring awnings, but they should oblige new businesses

to consider the existing architectural features that made the town’s old buildings

attractive when working on their modern buildings. These standards will have to

be instituted by the town council.

A low-interest loan program can be an incentive for entrepreneurs to invest

in restoring a downtown building. They can be used for façade work or other

improvements. The program is self-sustaining; as a business repays the loan, that

money becomes available for other businesses. Other towns have put together

the initial fund by combining money from community foundations, local banks

(using Community Reinvestment Act money) and economic development funding

and other groups.

A not-for-profit downtown investment group can be very effective in tackling

projects that the city is not in a position to undertake. This can include raising the

money to buy downtown buildings and then helping recruit new businesses to fill

them. Such a group might form to work with FEDC on their plans to acquire local

buildings.

small Business recruitment For the reasons listed above, in the short term, the town should probably not focus

as much on recruiting a particular shop or service. Instead, community leaders

should continue working on improvements that make downtown attractive to all

sorts of desirable businesses. However, once a building is under local control and

at least partially restored, it is acceptable to poach businesses from other towns.

There have been many examples of communities luring everything from

restaurants to corporate headquarters away from their current locations by

offering perks such as subsidized office space.

In a hypothetical example, the town could approach a successful restaurant in

another community about opening a new location in Kewanna. Have one-page

sheets ready that include pictures of available downtown spaces along with

information on rent, square footage, etc.

Next time you’re in an interesting shop in

another small Indiana town, show the sheet

to the owner and talk about Kewanna.

Promote regional TourismBecause Kewanna does not have the

density of attractions to pull in people from

other areas, its best bet in the short term

is getting tourists to discover the region.

Three small towns – properly packaged and

marketed – have more to offer than one.

The previously mentioned conference in

June will provide many more examples of

possible site visits.

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Element: The Buildings• Architectural Overview• Architectural Recommendations

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General Building AnalysisThe existing building stock of downtown Kewanna is in fair to poor condition with

good examples of 19th and early 20th century architecture. The buildings along

Main Street comprise the area for our analysis and recommendations.

Some original storefronts have been lost to later alterations. In addition, several

original storefronts remain although they are in poor condition. Field observations

indicate that much of the original materials may be salvageable, particularly in four

of the buildings included in the following section on architectural recommendations.

Also, as is common in many small towns, demolition has taken its toll. Some new

construction from the mid-Twentieth Century has replaced

original building stock. Careful consideration should be

given to respect defining architectural features, preserving

remaining historic character and to the replacement of

obtrusive elements.

Historic structures create the character of a town and

building ownership comes with its own unique issues.

The recommendations on the following pages relate to

the common problems of historic buildings and suggest

enhancements to the longevity of these structures. These

recommendations provide basic information to restore

and maintain a stable and weather-tight structure.

The following pages illustrate several local buildings and suggest restoration work

that will improve the overall character of the downtown.

FacadesBrick is the predominate building material in

downtown Kewanna. Through time mortar

joints deteriorate,which can lead to water

infiltration causing exterior and potential

interior damage. Stresses as a result of water

infiltration and deterioration of structural

members, unusual loading, or expansion and

contraction of building components such as

rusting steel lintels, often cause step-cracking along masonry joints, bulging of wall

surfaces, and potential failure. Abrasive cleaning methods such as sandblasting

remove the protective surface from the brick, giving rise to deterioration of the brick

units themselves.

Inspection and repair of mortar joints should be undertaken annually. When

repointing masonry joints, care should be taken to use mortar of a similar

composition, color, texture and rake to match existing features. When cleaning is

required, non-abrasive methods will remove soil and paint and will maintain the

integrity of the brick unit. Preservation Brief 2: Re-pointing Mortar Joints in Historic

Brick Buildings provides guidance on these methods.

tHe builDings: aRCHiteCtuRal oveRview

Masonry damage

Original ornamental sheet metal

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WindowsHistoric window units often become deteriorated or damaged through exposure to

the elements and use over time. The units can become victims of a well-intentioned

owner trying to modernize or become energy-conscious by using small replacement

windows and infilling the balance of a masonry opening. The aesthetics of the

building become compromised when replacement window units are of incompatible

materials and style thereby robbing the façade of historic profiles of the original units.

Additionally, periodic inspection of steel lintels supporting the structure above the

window is required to ensure they remain painted and free of rust.

