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    CHAPTER I

    Introduction And ResearchMethodology

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    1. INTRODUCTION

    Training fills the gap between what someone can do and what he or she should

    be able to do. Its first aim is to ensure that, as quickly as possible; people can reach anacceptable level in their jobs. Training then builds on this foundation by enhancing

    skills and knowledge as required to improve performances in the present job (or)

    develop potential for the future. There are three terms in the context of Learning-

    Education, Training and Development. Though these three are different and unique

    from each other, many times they are interchangeably used in place of one another.

    The term education is used in a broader sense involving the development of an

    individual socially, mentally and physically. Therefore at this stage the understandingof the nature of training and development is important.

    Training, the most important function that directly contributes to the

    development of human resources is the organization should create conditions in which

    people acquire new knowledge and skill and develop healthy pattern of behavior and

    styles.

    Training is essential because technology is developing continuously and at a

    fast rate. System and practices get out dated soon due to new discoveries in

    technology including technical, managerial and behavioral aspects. Organizations

    which do not develop mechanisms to catch up with and use the growing technology

    soon become state.

    However, developing individual in the organization can contribute to its

    effectiveness of the organization.

    So, training and development both go together, while training provides

    knowledge and skill, were as development concentrate more on communicating

    organizational norms and values for the given roles, training employees to perform

    their jobs and the retraining of employees as their job requirement change.

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    1.1 PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING

    Training program should be design to achieve predetermine objective goals

    and needs of the organization.

    Training program should be developed for all in the organization.

    Training program must be preplanned and well organized.

    Training program should be design according to the nature and financial

    position of the concerned.

    Training program must be fixable.

    The program must be conducted by a senior and a experiences persons.

    Theoretical and practical aspects of training.

    It should be incorporate of modern techniques and recent trends.

    Training program should be design with the interest of both employee and

    employer.

    It is not essential to follow a single method of training for all employees.

    The main purpose of the training should be motivated the worker to learn

    something to improve there job performance and job promotion.

    Allowance of individual differences should also be considered.

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    1.2 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT

    Training:

    It is a short term process

    It utilizes systematic and organized procedure

    Managerial personnel acquire Skill of training sub-ordinates.

    Non Managerial personnel acquire technical skill andknowledge for definite purpose

    It is primarily related with the job and technical skill learning

    Development:

    It is a long term process

    It too utilizes systematic and organized procedures

    Managerial personnel get conceptual and theoretical

    knowledge and skill or managing. It is rarely used.

    Non Managerial personnel acquire technical skill and

    knowledge for a long term purpose.

    It is mainly useful for long term management development

    process.

    TRAINING DEVELOPMENT

    WHO? Non-managerial personnel Managerial personnel

    WHAT? Technical and mechanical Conceptual skills

    WHY? For specific task/job For various jobsWHEN? Short-term Long-term

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    1.3 PURPOSE OF TRAINING

    There are few reasons for emphasizing the growth and

    development in an organization.

    Creating a cool of readily available and adequate replacement

    for who may leave (or) move up in the organization.

    Enhancing the company ability to adopt and use advances in

    technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable employee.

    Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team,which enhances the company competitive positive and

    improve employee morale.

    Ensuring adequate human resource for expansion into new

    program.

    Increased productivity

    Reduced employees turn over

    Increased efficiency resulting in financial gain.

    Decreased need for supervision.

    1. 4 METHODS OF TRAINING AND BOARD CLASSIFICATIO AND

    SELECTION OF TRAINING METHODS

    1.4.1 On the job training

    On the job training is delivered to employers while they

    perform their regular job. In this case, they do not lose time while

    they are learning.

    On the job techniques includes

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    Orientation

    Job instruction training

    Apprenticeships

    Internships

    Assistantship

    Job rotation

    Coaching

    These are the most common method of training.

    The training can be made extremely specific to the requirement of

    employees. It is highly practical and reality based.

    To be successful, the training should be done according to astructured program that uses task lists, job breakdown and

    performances standards etc.

    There are few characteristic for on the job training

    Being delivered on one to one basis and taking place at the

    work place of trainees.

    Requiring time to take place, including potential periods when

    there is little (or) no useful out put of products (or) service.

    Being specified, planned and structured activity.

    1.5 TYPE OF ON THE JOB TRAINING

    1.5.1 In-basket

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    In basket is a simulation (pretend to feel) exercise, which

    enables assessment of the capabilities of potential employees to

    discharge the responsibility of the concerned position.

    In this method the participants is required to assume the role

    of a manager of an organization and he is presented with some

    problem is the form of letter, memos and memorandum put in the

    IN-TRAY and take appropriate action within a framed (or) limited

    time.

    In-basket is further divided into two types

    (a) Real life action

    (b) Contents

    Real life action

    The manager is always expected to take a timely action as the

    limitation on time is very important fact in this type of training

    exercise. The player is forced to set priorities and delegate some of

    the work to subordinate and him (player) must take an action just as

    a real manager and write a note to complete this exercise.

    Contents

    This type of training mainly focus on the activities of

    managerial position and also it can be altered according to the

    training requirement. It effectively enhances the skills in decision

    making and problem solving activities.

    1.5.2 Team task

    Different team can be formed to perform various tasks (or)

    activities, structured (or) unstructured in which the end result may

    be completion of task. Some of these activities either can be

    performed by individual in a self instruction approach, but many

    require interaction of the group to produce learning possibilities.

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    Many these can be learnt by team tasks training like- it mainly

    help in behavior in a group to solve its problem (or) accomplish its

    tasks.

    This also includes discussion, suggestion, new ideas, solution,

    clarifier, explanation, coordination, summarizing etc.

    Buzz group

    In many group activities the trainer discusses the activity with the

    group member, concentrating on either the task (or) the process

    (or) sometimes even both. The principal aim of the trainer is that

    the group should provide most of the discussion but the group (or)

    participants many be unable (or) unwilling to express their view.

    In the early stage, in the group the individuals express views

    which are critical of them (or) to perform the task. At this later

    stage, there will be a open relationship in a group.

