final educ. psych. reviewer
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DESCRIPTIONEducational Psychology Reviewer
CHAPTER 7: BEHAVIORAL VIEWS OF LEARNING
Learning process through which experience causes a relatively permanent change in
knowledge or behavior. changes caused by maturation do not qualify as learning temporary changes resulting from illness, fatigue or hunger are also excluded
Behavioral Learning Theories explanations of learning that focus on external events as the cause of changes in
observable behaviors. earliest explanations of learning came from Aristotle: We remember things together 1) when they are similar 2) when they contrast 3) when they are contiguous.
Contiguity association of two events because of repeated pairing whenever you see your particularly violent classmate, you keep expecting that you'll
get a broken finger or a rib or something
Stimulus event that activates behavior; crush mo
Response observable reaction to a stimulus; kilig
Respondents responses (generally automatic or involuntary) elicited by specific stimuli. crush mo, kilig; stalker/secret admirer mo, diri
Classical Conditioning association of automatic responses with new stimuli focuses on the learning of involuntary emotional or physiological responses such
as fear, increased muscle tension, salivation. Ivan Pavlov
Neutral Stimulus stimulus not connected to a response; an empty classroom
Unconditioned Stimulus (US) stimulus that automatically produces an emotional or physiological response; the
sight of your crush and his/her partner (not you lel)
Unconditioned Response (UR) naturally occurring emotional or physiological response; pain, hugot, iyak
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) stimulus that evokes an emotional or physiological response after conditioning; the
empty classroom where you saw them togetherConditioned Response (CR)
learned response to a previously neutral stimulus; whenever you pass by that classroom, you remember the pain and the tears and the hugot
Operants voluntary (and generally goal directed) behaviors emitted by a person or an animal;
reciting in classOperant Conditioning
learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequencesor antecedents.
Antecedents events that precede an action
Consequences events that follow an action
* Antecedent Behavior Consequence (A-B-C)** As behavior is ongoing, a given consequence becomes an antecedent for the next
Reinforcement use of consequences to strengthen behavior
Reinforcer any event that follows a behavior and increases the chances that the behavior will
occur again.Types of reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement: strengthening behavior by presenting a desired stimulus after the behavior; Galing naman. Ang taba ng utak. Wow. Nosebleed sa English.
Negative Reinforcement: strengthening behavior by removing an aversive stimulus when the behavior occurs; Di ka na tatanga-tanga.
* If a particular action leads to avoiding or escaping an aversive situation, the action is less likely to be repeated in a similar situation.
Aversive irritating or unpleasant
Punishment process that weakens or suppresses behavior
* A behavior followed by a punisher is less likely to be repeated in similar situations in the future.
Two Forms of Punishment Type 1 Punishment or Presentation Punishment: decreasing the chances that a
behavior will occur again by presenting an aversive stimulus following the behavior
Type 2 Punishment or Removal Punishment: decreasing the chances that a behavior will occur again by removing a pleasant stimulus following the behavior
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule presenting reinforcement after every appropriate response
Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule presenting a reinforcement after some but not all responses interval schedule: reinforcement based on length of time between responses ratio schedule: reinforcement based on the number of responses either may be fixed (predictable) or variable (unpredictable)i
Extinction the disappearance of a learned response
Stimulus Control capacity for the presence or absence of antecedents to cause behaviors
Effective Instruction Delivery instructions that are concise, clear, and specific and that communicate an expected
result; statements work better than questions.
Cueing providing a stimulus that sets up a desired behavior; a to-do list (that you try to
follow but ultimately fail)Prompt
a reminder that follows a cue to make sure that person reacts to a cue; working in your pairs, unless your partner doesn't care and does all the work anyway
Applied Behavior Analysis is the application of behavioral learning principles to change behavior.
Behavior Modification systematic application of antecedents and consequences to change behavior.
Methods for encouraging behaviors reinforcing with teacher attention differential reinforcement; praise students for good behavior, while ignoring
misbehavior; systematic application of praise and attention may be most powerful motivational and classroom management tool available to teachers
Premack Principle: a principle stating that a more-preferred activity can serve as a reinforcer for a less-preferred activity; if you did this first, I'll let you do that later
shaping: reinforcing each small step of progress toward a desired goal or behavior* successive approximations: small components that make up a complex
behavior* task analysis: system for breaking down a task hierarchically into basic skills
Positive Practice practicing correct responses immediately after errors
Negative Reinforcement if an action stops or avoids something unpleasant, then that action is likely to
occur again in similar situations. if consequence involves removing or subtracting a stimulus, the reinforcement is
Reprimands criticisms for misbehavior; rebukes soft, calm, private reprimands are more effective than loud, public reprimands in
decreasing disruptive behavior students usually respond quickly to private reprimands
Response Cost punishment by loss of reinforcers. paying a fine.
Social Isolation removal of a disruptive student for 5-10 minutes one of the most controversial behavioral methods for decreasing undesirable
Time Out technically, the removal of all reinforcement; in practice, isolation of a student
from the rest of the class for a brief time.
Good behavior game arrangement where a class is divided into teams and each team receives demerit for
breaking agreed-upon rules of good behaviorGroup Consequences
rewards or punishment given to a class as a whole for adhering to or violating rulesof conduct
Contingency Contract a contract between the teacher and a student specifying what the student must do
to earn a particular reward or privilege.Token Reinforcement System
system in which tokens earned for academic work and positive classroom behavior can be exchanged for some desired reward
should only be used in 3 situations: * to motivate students who are completely uninterested in their work * to encourage students who have consistently failed to make academic
progress * to deal with class that is out of control.
Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) procedures used to obtain information about antecedents, behaviors and
consequences to determine the reason or function of the behavior.Positive Behavior Supports (PBS)
interventions designed to replace problem behaviors with new actions that serve the same purpose for the student.
Precorrection tool for positive behavior support that involves identifying the context for a
students behavior, specifying the alternative expected behavior, modifying the situation to make the problem behavior less likely, then rehearsing the expected positive behaviors in the new context and providing powerful reinforcers
Self Management use of behavioral learning principles to change your own behavior monitoring and evaluating are elements of self management
Self Evaluation is more difficult than self-recording because it involves making a judgment about
the quality of your own work
Self-Reinforcement controlling your own reinforcers; last step in self management
Social Learning Theory theory that emphasizes learning through observation of others Albert Bandura
Enactive Learning learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions
Observational Learning learning by observation and imitations of others; vicarious learning
CHAPTER 8: COGNITIVE VIEWS OF LEARNING
Cognitive View of Learning a general approach that views learning as an active mental process of acquiring,
remembering and using knowledge
Cognitive science the interdisciplinary study of thinking, language, intelligence, knowledge, creation
and the brain.
Mirror System areas of the brain that fire both during perception of an action by someone else
and when performing the action
Kinds of Knowledge Domain Specific Knowledge: information that is useful in a particular situation or
that implies mainly to one specific topic. General Knowledge: information that is useful in many different kind of tasks;
information that applies to many situations
Information Processing the human minds activity of taking in, storing, and using information
Sensory Memory system that holds sensory in