Wood window sash and frames need to be inspected

yearly for deteriorating components and peeling paint.

When the paint finish begins to fail it should be scraped,

sanded and painted. Caulk joints between the wood

frame and the adjacent masonry need to be inspected

and re-caulked as required. When historic units become

unsalvageable, replacement units should be of the same

size and profile and material. Appropriate wood units

with aluminum cladding may be acceptable if existing

units are beyond repair or are missing. The installation

of appropriately sized and configured storm windows

can protect original windows and improve the thermal

efficiency of a unit.

When the replacement or repair of historic windows is not a financially viable option,

temporary boarding helps to minimize further damage to the window unit, protects

the interior, and prevents the public hazard of falling glass and wood components.

storefrontsStorefronts serve as the face of the businesses within and are often the first place an

owner will update a building. A storefront remodel becomes a distraction when the

reconstruction is incompatible with the overall context of the building in material,

massing and scale. When remodeling a storefront, consideration should be given to

the overall context of the building, the historic and architectural significance of prior

storefront configurations and the nature and character of the business within. Regular

maintenance, replacement of deteriorated components, scraping, sanding and

repainting, is needed for all storefronts and will preclude the need for remodeling.

MiscellaneousSteel support beams between the storefront and upper levels are vulnerable to

failure if they are allowed to rust. Routine inspection, scraping and painting is the best

protection for maintaining the viability of steel support beams. Decorative elements

on the building’s exterior should be inspected to make sure they are firmly attached

and should be repainted when necessary. Rusting and loose decorative elements

not only detract from the appearance of the building, but also become a safety

hazard to pedestrian traffic below.

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Existing replacement window

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signageSigns can serve many functions including business or service identification,

information or direction. Building signage within the project boundaries is often

absent, lacks creativity, provides little visual enticement, and/or contributes to

visual “clutter.” Implementation of sign guidelines within the downtown should

be encouraged. A well designed sign along with external lighting provides an

invitation to enter into a retail establishment, promote a particular service or

provide direction both during the day and night. Signs of differing types should

be considered including surface mounted signs, projecting signs, painted window

signs, blade signs and even painted wall signs when of an appropriate scale

and design. Signs with visual clutter, garish colors, suburban character or internal

illumination generally should be avoided.

ConclusionRecommendations for improvements to the architectural assets of downtown

Kewanna have been formulated by analyzing existing conditions with the long-

term objective of enhancing the character of the downtown. To accomplish

this, improvements to the physical appearance, the aesthetic qualities and the

economic vitality of the businesses must occur. Through its committed community

leaders and residents, the Town of Kewanna has the potential to become a

community that invites locals and visitors alike to experience existing community

assets, while preparing for future expansion. Success will depend on the collective

efforts of business owners, town leaders and the support of the community to assure

a lively downtown for present and future generations.

tHe builDings: aRCHiteCtuRal oveRview

Existing storefront detail

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1

2

3

4 5

Key1 - 120 E. Main Street2 - 114 E. Main Street3 - 219 1/2 E. Main Street4 - 109 E. Main Street5 - 113 E. Main Street

The following pages focus on five local buildings identified during

our dialogues with local leaders in the Kewanna community. Each

building description includes a photograph of existing conditions and

a proposed design concept for façade improvements. There are brief

explanatory notes regarding existing conditions followed by a series of

recommendations for work on various aspects of the exterior including

selective demolition, repairs and restoration.

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Building InformationConstruction date: c. 1890

Style: Queen Anne

Interim Report Classification: Notable

Building DescriptionThe building is a two-story, brick masonry structure. The first floor is asymmetrical

with a single swinging door at the center likely accessing the second floor.

There are storefronts on either side. Both storefronts have been modified over

time with little original material remaining in the eastern bay. The entrance to

the eastern bay is on the corner with an entry door set four stair risers above the

sidewalk. Original cast iron lintel beams and one ornamental column remain.

There is visual evidence of structural settling at the corner adjacent the street

intersection.

At the second floor, the original window sashes remain, but are severely

deteriorated. Some lights are broken. One window opening is filled with

corrugated siding. The second floor window sills are limestone with brick jack

arches. The cornice consists of patterned corbelled brick. There is evidence

of significant deterioration at the parapet coping. The east elevation presents

very similar conditions to the southern elevation. Some windows have been

replaced. Other existing windows are deteriorated, requiring restoration.