    Therefore sufficient core and planning for both the trainer and

    trainees is necessary for a training program in an organization.

    Syndicates

    Participants from different back ground are formed as one

    group which is called as syndicates. A syndicate may consist of six

    (or) seven participants. By this method there can be a effective

    performances in small group in a limited time.

    In this method there is correct implementation and much

    more learning. In this method the participant learn from each other

    and contribute their own experiences to a maximum extent. This

    method is suitable for training and development of executives with

    considerable experience.

    1.6 Off the job training

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    Off the job training involves employees taking training course away

    from their place of work. This is often also referred to as formal

    training. Off the job training course may be run by the training

    department or institute of an organization or by an externalorganization or institution.

    Off the job training includes lectures, special study, film,

    television conferences or discussions, case studies, role playing,

    simulation, programmed instruction laboratory training etc. most of

    these techniques can be used for effective training, although some

    may be too costly.

    Lecture

    Lecture present training material verbally and are used when

    the goal is to present a great of material to many people within

    short time. It is more cost effective to deliver lecture to a group of

    participants than to train people individually. Lecturing is one way

    communication.

    Field trip

    Field trip can be valuable training method for many

    organizations. Faculty members who are planning to conduct field

    trips should perform their own risk analysis and take sufficient

    precautions during the preparation. They should have proper

    planning to determine the procedure of the field trip for achieving

    the learning objective.

    Panel discussion

    Panel members may have different view but they must also

    have objective concerns for the purpose of the training. This is an

    excellent method for using outside resource people. This method

    can be used for small group of 20 or less and the members know

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    each other and the material can be assimilated readily with some

    prior knowledge. Division into group can also be used to provide

    discussion opportunities in smaller associations of trainees. This will

    allow a silent trainee to have the opportunity to say something.

    Action mazes

    In this type of training, each individual is given an information

    sheet with details of the situation, which can be a technical problem

    or an interpersonal problem. At the end of the first information, the

    person is asked to make a decision based on the facts given up to

    that stage. Usually a choice between a numbers of actions is given.

    The particular choice leads the learner to the next type of

    information, at the end of which there is a further choice to make.

    Each learner can precede individual to move through the maze. The

    individual having good grasped of the principles involved can reach

    the final decision very quickly, having made the correct choices. The

    unskilled trainee is likely to make a number of inappropriate choices

    and will take a circular path to reach the end. Under this type of

    training can absorb the correct methods or attitudes from their

    mistake.

    1.7 ROLE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT SPECIALIST :

    The organizational strategic plans for present and future

    goals.

    The likely changes in the environment and their impact on

    the training and development activities.

    The management process to implement the above strategic

    decisions.

    The present philosophy of HRD and the role of training and

    development

    The recent development in the training and development.

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    Training and development Specialist is:

    Act as Consultant or advisor

    Act as exponent.

    Act as diagnostician

    Act as an effective Manager.

    1.8 HRD ROLES

    Arising from the research conducted on behalf of the American Society for Training

    and Development, McLagan and Suhadolnik (1989:20) identified 11 roles thatindicate many of the dimensions carried out by HRD professionals. They are:

    Researcher

    Marketer

    Organizational change agent

    Needs analyst

    Programmer designer

    HRD Materials developer

    Instructor/facilitator

    Individual career development advisor

    Administrator

    Evaluator

    HRD Manager.

    1.9 NEED FOR TRAINING

    Training need only arises: when a learning need cannot be met within the normal day-

    to-day processes or when meeting learning need in this way will take too long,

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    involve too high risk/cost, not result in the required standard of performance, and

    when training is the most cost effective way of meeting the need. (Cabinet office ,

    1988:4)

    Increases Efficiency : Training increases skills for doing a job in better way.This is more important in the context of changing technology because the old

    method of working may not be relevant. As such, training is required even to

    maintain minimum level of output.

    Increases Morale : Training increases morale of employees. High morale is

    evidenced by employee enthusiasm. Training increases employee morale by

    relating their skills with their job requirements. Possession of skills necessary

    to perform a job well often tends to meet human needs such as security and

    ego satisfaction. Trained employees can see the job in more meaningful way.

    Better Human Relations : Training increases the quality of human relation in

    an organization. Growing complexity of organization has led to various human

    problems like inter-personal and inter-group problem. This problem can be

    overcome by suitable human relation training.

    Reduced Supervision : Training employees require less supervision.Autonomy and freedom can be given if the employees are trained properly to

    handle their job without the help of supervision. With reduced supervision, a

    manager can increase his span of control in the organization which saves cost

    of the organization.

    Increased Organizational Viability and Flexibility: There are no greater

    organizational assets than trained personnel, because these people can turn the

    other assets into productive whole. Viability relates to survival of the

    organization during bad days and flexibility relates to sustain its effectiveness

    with the existing personnel. Such adjustment is possible if the organization has

    trained people who can occupy the positions vacated by key personnel. The

    organization, which dose not prepares a second line of personnel who can

    ultimately take the charge of key personnel, may not be successful in the

    absence of such key personnel for whatever the reason.

    Job Requirements: Employees selected for a job might lack the qualifications

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    required to perform the job effectively. In some cases, the past experience,

    attitude and behavior patterns of experienced person might be inappropriate to

    the new organization. Remedial training should be given to such people to

    match the needs of the organization. New employees need to provide

    orientation training to make them familiar with the job and the organization.

    Technology Change: Technology is changing very fast. Increasing use of fast

    changing techniques requires training into new technology. No organization

    can take advantage of latest technology without well trained personnel. New

    jobs require new skills. Thus, both new and old employees require training.

    Internal Mobility: Training becomes necessary when an employee moves

    from one job to another due to promotion and transfer. Employees had chosen

    for higher jobs needs to be trained before they are asked to perform the higher

    responsibilities. Training is widely used to prepare employees for higher level

    jobs.

