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Educational Psychology Reviewer




    Learning process through which experience causes a relatively permanent change in

    knowledge or behavior. changes caused by maturation do not qualify as learning temporary changes resulting from illness, fatigue or hunger are also excluded

    Behavioral Learning Theories explanations of learning that focus on external events as the cause of changes in

    observable behaviors. earliest explanations of learning came from Aristotle: We remember things together 1) when they are similar 2) when they contrast 3) when they are contiguous.

    Contiguity association of two events because of repeated pairing whenever you see your particularly violent classmate, you keep expecting that you'll

    get a broken finger or a rib or something

    Stimulus event that activates behavior; crush mo

    Response observable reaction to a stimulus; kilig

    Respondents responses (generally automatic or involuntary) elicited by specific stimuli. crush mo, kilig; stalker/secret admirer mo, diri

    Classical Conditioning association of automatic responses with new stimuli focuses on the learning of involuntary emotional or physiological responses such

    as fear, increased muscle tension, salivation. Ivan Pavlov

    Neutral Stimulus stimulus not connected to a response; an empty classroom

    Unconditioned Stimulus (US) stimulus that automatically produces an emotional or physiological response; the

    sight of your crush and his/her partner (not you lel)

  • Unconditioned Response (UR) naturally occurring emotional or physiological response; pain, hugot, iyak

    Conditioned Stimulus (CS) stimulus that evokes an emotional or physiological response after conditioning; the

    empty classroom where you saw them togetherConditioned Response (CR)

    learned response to a previously neutral stimulus; whenever you pass by that classroom, you remember the pain and the tears and the hugot

    Operants voluntary (and generally goal directed) behaviors emitted by a person or an animal;

    reciting in classOperant Conditioning

    learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequencesor antecedents.

    B.F. Skinner

    Antecedents events that precede an action

    Consequences events that follow an action

    * Antecedent Behavior Consequence (A-B-C)** As behavior is ongoing, a given consequence becomes an antecedent for the next

    ABC sequence.

    Reinforcement use of consequences to strengthen behavior

    Reinforcer any event that follows a behavior and increases the chances that the behavior will

    occur again.Types of reinforcement

    Positive Reinforcement: strengthening behavior by presenting a desired stimulus after the behavior; Galing naman. Ang taba ng utak. Wow. Nosebleed sa English.

    Negative Reinforcement: strengthening behavior by removing an aversive stimulus when the behavior occurs; Di ka na tatanga-tanga.

    * If a particular action leads to avoiding or escaping an aversive situation, the action is less likely to be repeated in a similar situation.

  • Aversive irritating or unpleasant

    Punishment process that weakens or suppresses behavior

    * A behavior followed by a punisher is less likely to be repeated in similar situations in the future.

    Two Forms of Punishment Type 1 Punishment or Presentation Punishment: decreasing the chances that a

    behavior will occur again by presenting an aversive stimulus following the behavior

    Type 2 Punishment or Removal Punishment: decreasing the chances that a behavior will occur again by removing a pleasant stimulus following the behavior

    Continuous Reinforcement Schedule presenting reinforcement after every appropriate response

    Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule presenting a reinforcement after some but not all responses interval schedule: reinforcement based on length of time between responses ratio schedule: reinforcement based on the number of responses either may be fixed (predictable) or variable (unpredictable)i

    Extinction the disappearance of a learned response

    Stimulus Control capacity for the presence or absence of antecedents to cause behaviors

    Effective Instruction Delivery instructions that are concise, clear, and specific and that communicate an expected

    result; statements work better than questions.

    Cueing providing a stimulus that sets up a desired behavior; a to-do list (that you try to

    follow but ultimately fail)Prompt

    a reminder that follows a cue to make sure that person reacts to a cue; working in your pairs, unless your partner doesn't care and does all the work anyway

    Applied Behavior Analysis is the application of behavioral learning principles to change behavior.

  • Behavior Modification systematic application of antecedents and consequences to change behavior.

    Methods for encouraging behaviors reinforcing with teacher attention differential reinforcement; praise students for good behavior, while ignoring

    misbehavior; systematic application of praise and attention may be most powerful motivational and classroom management tool available to teachers

    Premack Principle: a principle stating that a more-preferred activity can serve as a reinforcer for a less-preferred activity; if you did this first, I'll let you do that later

    shaping: reinforcing each small step of progress toward a desired goal or behavior* successive approximations: small components that make up a complex

    behavior* task analysis: system for breaking down a task hierarchically into basic skills

    and sub-skills

    Positive Practice practicing correct responses immediately after errors

    Negative Reinforcement if an action stops or avoids something unpleasant, then that action is likely to

    occur again in similar situations. if consequence involves removing or subtracting a stimulus, the reinforcement is


    Reprimands criticisms for misbehavior; rebukes soft, calm, private reprimands are more effective than loud, public reprimands in

    decreasing disruptive behavior students usually respond quickly to private reprimands

    Response Cost punishment by loss of reinforcers. paying a fine.

    Social Isolation removal of a disruptive student for 5-10 minutes one of the most controversial behavioral methods for decreasing undesirable


  • Time Out technically, the removal of all reinforcement; in practice, isolation of a student

    from the rest of the class for a brief time.

    Good behavior game arrangement where a class is divided into teams and each team receives demerit for

    breaking agreed-upon rules of good behaviorGroup Consequences

    rewards or punishment given to a class as a whole for adhering to or violating rulesof conduct

    Contingency Contract a contract between the teacher and a student specifying what the student must do

    to earn a particular reward or privilege.Token Reinforcement System

    system in which tokens earned for academic work and positive classroom behavior can be exchanged for some desired reward

    should only be used in 3 situations: * to motivate students who are completely uninterested in their work * to encourage students who have consistently failed to make academic

    progress * to deal with class that is out of control.

    Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) procedures used to obtain information about antecedents, behaviors and

    consequences to determine the reason or function of the behavior.Positive Behavior Supports (PBS)

    interventions designed to replace problem behaviors with new actions that serve the same purpose for the student.

    Precorrection tool for positive behavior support that involves identifying the context for a

    students behavior, specifying the alternative expected behavior, modifying the situation to make the problem behavior less likely, then rehearsing the expected positive behaviors in the new context and providing powerful reinforcers

    Self Management use of behavioral learning principles to change your own behavior monitoring and evaluating are elements of self management

    Self Evaluation is more difficult than self-recording because it involves making a judgment about

    the quality of your own work

  • Self-Reinforcement controlling your own reinforcers; last step in self management

    Social Learning Theory theory that emphasizes learning through observation of others Albert Bandura

    Enactive Learning learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions

    Observational Learning learning by observation and imitations of others; vicarious learning


    Cognitive View of Learning a general approach that views learning as an active mental process of acquiring,

    remembering and using knowledge

    Cognitive science the interdisciplinary study of thinking, language, intelligence, knowledge, creation

    and the brain.

    Mirror System areas of the brain that fire both during perception of an action by someone else

    and when performing the action

    Kinds of Knowledge Domain Specific Knowledge: information that is useful in a particular situation or

    that implies mainly to one specific topic. General Knowledge: information that is useful in many different kind of tasks;

    information that applies to many situations

    Information Processing the human minds activity of taking in, storing, and using information

    Sensory Memory system that holds sensory in