Existing Conditions• Masonry is in fair to poor condition

• Much of the brick masonry requires repointing

• The turret is in fair to poor condition, but appears to have its original

slate roof intact.

recommendations1. Remove the existing storefront at the south elevation in the eastern bay

and provide a new historically appropriate storefront system based on

historic photos.

2. Restore the existing storefront at the south elevation in the western bay.

3. Repair and repoint areas of existing brick masonry as required.

4. Repair existing windows at the second floor.

5. Repair and stabilize the existing corner turret.

6. Provide new historically appropriate signage.

7. Repair and repoint areas of the existing brick cornice as required.

8. Raise and repair the settled foundation and masonry at the building’s

corner.

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tHe builDings: aRCHiteCtuRal ReCommenDations 120 E. Main street (Minix Building) 1

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Existing Elevation Proposed Elevation Concept

tHe builDings: aRCHiteCtuRal ReCommenDations

Elevations 1

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Building InformationConstruction date: c. 1927

Style: 20th Century Functional

Interim Report Classification: Contributing

Building DescriptionThe building is a two-story masonry structure with a flat roof. The storefront is

asymmetrical with a single swinging door allowing entrance at the southwest

corner. The original storefront appears to have been replaced in roughlythe

mid-Twentieth Century. Adjacent to the first floor, offset to the north, along

the structure’s western side is a single story painted, one-story concrete block

addition. The date of this addition is unknown. A canopy covers the first floor

storefront and returns along the western elevation, dying into the one-story

block structure.

The canopy has a shingle roof, but the original canopy beneath the

modifications may remain. At the second floor, the original windows have

been replaced. The second floor window sills are brick rowlocks. Subtle brick

ornamentation is visible immediately below the clay coping at the corners

and middle of the south and western elevations.

Existing Conditions• The façade appears generally in good condition.

• Some minor areas of the brick require repointing.

• There is a step crack in the masonry at the second floor, southwest

corner window head toward the corner.

recommendations1. Replace the existing second floor windows with historically appropriate

sash.

2. Repoint areas of existing brick as required.

3. Inspect existing lintels for deterioration and damage. Scrape and

paint all exposed steel.

4. Replace existing entry door and frame with a historically appropriate

door.

5. Patch holes in the south facing elevation of the existing one story block

structure. Clean off loose paint and cover with a “Keim” Cementitious

coating.

Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 85K

tHe builDings: aRCHiteCtuRal ReCommenDations

2 114 E. Main street (Chevy Garage)

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Existing Elevation Proposed Elevation Concept

Elevations 2

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Building InformationConstruction date: c. 1883

Style: Italianate

Interim Report Classification: Contributing

Building DescriptionThe building is a two-story masonry structure facing north on Main Street. The

storefront consists of two bays including a majority of original wood, glass and

cast iron elements. The storefront knee walls are constructed of wood. The

eastern bay contains original storefront and transom glazing with engaged cast

iron pilasters and columns. Transom windows above the storefront glazing are

painted over. The knee wall is in poor condition. The western bay, although

deteriorated, contains original Luxfer glass, wood storefront components, glass,

cast iron columns with Corinthian capitals and a wood knee wall.

The original wood paneling remains adorning the ceiling of the entry recess

immediately behind the transom glass. At the second floor, the original window

sash and frames remain topped with painted ornamental metal hoods. The

second floor window sills are limestone. The parapet is fabricated of painted

metal with dentils and metal brackets.

Existing Conditions• Masonry is in fair condition.

• Areas of the brick require repointing.

• Existing ornamental elements of the cast iron are missing.

• The existing Luxfer glass is in very good condition.

• Some brackets are missing at the existing cornice.

• Existing wood components are deteriorated, but may remain

salvageable.

recommendations1. Repair the existing storefront; paint exposed wood.

2. Complete minor repairs on the existing Luxfer glass.

3. Repair, scrape and paint the existing cast iron components.

4. Repoint areas of the existing brick masonry as required.

5. Repair historic doors and hardware.

6. Repair cracked brick.

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tHe builDings: aRCHiteCtuRal ReCommenDations

219 1/2 E. Main street3

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Existing Elevation Proposed Elevation Concept

Elevations3

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Building InformationConstruction date: c. 1930

Style: Twentieth Century Functional

Interim Report Classification: Non Contributing

Building DescriptionThe building is a single-story structure facing north onto Main Street. No

evidence of the original storefront remains. The brick masonry displays a

subtle ornamental pattern below the stone coping and approximately four

feet below the parapet wall. The storefront consists of two bays with punched

window openings resting on a brick knee wall. The right hand bay has a

wood shingle canopy, a pair of single hung windows, and painted T111 siding

completes the balance of the storefront.