    1.10 CLASSIFICATION OF NEEDS

    The above model also gives a gentle hint that in an organization not

    only the individual but the group or even the organizational culture

    need to be developed to set in an organizational effectiveness. Thus

    the training needs can be said to exist at following three levels.

    Individual needs

    Occupational needs

    Organizational needs

    Individual needs

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    Skill, Knowledge and Attitude are the three dimensions of a

    performer which contribute towards his/her total effectiveness or

    the competence. One can have basic knowledge and skill to justify

    for the job description but the improvement in these dimensionswith reference to the occupational and organizational needs can

    bring out better results. Amongst the individual needs supervisory

    skill development, Managerial/Executive Developmental Decision

    making needs etc. are important needs.

    Occupational needs

    The need to fulfill the competence gap to perform quality output,breaking the barriers of interpersonal group effectiveness,

    developing confidence to take up challenges and initiatives;

    generally clarifies the occupational need. Amongst this Team

    Development, Group Dynamism, On the Job Training, Just in Time

    etc. can be considered.

    Organizational needs

    Every organization strives for excellence in job performance to

    achieve total dynamism in respect of fulfilling its objectives.

    Therefore, there must be an approach to develop individual by way

    of correcting his attitude, appraising and counseling his\her attitude,

    etc. which can promote harmonious work culture. The Management

    Development Programs, Organization

    Development, Management by Objectives, etc. is the common

    organizational needs.

    1.11 IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS :

    All training activities must be related to the specific needs of the

    organization and the individual employees. In order to identify

    training needs, the gap between the existing and required levels of

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    knowledge, skills, performance and aptitudes should be specified.

    The problem areas that can be resolved through training should also

    be identified.

    Training needs can be identified through the following types of

    analysis:

    1.11.1 Organizational Analysis :

    It involves a study of the entire organization in terms of its

    objectives, its resources, resource allocation and utilization, growth

    potential and its environment. Its purpose is to determine where

    training emphasis should be placed within the organization.

    Organizational analysis consists of the following elements:

    a. Analysis of objectives: The long term and short term objectives

    and their relative priorities are analyzed. General objectives

    need to be translated into specific and detailed operational

    targets. It is also necessary to continuously review the

    objectives in the light of the changing environment.

    b. Resource Utilization Analysis: The allocation of human and

    physical resources and their efficient utilization in meeting the

    operational targets are analyzed.

    c. Organizational Climate Analysis: The prevailing climate of an

    organization reflects the members attitudes. It also represents

    managements attitude towards the employee development.

    Analysis of organization climate can reveal the strengths and

    weakness also.

    d. Environmental Scanning: The economic, political, technological

    and socio culture environment of the organization is examined.

    This is necessary to identify the environmental factors which

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    the organization can influence and the constraints which it

    cannot control.

    1.11.2 Task or Role Analysis : It is systematic and detailedanalysis of jobs to identify job contents, the knowledge, skills and

    aptitudes required and the work behavior. On the part of the job

    holder particular attention should be paid to the tasks to be

    performed, the methods to be used, the way employees have learnt

    these methods and the performance standards required of

    employees.

    Manpower Analysis: In this analysis the persons to be trained and

    the changes required in the knowledge, skills and aptitudes of an

    employee determined. First of all, it is necessary to decide whether

    performance of an individual is substandard and training is needed.

    Secondly, it is determined whether the employee is capable of being

    trained. Thirdly, the specific areas in which the individual requires

    training are determined. Lastly, whether training will improve the

    employees performs or not is determined. Moreover, these

    analyses should be integrated in a carefully designed and executed

    program.

    1.12 EXITANCE OF NEED

    The organizational effectiveness depends on the performance and

    excellence of their employees. The employees may be

    inexperienced or lacking in some of the skill, knowledge required for

    performing the given task or even organizational culture demands

    the flexibility of attitude and awareness of legacy or discipline to

    enable him to recognize red, green and grey lines before making

    any decisions.

    Out of these the following can be analyzed and corrected through

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    T&D efforts to achieve desired performance:-

    lack of knowledge and skill

    Poor attitude or negative approach

    Unsatisfactory work culture

    Faulty mechanism or inadequate facilities

    Working group approach and poor interpersonal relationship

    Faulty job design

    Poor managerial abilities.

    Error: Reference source not found

    The Education, Training & Development economic spiral

    1.13 BENEFITS OF TRAINING TO EMPLOYEES:

    Training is useful to employees in the following ways:

    Self Confidence : Training helps to improve the self

    confidence of an employee. It enables him to approach and

    perform his job with enthusiasm.

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    Higher Earnings : Trained employees can perform better and

    thereby earn more.

    Adaptability : Training enables an employee to adopt to

    changes in work procedures and methods.

    Promotion : Through training employee can develop himself

    and earn quick promotions

    New Skills : Training develops new knowledge and skills

    among employees.

    The new skills are a valuable asset of an employee and remain

    permanently with him.

    1.14 IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING:

    A well planned and well executed training program can provide

    following advantages:

    1. Better Quality of Work : In formal training, the best methods

    are standardized and taught to employees. Uniformity of work

    methods and procedures helps to improve the quality of product or

    service. Trained employees are less likely to make operational

    mistakes.

    2. Less Learning Period : A systematic training program helps to

    reduce time and cost involved in learning. Employees can more

    quickly reach the acceptable level of performance. They need not

    waste their time and efforts in learning through trial and error.

    3. High Morale : Proper training can develop positive attitudes

    among employees. Job satisfaction and morale are improved due to

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    rise in the earnings of employees. Training reduces employee

    grievances because opportunities for internal promotion are

    available to well trained person.

    4. Personal Growth : Training enlarges the knowledge and skills of

    the participants. Therefore, well trained personnel can grow faster in

    their career.

    Training prevents obsolescence of knowledge and skills. Trained

    employees are a more valuable assets to any organization. Training

    helps to develop people for promotion to higher posts.

    5. Organizational Climate : A sound training program helps to

    improve the climate of an organization. Organizations having

    regular training programs can fulfill their needs for HR from internal

    sources.