Existing Conditions• Single glazed storefront glass in clear anodized aluminum frame in

the eastern bay

• Entry doors are replacements. The eastern door is perhaps mid

Twentieth Century. The western door is likely from the last 20

years

• Steel lintels should be reviewed for structural issues

• Brick masonry is in fair to poor condition

recommendations1. Remove the existing storefront including the wood shingle canopy, glass,

brick knee walls, and provide a new historically appropriate storefront

system.

2. Repoint and repair brick at the existing façade.

3. Grind out the skyward facing joints at the parapet and fill with rod and

sealant mixed with sand to mimic original mortar joints.

4. Repair, scrape and paint existing steel lintels.

Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 89K

109 E. Main street (Grocery)4

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Existing Elevation Proposed Elevation Concept

Elevations4

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Building InformationConstruction date: c. 1890

Style: 19th Century Functional

Interim Report Classification: Contributing

Building DescriptionThe building is a two story masonry structure with a flat roof. The storefront is

symmetrical with a central recessed entrance to two storefronts and middle

door connecting to a stairway. The original storefront is largely intact. The

storefront masonry is a painted concrete block with a molded surface to mimic

rusticated limestone. The second story brick masonry was painted, but this

coating is now largely deteriorated. Original second floor windows remain with

limestone headers and sills. Some second floor glazing is broken and will need

to be replaced. A painted metal cornice remains at the parapet and appears

to be in fair condition.

Existing Conditions• The storefront and second floor windows are in poor condition

• Paint on the second floor brick is largely deteriorated

• The existing painted metal cornice is in fair condition

recommendations1. Restore and paint the existing storefront.

2. Restore the existing second floor windows and provide storm windows.

3. Repoint the existing brick.

4. Inspect existing lintels for deterioration and damage. Replace as

required. Scrape and paint all exposed steel.

5. Restore existing entry doors and provide new transoms as required.

6. Remove paint from existing brick and cover with a “Keim” Cementitious

coating.

7. Remove paint from storefront masonry.

8. Remove existing awning.

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113 E. Main street5

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Existing Elevation Proposed Elevation Concept

tHe builDings: aRCHiteCtuRal ReCommenDations

Elevations5

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Implementation

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Kewanna’s long-term goals are clear and widely shared: restore downtown’s vi-

brancy and attract new residents and visitors.

This report documents progress toward those goals, such as Winamac Coil reviv-

ing the Kewanna Kafe, artist Diane Tesler buying and restoring some of the town’s

most historic structures and FEDCO investing in downtown buildings.

Kewanna’s biggest challenge will be capitalizing on this progress to keep the mo-

mentum going. This section explains how town leaders can combine the elements

of site improvements, economic development and building restoration to cre-

ate the highest probability of steady, sustained success. Here’s how the elements

overlap:

• Improved roads and sidewalks help attract new businesses.

• New business owners are more likely to restore building facades.

• Road and building improvements make it easier to attract new downtown

customers - both local residents and visitors.

• Money spent by new customers leads to more interest in opening other

new businesses, etc.

The cycle mentioned above shows how the components of revitalization are

deeply interrelated. However, fixing any one element will not be enough to reach the town’s goals – progress must be made on all fronts. Failure to recognize this

interdependence is why many revitalization efforts run out of steam.

For instance, fixing problematic curbs and sidewalks can be satisfying and visually

appealing, but the first thing many investors look at is available store fronts and

buildings.

Local investors may be willing to buy and renovate a building, but lack the knowl-

edge to determine what type of business would succeed or how to recruit business

tenants.

A Main Street group might find an entrepreneur willing to open a new bakery

downtown, but if it’s the only new shop they probably won’t generate enough

traffic to stay in business.