    Organizational stability is enhanced because training in people helps

    to reduce the attrition rate. Training is an investment in people and

    therefore, systematic training is a sound business investment. In

    fact, no organization can choose whether or not to train

    employees. The only choice left to management is whether

    training shall be haphazard, casual and possibly misdirected or

    whether is shall be made a carefully planned part of an integrated

    program of HR administration.

    1.15 EVALUATION OF THE TRAINING

    HDR evaluation is defined as the systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental

    information necessary to make effective training decisions related to the selection,

    adoption, value and modification of various instructional activities.

    According to Phillips, evaluation can help to do the following:

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    Determine whether program is accomplishing its objectives.

    Identify the strengths and weaknesses of HRD programs, which can need tochanges as needed.

    Determine the cost benefit ratio of an HRD program.

    Decide who should participate benefited the most of least from the program.

    Reinforce major point to be made to the participate.

    Gather data to assist in marketing future program

    Determine if the program was appropriate

    Establish a database to assist management in making decisions.

    Zenger and Hargis identified three additional reasons for conducting HRD evaluation:

    If HRD staff cannot substantiate its contribution to the organization, its

    funding and program may be cut during the budgeting process, especially

    when the organization faces tough time.

    Evaluation can build credibility with top managers and others in theorganization.

    Senior management often wants to know the benefits of HED program.

    Thus, evaluation is a critical step in the HRD process. It is the only way one can know

    whether an HRD program has fulfilled its objective.

    1.16 MODELS AND FRAMEWORK OF EVALUATION

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    A model of evaluation outlines the criteria for and focuses of the evaluation effort.

    Because an HRD program can be examined from a number of perspectives, it is

    important to specify which perspectives will be considered. While the different

    models and framework share some features, they also differ in significant ways.

    1.16.1 Kirkpatricks Evaluation Framework

    The most popular and influential framework for training evaluation was

    articulated by Kirkpatrick. Kirkpatrick argues that training effort can be

    evaluated according to four criteria: reaction, learning, job behavior and

    results.

    Reaction (level 1) at this level, the focus is on trainees or participants

    perceptions about the program and its effectiveness. This is useful

    information. Positive reactions to a training program may make it easier to

    encourage employees to attend future programs. But if trainees did not like the

    program of think they didnt learn anything, they may discourage others from

    attending and may be reluctant to use the skills or knowledge obtained in the

    program. The main limitation of evaluating HRD program at the reaction level

    is that this information cannot indicate whether the program met its objective

    beyond ensuring participant satisfaction.

    Learning (Level 2) did the trainees learn what the HRD objectives said they

    should learn? This is an important criterion; one many in the organization

    would expect an effective HRD program to satisfy. Measuring whether

    someone has learned something in training may involve a quiz or test clearly

    a different method from assessing the participants reaction to the program.

    Job Behavior (Level 3) dose the trainee use what was learned in training back

    on the job? (Discussion of transfer of training) this is also a critical measure of

    training success. The co-worker who have learned how to do something butchoose not to practice, if learning dose not transfers to the job, the training

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    effort cannot have an impact on the employees or organizations effectiveness.

    Measuring whether training has transferred to the job required observation of

    the trainees on the job behavior or viewing organizational record (e.g., reduced

    customer complaints, a reduction in scrap rate)

    Result (Level 4) has the training or HRD effort improved the organizations

    effectiveness? Is the organization more efficient, more profitable, or base to

    serve its clients or customers as a result of the training program? Meeting this

    criterion is considered to be the most challenging level to assess, given that

    many things beyond employee performance can affect organizational

    performance. Typically at this level, economic and operating data (such as

    sales or waste) are collected and analyzed.

    Kirkpatricks frameworks provide a useful way of looking at the possible

    consequences of training and remind us that HRD efforts often have multiple

    objectives. It has something been assumed that each succeeding level incorporates the

    one prior to it, finally culminating in what many people consider to be the ultimate

    contribution of any organizational activity: improving the organizations effectiveness.

    However, one of the more enduring finding about HRD evaluation is the extent to

    evaluation outcomes.

    While most discussions about training and HRD evaluation are organized

    around Kirkpatricks four level of criteria, Kirkpatricks approach has increasingly

    been the target of criticism and modification. First, some authors point out that the

    framework evaluates only what happens after training, as opposed to the entire

    training process. A second line of criticism is that what Kirkpatricks proposed would

    be better described as a taxonomy of outcomes, rather that a true model of training

    outcome.

    1.16.2 Other framework and models of evaluation

    Training researchers have attempted to expand Kirkpatricks ideas to develop a model

    that provides a more complete picture of evaluation and encourages practitioners to do

    a more thorough job of evaluation. Several authors have suggested modifications of

    Kirkpatricks four level approaches that keep the framework essentially intact. These

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    include.

    Expanding the reaction level to include assessing the participants reaction to

    the training method and efficiency.

    Splitting the reaction level to include assessing participants perceptions of

    enjoyment, usefulness (utility), and the difficulty of the program.

    Adding a fifth level (beyond results) to address the societal contribution and

    outcomes created by an HRD program.

    Adding a fifth level (beyond results) to specifically address the organizations

    return on investment.

    Galvin, building upon studies in the education field, suggested the CIPP (context,

    input, process and product) model. In this model, evaluation focuses on measuring the

    context for training (needs analysis), inputs to training (examining the resources

    available for training, such as budgets and schedules), the process of conducting the

    training (for feedback to the implementers), and the product, or outcome. Of training

    (success in meeting program objectives). Galvin also reported survey resultsindicating that ASTD member preferred the CIPP model of evaluation to

    Kirkpatricks framework.

    Similarly, the CIRO (context, input, reaction, and outcome) model was offered

    by Warr el al, the context, input and outcome evaluations in this model are essentially

    the same as the context, input, and product evaluations in CIPP, but CIRO emphasizes

    trainee reaction as a source of information to improve the training program.

    1.17 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

    Performance appraisal has traditionally been used as a mechanism of controlling

    employees through salary administration, reward administration, promotions and

    disciplinary action. in the organization context, performance appraisal is a systematic

    evaluation of personnel by superiors or others familiar with their performance. It is

    also described as merit rating in which one individual is ranked as better or worse in

    comparison to others.

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    1.17.1 Objective

    Performance appraisal is undertaken for a verity of reasons as stated below:

    Salary increase

    Promotion

    Training and development

    Feedback

    Pressure on employees

    Strategic Objectives Business objectives Performance

    Objective

    Coaching

    And support Performance Review Performance Appraisal

    Performance

    Development

    A Simple Model of Performance Management System

    1.17.2 Methods of performance appraisal:

    There is various method of performance appraisal. Usually performance

    appraisal has two bases: i) appraisal of employees, according to traits, attributes and

    general behavior on the job, commonly known as trait approach: ii) appraisal of

    results, work and goal achieved by the employees, known as appraisal by results:

    (i) Traditional methods

    Ranking method

    Paired comparison

    Grading

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    Critical incidents method

    Graphic scale method

    Essay method

    Field review method

    (ii) Modern method

    Appraisal by result or objective

    Behaviorally anchored rating scales

    Assessment appraisal

    360-degree appraisal

    These are the various method adopted to evaluate the training program and show if

    there is any change or improvement after the training and for a better performances in

    future.

    The training and development can be easily understood by this training wheel, the

    cycle of training and development of people and organization.

    Error: Reference source not found

    The training wheel

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    1.18 NEED OF PRESENT STUDY

    The vary need of present study to train members of staff to the new scenario of all

    aspect and for the changing techniques which will more advantage, improvement,

    better quality and quantity which will be more efficient than the immediate old

    method. Need for training has increased due to growing complexity of jobs, global

    competition, increased professionals, human potential, growing aspiration, to get the

    up dated information, and to full filling the success full gap between the objective-

    plan and result.

    CHAPTERIZATION

    Chapter I Introduction and Methodology

    Chapter II Review of Literature

    Chapter III Date analysis and interpretations with table and graphs

    Chapter IV Findings suggestions and conclusions

    Bibliography

    Appendix

    1.19 METHODOLOGY

    Title of the study

    Dynamism of Training and Development.

    General objective

    Find the power of training and its reason for development.

    Specific objective

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    1. To identify the power of training given by supervisor to the employees.

    2. To find the effectiveness of present training programmer.

    3. To check whether the training plan is matching with the training needs.

    4. Employees satisfaction on taken training programmer.

    5. Training and its relation with performance appraisal.

    6. To find the employee suggestion, ideas and feed back on training in their

    organization.

    Research Design

    The researcher adopted descriptive research design to study the characteristics

    of a given set of employee accurately.

    Universe

    The researcher did the research in Teknomec Company, Anna nagar, Chennai, whose

    total population is 210.

    Sampling Technique

    The researcher used Convenience sampling technique for this study.

    Sampling size

    The sampling size for this study is 50 as per the schedule of University of

    Madras.

    Tool of data collection

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    The researcher done the data collection by both Primary and Secondary method .

    Source of data collection

    The researcher approached the respondent from Teknomec Company and

    collected the data. The research met the respondent and asked questions from the

    interview schedule and recorded the answers and also by questioner method.

    Hypothesis

    Training plan match with training needs.

    Training brings job satisfaction and gives job security.

    Employee interested to training program.

    Training helps to bring change and development of the company.

    CHAPTER TWO

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    REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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    2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    2.1 Training

    A planned process to modify attitude, knowledge (or) skill behavior through

    learning experience to achieve effective performance in an activity (or) range of

    activities. Its purpose in the work situation is to develop the abilities of the individual

    and to satisfy the current and future needs of the organization.

    This is according to manpower service commission (1981:62)

    2.2 Education

    Activities which aim at developing the knowledge, skill, moral values and

    understanding required in all aspect of life rather than a knowledge and skill relating

    to only a limited field of activity.

    The main purpose of education is to provide the condition essential to young

    people and adult to develop an understanding of the tradition and idea influencing the

    society in which they live and to enable them to make a contribution to it. It involves

    the study of their own cultures and of the laws of nature, as well as acquisition of

    linguistic and other skills which are basic to learning, personal development,

    creativity and communication.

    This is according manpower service commission 1981: 17

    2.3 Development

    Development occurs when a gain in experience is effectively combined with

    the conceptual understanding that can illuminate it, giving increased confidences both

    to act and to perceive how such action relates to it context.(Bolton 1945:15)

    2.4 Learning

    Learning may be defined as a relatively permanent change of knowledge

    attitude (or) behavior occurring as a result of formal education (or) training (or) as aresult of informal experiences.

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    Training- Learning related to present job.

    Education- Learning to prepare the individual but not related to a specific present (Or)

    future job.

    Development- Learning for growth of the individual but not related to a specific

    Present (or) future job

    2.5 Determining Training Needs

    In order to determine the training needs at an organization the HR manager should

    seek information on the following points:

    Whether training is needed?

    Where training is needed?

    Which training is needed?

    2.6 Brinkerhoff extends the training evaluation model to six stages:

    Goal setting: what is the need?

    Program design: what will work to meet the need?

    Program implementation: is working, with the focus on the implementation of

    the program?

    Immediate outcomes: Did participants learn?

    Intermediate or usage outcomes: are the participants using what they learned?

    Impact and worth: did it make a worthwhile difference to the organization?

    Brinkerhoffs model suggests a cycle of overlapping steps, with problems

    identified in one step possible caused by things occurring in previous steps.

    Bushnell suggests a model also based on a system view of the HRD function (i.e.,

    input-throughput-output) containing four stages:

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    Input: what goes into the training effort? This consists of performance

    indications such as trainee qualification and trainer ability.

    Process: the planning, design, development and implementation of the HRD program.

    Output: effects on the organization, including profit, productivity and

    customer satisfaction.