Balancing those factors can seem overwhelming, but there are some general

strategies to help community leaders stay on course:

1. Pick one or two absolutely vital, must-do projects for each element.

2. Go for the easiest win.

3. Publicize your progress..

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step 1: Pick the Most Vital ProjectsPriorities will change over time, but based upon research compiled for this report,

the projects with the biggest bang-for-the-buck in each element are:

site Improvements1. Improve relations with INDOT.

2. Clean up site of future pocket park and other infrastructure.

The Economy1. Strengthen partnerships (FCEDCO, local investors).

2. Visit other communities for inspiration.

The Buildings1. Restore the Minix Building.

2. Develop a funding source for restoration.

step 2: Go for the Easiest Win“Easy” is a relative term, but some of these projects will be simpler than others.

site Improvements: Improve relations with InDoT.Getting milling work and other improvements done to downtown streets was one

of the main reasons the town undertook the revitalization plan. Building a strong

relationship with INDOT, so that they are continually reminded about the town’s

priorities and proposed solutions, is a necessary first step.

Once or twice a year, the Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) formally

issues a call for projects within Local Planning Agencies (LPA) through a formal no-

tice known as a Notice of Funding Availability (NOFA).

During this time, eligible communities are invited to apply for federal funds dis-

tributed through INDOT. These funds can be utilized for a variety of project types

including infrastructure and road improvement projects, bike and pedestrian facili-

ties, historic preservation, and other projects. The funds can be used to pay for all

phases of design and construction but they do require a 20 percent local match

and they are very competitive. In order to apply for the funding, the LPA must

have a certified ERC (Employee in Responsible Charge) as well as several support-

ing documents, including a financial statement and ADA Transition Plan.

INDOT offers free training for the ERC certification and much more information on

this funding opportunity can be found on INDOT’s website at http://www.in.gov/

indot/2390.htm, or by contacting Kathy Eaton-McKalip at 317-234-5142. Having

someone ERC certified and meeting with INDOT to present the goals of this plan

will help establish Kewanna’s “place in line” for future funding.

The Economy: Visit other communities for inspiration.Nothing fires up the imagination and optimism like seeing success stories from other

small Indiana towns. For example Converse (population 1,148), landed the new

Jefferson St. BBQ restaurant, which draws people from around the region.

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Kewanna Downtown Revitalization Plan — 97

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Farmland (population 1,317), offers a virtual playbook on downtown restoration,

including websites and live webcasts to promote their many projects (learn more at

www.farmlandindiana.org).

Fortunately, there is a regional group already at work on building the tourism econ-

omy. Our Small Towns-Thinking Regionally is an all-volunteer group of businesses

owners, chamber of commerce representatives and others sharing ideas about

revitalization. For more information contact LaRea Slater at 765-661-6990 or larea-

[email protected]. For this tip to work, it’s important that as many people as possible

make the visit, not just one or two dedicated volunteers.

The Buildings: Develop a funding source for restoration.Admittedly, this won’t be easy, but there are clear steps that will increase the town’s

chances to get funding for working on local buildings.

The first is to get accepted into the Indiana Main Street program, which is one of the

few sources for façade work. Local leaders have already started the enrollment

process.

There are other possible sources as well, including deepening the relationship with

people or groups who have already invested in downtown, such as Diane Tesler,

Winamac Coil and FCEDCO. An update on state and national funding sources is

included in the Appendix of this report.

step 3: Publicize your Progress.Many of Indiana’s other small towns would be envious of the success stories

Kewanna has already had (attracting national artists, Kewanna Kafe, etc.). It’s time

to get the word out.

A town website can promote not only recent victories, but upcoming plans. It can

also be used to run photos and details about available buildings. This would be an

excellent project for the new Main Street group.

One bit of progress to report on is the ongoing project to identify possible brownfield

sites downtown. Details on this project can be found in the Appendix.

The next section lists all the recommendations from the previous chapters, but

there is one more step necessary to increase the town’s chances of a successful

revitalization: Recruit volunteers and share the work.

It is not enough that some people are “engaged” in restoring downtown; they have

to be committed. The difference between involvement and commitment is like ham

and eggs. The chicken is involved; the pig is committed.

If everyone currently working on improving downtown Kewanna can fit inside a

mini-van, then the prospects of success are not good. Start with the many people

who attended meetings for this planning process, and identify small acts or projects

they can do to move things along.