    Bushnell states that evaluation measurement can and should occur between each of

    the stages as well as between the four activities in the process stage to ensure that the

    program is will designed and meets its objectives.

    According to Smith and Piper (1990:9) identified four groups of people

    directly involved in evaluating the effectiveness of management training and

    development who should be involved in its evaluation:

    The purchaser of training

    The training agency

    The trainee and

    The independent contracted assessor or researcher.

    2.7 Evaluative methods

    At whichever level the evaluating there are always basic questions need to be

    asked:

    Why are you undertaking the evaluation?

    Who are the stakeholders?

    How information gathered?

    Who will have access to it?

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    How will it be used and why?

    How will it be analyzed?

    Is there a pre-designed or standard instrument available?

    Got the time and resources to pilot the method?

    Can anticipate the time and resources needed to complete the evaluation?

    How accurate dose the information need to be, and if very accurate, how are

    you going to deal with error and bias?

    When, how often and over what period of time will it be undertaken?

    The type of evaluative methods or instrument are selected which is more suitable and

    available. They may well include:

    Personal inventories

    Attitudinal diagnostic questionnaires

    Factual written tests

    Observations of practice or interpersonal skill

    Group brainstorming or analysis

    Focus group

    Observation of work performance

    Analysis of documentation according to pre-defined or open criteria

    Portfolios of evidence

    Individual or group interviews.

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    2.8 Evaluating reactions to training

    Formats for evaluations can vary from open oral discussion, to individual

    conversation, from a simple blank sheet to a list of topics. Sometimes negotiation of

    criteria for feedback takes place at the beginning of a learning event, enhancing

    ownership of the whole process. Sometimes organizers have particular data they are

    required to collect which relate to organizational policy. Common criteria include:

    Content-level, relevance, interest, quality, quantity;

    Style- pace, format, accessibility of language, flexibility, inter-activity;

    Media-readability, variety, clarity, user-friendly, familiar of innovative, stimulating;

    Personnel-motivation, presentation, commitment, professionalism;

    Location-comfort, fit-for-purpose, refreshments, access, facilities;

    Timing-in relation to external and internal events

    2.9 Evaluation is also done on

    Cognitive learning from training : the extent to which people know more or better, or

    the extent to which attitudes have changed.

    Change in practice and behavior after training : acquisition of new skills that are

    demonstrated and then tried out in training, learners require time and the appropriateoccasion to practice new learning over a period of time before new skills can become

    habitual.

    How an organization benefits from training : one of the current trends in

    organizational evaluation of training is the desire to measure return on investment

    (ROI). This has become highly relevant in some sectors where budgets and

    sponsorship are increasingly competitive, and where one has to justify expenditure or

    devise strategic plan at operational level. Those who have attempted to devise ways of

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    predicting the monetary value of training, that is to say the extent to which training

    can enhance profitability, increase productivity, develop new market or create

    business opportunities (Phillips, 1994a).

    Jone Newstoran (1980) conducted a project of evaluating effectiveness of trainee

    method for American society of personnel administration. He has done it in 200 large

    firms for 50 training directors. The sample drawn was random and the study revealed

    that the case study method was much preferred.

    Paul Davision (1982) conducting a study on human resource development service at

    MRF. Objectives were on the following areas functions and development needs of

    supervisory training and their reaction to the training programmer. Through

    systematic sampling 55 respondents were selected out of 156 supervisors who

    underwent training. The major findings were the training has to be imparted to the

    supervisor in the following areas production, process, grievance handling and house

    keeping. The supervisors were satisfied with the training programmers and training

    has on job satisfaction.

    Academy of managerial executives (1986) conducted a study on the need for

    executive development programmers. The study revealed a managers work is been

    divided in six clusters on which basis, training is given.

    Grace Jone (1986) conducted a study on Training and Development at Indian Oil

    Commission Exchange, India. The sample size was 30 and the objective of study was

    to find whether training and development could influence the behavior and attitude of

    the trainees. The study said that 24% of the respondents agree to the objectives.

    Nathaniel Sasikar (1988) conducted a study on HRD programmer in Bharath Heavy

    Electrical Limited Trichy. It was aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the training

    programmer and also the attitude of supervisors towards a training programmer 70

    respondents were selected through simple random sampling and the study reveled that

    the training programmer had a define impact on the supervisors and it was mean to

    enrich their ability to perform the duties.

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    Study of Training and Development Audit and Evaluation Division March 2002

    Recommendations

    This study makes the following four recommendations:

    1. Senior management should encourage divisions that are not yet doing so, to

    plan and support training at a divisional level in order to ensure a more

    strategic, co-ordinate approach to the management of employee training.

    2. For new training courses or programs, course designers should include

    measures to evaluate learning and behavior (performance).

    3. For existing courses, a plan should be established to identify ways in which to

    integrate evaluation measures that address learning and behavior

    (performance).

    4. Any user surveys undertaken as part of the renewal of the Global system

    should include consultations with training administrators and divisional

    managers in order to ensure that the systems capabilities better support their

    planning, management and information needs.

    Appendix A contains the management action plan developed in response to these

    recommendations.

    Conclusion

    The studys findings on the accessibility of training are generally positive for all

    groups of employees and therefore we made no recommendations. As a helpful tool,

    information for line managers has been collated, focusing on promising practices and

    possible solutions to barriers identified by employees. We expect it will assist

    managers in meeting challenges of a workplace recognized for a very positive culture

    surrounding human resources management.

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    CHAPTER THREE

    DATA ANALYSIS ANDINTERPRETATION

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    3. Data Analysis and Interpretation

    TABLE 1

    Gender of the respondents

    Gender Frequency Percentage

    Male

    Female

    43

    7

    86

    14

    Total 50 100

    According to the researcher majority of the respondents are from male with 43

    responds and rest 7 responds are female out of total number of 50 samples.

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    TABLE 2

    Designation of the respondents

    Designation Frequency Percentage

    Administration

    Marketing

    Senior Technician

    Technician

    10

    7

    8

    25

    20

    14

    16

    50

    Total 50 100

    The researcher selected maximum of 25 respondents is from Technician which is

    followed by 10 respondents from administrator, 8 respondents from Senior

    Technician and with least number of respondents from marketers with 7 respondents.

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    FIGURE 1

    Training is essential for present job system

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    stronglyagree

    agree stronglydisagree

    disagree

    strongly agree

    agree

    strongly disagree

    disagree

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    TABLE 3

    Training is essential for present job system

    Frequency Percentage

    Strongly Agree

    Agree

    Strongly Disagree Disagree

    14

    25

    -

    11

    28

    50

    -

    22

    Total

    50 100

    From the research the table shows that 25 respondents agree; 14 respondents stronglyagree and 11 respondents disagree with the requirement of training for present job

    system.

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    TABLE 4

    Training helps in work place

    Frequency Percentage

    Strongly Agree

    Agree

    Strongly Disagree Disagree

    17

    32

    -

    1

    34

    64

    -

    2

    Total

    50 100

    According to the researcher majority of 32 respondents Agree and 17 respondents

    strongly agree and 1 disagree with the supportive of training in work place.

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    FIGURE 2

    Training gives job security

    0%

    1 0%

    2 0%

    3 0%

    4 0%

    5 0%

    6 0%

    strongly

    agree

    strongly

    disagree

    strongly a gree

    agree

    strongly disagreedisagree

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    TABLE 5

    Training gives job security

    Frequency Percentage

    Strongly Agree

    Agree

    Strongly Disagree

    Disagree

    8

    27

    7

    8

    16

    54

    14

    16

    Total

    50 100

    From the research the researcher would observe that training directly or indirectly

    gives job security which is agreed by 27 respondents; 7 respondents strongly disagree

    and 8 respondents strongly agree and disagree with this comment.

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    FIGUREG 3

    Training helps in performance appraisal

    22%

    64%

    4%

    10%

    strongly agree

    agree

    strongly disagree

    disagree

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    TABLE 6

    Training helps in performance appraisal

    Frequency Percentage

    Strongly Agree

    Agree

    Strongly Disagree Disagree

    11

    32

    2

    5

    22

    64

    4

    10

    Total

    50 100

    According to the researcher the table states that out of 50 respondents 32 respondentsagree; 11 strongly agree; 5 disagree and 2 strongly disagree that training helps in

    performance appraisal.

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    TABLE 7

    Training program helps in bringing job satisfaction

    Frequency Percentage

    Strongly Agree

    Agree

    Strongly Disagree Disagree

    11

    33

    2

    4

    22

    66

    4

    8

    Total

    50 100

    According to the researcher the table shows that 33 and 11 respondents agree and

    strongly agree that training brings job satisfaction where as 2 and 4 respondentsstrongly disagree and disagree with that.

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    FIGURE 4

    Training as a whole will bring organization change and development

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    stronglyagree

    agree stronglydisagree

    disagree

    strongly agree

    agree

    strongly disagre

    disagree

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    TABLE 8

    Training as a whole will bring organization change and development

    Frequency Percentage

    Strongly Agree

    Agree

    Strongly Disagree

    Disagree

    16

    31

    -

    3

    32

    62

    -

    6

    Total

    50 100

    According to the researcher 16 and 31 respondents strongly agree and agree and only

    3 respondents disagree that training as a whole bring organization change and

    development.

    TABLE 9

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    Was any training given to solve the problem in work

    Frequency Percentage

    Yes

    No

    28

    22

    56

    44

    Total 50 100

    According to the above table shown says that 28 respondent yes and 22 respondents

    no for training helps in solving problem in work place.

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    TABLE 10

    Current training is adequate to deal with day to day problem duringwork?

    Frequency Percentage

    Very much helpful

    helpful

    At times

    Not at all

    24

    16

    12

    48

    32

    24

    Total 50 100

    According to the researcher the table shows that 24 respondents say training was very

    much helpful in dealing with day to day problem; 16 respondents found it helpful and12 respondents say at times it is useful.

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    TABLE 11

    Performances of the supervisor

    According to the researcher it state the performance of their supervisor with 19

    respondents says excellent and 26 respondents say good performance of their

    supervisor and 5 respondents says satisfied with their supervisor.

    Frequency Percentage

    Excellent

    Good

    Satisfied

    Not satisfied

    19

    26

    5

    38

    52

    10

    Total 50 100

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    FIGURE 5

    Role that can be performed by the supervisor

    for an effective training

    0%

    5%

    10%

    15%

    20%

    25%

    30%

    35%

    40%

    45%

    motivation handlingcapacity

    be verystrict

    wellknowledge

    ni l

    motivation

    handling c apacit

    be very strict

    well knowledgeni l

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    TABLE 12

    Role that can be performed by the supervisor

    for an effective training

    Frequency Percentage

    Motivation

    Handling capacity

    Be very strict

    Well knowledge Nil

    10

    21

    10

    5

    4

    20

    42

    20

    10

    8

    Total

    50100

    According to the researcher, the respondents state few roles which can be performed

    by the supervisor, 10 respondents say supervisor must learn to motivate and be very

    strict; 21 respondents must improve in handling capacity; 5 respondents says the

    supervisors must be well knowledge and 4 respondents give no such comments.

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    TABLE 13

    Main area to be concentrated during training

    Frequency Percentage

    Qualified supervisor

    Knowledge on modern equipment

    Teaching ability

    9

    27

    14

    18 54

    28

    Total 50 100

    According to the researcher the table shows that training can be made effective by

    concentrating the following area like 9 respondents say trainer must be well qualified;

    27 respondents say trainer must be well knowledge on modern equipment and 14

    respondents say the trainer must have teaching ability.

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    TABLE 14

    Training understandings

    Frequency Percentage

    Given to weak worker

    Introduce of modern/new machines

    Shift to other section

    7

    34

    9

    14

    68

    18

    Total 50 100

    According to the researcher the above table helps to measure the respondents

    knowledge in training were 7 respondents says it is given to weak worker;34

    respondents says it given to introduce of modern or new machines and 9 respondents

    say it is given when there is shift to other section.