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Initial Projects for all the Elementssite Improvements: Existing Conditions & Design VisionMain street Corridor

• Alternate truck route (other than Main Street) to minimize large trucks

downtown

• Milling and reconstruction of asphalt streets (such as Main Street) to

reestablish appropriate drainage and more traditional street cross sections

• The town should work to coordinate with INDOT and investigate

what options might be available for making asphalt improvements

throughout town

• New, wider sidewalks and concrete curbs

• Invest in more aesthetically appealing, efficient, pedestrian scale lights

downtown – should be 12-14 feet tall and light the pedestrian pathway

• Standards for sign design and placement should be used to create a

cleaner, more cohesive environmental aesthetic. Also – wayfinding signage

• New accessible curb ramps, intersection treatments with crosswalks,

on-street parallel parking, site furnishings (such as litter receptacles and

benches) and plantings (stormwater planters)

• Create a tree inventory to identify trees in need of selective trimming and/or

removal to reduce any liability

sr 17 (logan street)• Milling and resurfacing the asphalt street, new concrete curbs, wider

sidewalks, lighting, defined on-street parking, stormwater planters,

intersection treatments, new street trees.

• New vehicular and pedestrian signalization at the intersection of Main and

SR17

• SR 17 should be considered for gateway enhancements in key locations

neighborhood streets• Milling and resurfacing streets, new concrete curbs, accessible sidewalks,

lighting, on-street parking, stormwater planters at intersections, intersection

treatments, crosswalk, selective trimming, removal and replacement of

existing street trees.

Downtown Park• Proposed to be located between 109 E. Main Street and 113 E. Main Street

• Urban gathering spot for performances and events. Active seven days and

evenings a week, all year round

• Public art, splash pad, lawn steps, gathering lawn, seating areas,

performance stage, plantings

Infill Opportunities• A new building infill (Streetscape Improvement Plan Map)

• Most important: Located on the empty parcels at the northeast and

northwest corners of the intersection at Main Street and Logan Street (SR 17)

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Gateways and Branding• Locations for gateways: Intersection of SR114 and SR 17 and intersection of

SR14 and SR 17

• Classic Art Cars – Target underutilized storefront space at 114 E. Main Street

and convert it into a designation classic car experience

Miscellaneous• Conduct additional environmental assessments to identify specific hazards

and remediation procedures

The Economy: retail Analysis & strategy

road Trips• Visit successful small towns such as Converse, Indiana

• Attend the “Our Small Towns – Thinking Regionally” conference in Upland,

Indiana

restore a Key Area• Intersection of SR17 and Main Street

Put Economic Development Tools in Place• A Main Street Group

• Design Standards

• A Low-Interest Loan Program

• A Downtown Investment Group

small Business recruitment• In the short term, the community should continue working on improvements

that make downtown attractive to all sorts of desirable businesses. Once a

building is under local control however, it is acceptable to poach businesses

from other communities.

Promote regional Tourism• Connect with nearby towns to pull resources together to attract tourists

The Buildings: overview & recommendations

120 E. Main street (Minnix Building)1. Remove the existing storefront at the south elevation in the eastern bay and

provide a new historically appropriate storefront system based on historic photos

2. Restore the existing storefront at the south elevation in the western bay

3. Repair and repoint areas of existing brick masonry as required

4. Repair existing windows at the second floor

5. Repair and stabilize the existing corner turret

6. Provide new historically appropriate signage

7. Repair and repoint areas of the existing brick cornice as required

8. Raise and repair the settled foundation and masonry at the building’s corner

113 E. Main street1. Restore and paint the existing storefront

2. Restore the existing second floor windows and provide storm windows

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3. Repoint the existing brick

4. Inspect existing lintels for deterioration and damage. Replace as required.

5. Scrape and paint all exposed steel

6. Restore existing entry doors and provide new transoms as required

7. Remove paint from existing brick and cover with a “Keim” Cementitious coating

8. Remove paint from storefront masonry

114 E. Main street (Chevy Garage)1. Replace the existing second floor windows with historically appropriate sash

2. Repoint areas of existing brick as required

3. Inspect existing lintels for deterioration and damage. Scrape and paint all

exposed steel

4. Replace existing entry door and frame with a historically appropriate door

5. Patch holes in the south facing elevation of the existing one story block structure.

Clean off loose paint and cover with a “Keim” Cementitious coating

219 1/2 E. Main street (Vacant storefront Adjacent Bank)1. Repair the existing storefront; paint exposed wood