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    FIGURE 6

    Level of encouragement for training

    v e r y m u4 6 %

    w h e n n e e5 4 %

    n o t su0 %

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    TABLE 15

    Level of encouragement for training

    Frequency Percentage

    Very much

    When needed

    Not sure

    23

    27

    -

    46

    54

    -

    Total 50 100

    According to the researcher 23 respondents says the company encouragement in

    training is very much; 27 respondents say when needed company provides training.

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    TABLE 16

    Interested in getting training

    Frequency Percentage

    Yes

    No

    43

    7

    86

    14

    Total 50 100

    According to the researcher out of 50 samples 43 respondents are interested in getting

    training and 7 respondents are not interested in getting training.

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    FIGURE 7

    Appropriate comments and suggestion on training and development

    0% 10% 20% 30% 40%

    Very much needed

    Not needed of present job

    Helped lot to do presentwork

    It must improvecapacity

    Not necessary

    Not necessary

    It must improvecapacity

    Helped lot to dopresent work

    Not needed of present job

    Very much needed

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    TABLE 17

    Appropriate comments and suggestion on training and development

    Frequency Percentage

    Very much needed

    Not needed of present job

    Helped lot to do present work

    It must improve capacity Not necessary

    18

    7

    16

    9

    36

    14

    32

    18

    Total

    50100

    According to the researcher, the respondents gave few suggestion in which,18

    respondents say training is needed very much; 7 respondents say it is not needed of

    the present job; 16 respondents say it helped lot to do present work and 16

    respondents say training must able improve ones capacity and bring some change.

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    CHAPTER FOUR

    FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONSAND CONCLUSION

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    4. FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS ANDCONCLUSION

    3. SUMMARY

    The objective of the present study is to identify the dynamism of training and

    development in Teknomac Company.

    In the present study the sample consist of 50 employees who are right now working

    with Teknomac Company. Samples are randomly selected; and the following

    demographical details also collected from the respondents such as sex, marital status,designation, education, and experience and income level of each employee.

    To fulfill the objective of the present study the questioner have been prepared with 50

    questions and collected the employee views both by questioner method and interview

    method. And the datas have been deeply analyzed based on the objective of the study

    and take to mean.

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    3.1 FINDING

    The study shows the performance of the supervisor has been assessed by the

    employee/worker; Majority of the respondents assesses the supervisor to be

    good and excellent performance.

    Respondents suggest few roles that can be performed by the supervisor for the

    effective training process; which are, handling capacity by the supervisor

    wants to have some improvement, level motivation and to be strict falls to be

    with same rank.

    The study shows the effectiveness of the present training given by the

    company is very much satisfied with the employee/worker.

    Large number of the respondents state that the present topics and needs are

    fulfilled by the company but in addition to this training programmer

    employee/worker suggest including few more advanced topics.

    The shows that the Respondents are very much agreeing with the statement

    that training are planned according to the training need. And the training need

    is identified and fulfill by the organization with the help of supervisors.

    According to the supervisor comments- training is given to the

    employee/worker only on the bases of their performance in work, punctuality

    etc

    Almost all the respondents have gone through the process of training and very

    much satisfied with the training plan which leads all the respondents those

    who attended training and those who have not attended any training are very

    much interested in getting training according to this study.

    The study shows the majority of the respondents are very much clear that

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    training helps in boost up performance appraisal which in turn brings job

    satisfaction and job security of the respondent and it also shows that the

    training enhances ones skill and improves capacity.

    Training will bring respondent improvement and change in the performance of

    work which in turn also causes the organization to develop with it.

    The study shows that all the respondents able to perform their work but still

    they are interested is getting training.

    More than half of the respondents have attended training program which

    largely relates to their work.

    The study shows that most of the respondents say the current training which is

    conducted by the organization is very much helpful which mean the training

    plan largely match with the training need.

    The study visibly rates the respondents training knowledge, that training is

    given when new machinery arrive therefore the respondents says that good

    trainer must have healthy knowledge on modern machines and good teaching

    ability.

    The study state that the training is given for the improvement and better

    quality of the product and services.

    3.2 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

    The researcher would not collect filled up questioner from the

    respondents at once, a few questions the respondent did not wish to

    answer and hardly any respondents gave irresponsible answers and

    the researcher were not allowed to fill the questioner from few

    department.

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    3.3 CONCULSIONIn some organizations the term Learning & Development is used instead of Training

    and Development in order to emphasise the importance of learning for the individual

    and the organization. In other organizations, the term Human Resource Development

    is used.

    The organizations spend ideally on the training aiming to bring some

    change which must result in the development of the organization

    and training also creates the worker/employee to bring passion

    toward their work.

    Training in any place, if it is presented to the level of the trainees

    and according to the need of the training, it will bring development

    of the organization. The training helps in handling critical situation

    and it build up the confidences in their work environment. The

    training helps in reducing attrition level by bring job satisfaction and

    job security and job safety by reducing the accidents.

    Even thou the employee/worker able to do their regular work they

    are interested to learn few more new technicians in their work

    through training. The supervisor makes remarkable support to the

    worker/employee in their each step of their work.

    It is sturdily accepted by the management of the organization that

    the training program helped in their development of organization.

    And with the proper identification of training need at a right time

    and right place will helps in the development of the organization as

    well as the employee/worker improve their capacity.

    Based on the hypothesis of the study, all the hypothesis have been

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    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_%26_Developmenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traininghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traininghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_%26_Development
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    proved, which are as follow

    Training plan match with training needs.

    Training brings job satisfaction and gives job security.

    Employee interested to training program.

    Training helps to bring change and development of the company.

    3.4 SUGGESTION

    A study on particular designated employee/workmen will be use full for theresearcher as well as to the organization.

    Since the study conducted in manufacturing sector difficult to collect the filled

    up questioner because of their shift work timing.

    Avoid perception.

    Latest edition of books can be referred to know about new concepts of training

    and development.

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