2. Complete minor repairs on the existing Luxfer glass

3. Repair, scrape and paint the existing cast iron components

4. Repoint areas of the existing brick masonry as required

5. Repair historic doors and hardware

6. Repair cracked brick

109 E. Main street (Grocery)1. Remove the existing storefront including the wood shingle canopy, glass, brick

knee walls, and provide a new historically appropriate storefront system

2. Repoint and repair brick at the existing façade

3. Grind out the skyward facing joints at the parapet and fill with rod and sealant

mixed with sand to mimic original mortar joints

4. Repair, scrape and paint existing steel lintels

Funding sourcesAn updated list of possible funding sources is included in the Appendix of this report,

along with tips on how a community can approach grants.

Facade Cost ProjectionsA list of cost projections for the facade projects recommended in this report is

located on page 102. For each project, there is a low and high cost range. Keep in

mind that these are estimates and that actual cost may vary.

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Final WordsOnce a plan is adopted, the process still isn’t over. It takes political will, resources

and accountability to implement a downtown revitalization plan. Without an

effective implementation, all the efforts of the planning process are essentially

wasted.

Fortunately, Kewanna already has a lot of forward momentum; revitalization

projects were starting even before the planning process was complete.

To keep that energy going, one of the most important things town leaders can do

now is to schedule a regular review of how things are going and if any changes are

needed. That process will ensure the plan remains a living document, changing as

growing along with the town.

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1 120 East Main streetscope of Work Cost ranges

low High1 Partial storefront demolition $16,000 $19,2002 Remove existing entry doors $1,800 $2,4003 Repair limestone sill $4,000 $6,0004 Repair brick watertable $4,000 $6,0005 Repair second floor windows $6,000 $8,0006 Restore corner tower $18,000 $21,6007 Masonry Tuckpointing: 50% of wall $28,000 $33,6008 New storefront $8,400 $10,0009 New entry doors $8,400 $10,00010 New windows on east $16,800 $20,000

ToTAls: $121,000 $146,400

2 113 East Main streetscope of Work Cost ranges

low High1 Remove paint from brick $6,800 $8,2002 Repoint brick and stone 100% $12,000 $16,0003 Repair second floor windows $12,000 $14,4004 Remove existing entries $2,400 $3,0005 Restore existing storefront $8,000 $10,0006 New entries & transoms $12,000 $15,0007 Remove paint from block $1,600 $2,0008 New Keim coating on block $4,800 $5,8009 Repair damaged block $600 $800

ToTAls: $60,200 $75,800

3 114 East Main streetscope of Work Cost ranges

low High1 Remove existing canopy $1,600 $2,0002 Clean brick $1,800 $2,4003 Repoint 20% of brick $5,000 $6,0004 Remove existing 2nd floor windows $1,600 $2,0005 New 2nd floor windows $14,000 $16,4006 Repair aluminum entry framing $1,600 $2,0007 Repair and paint garage door $1,200 $1,5008 Patch existing concrete masonry $800 $1,0009 Provide Keim on concrete masonry $1,800 $2,20010 Remove & relay clay coping tiles $4,800 $6,000

ToTAls: $34,200 $41,500

4 219 East Main streetscope of Work Cost ranges

low High1 Remove metal anchors $400 $6002 Repoint masonry 100% $4,000 $5,0003 Restore eastern storefront transom $5,000 $6,0004 Restore storefront kickplate $4,800 $5,4005 Restore existing entry doors $2,400 $3,0006 Restore wood details & panels $3,600 $4,4007 Restore 2nd floor windows $12,000 $15,0008 Restore cornice and paint $10,000 $12,0009 Restore stair door $1,200 $1,50010 Remove paint from brick $1,600 $2,000

ToTAls: $45,000 $54,900

faCaDe Cost PRojeCtions

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5 109 East Main streetscope of Work Cost ranges

low High1 Remove existing shingle canopy $400 $6002 Remove existing storefronts $5,200 $6,0003 Repoint 50% of brick $2,600 $2,6004 New limestone cornice $3,200 $4,0005 New storefronts $17,000 $20,400

ToTAls: $28,400 $33,600

faCaDe Cost PRojeCtions

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Appendix• Funding Sources• Brownfield Study• Retail Analysis Tables

“Straight Cut” © Diane Tesler