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CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) Syllabus 1) Introduction 2) OSI (Open System Interconnection) Reference Model 3) Network Devices Types of Communication Cards LAN & WAN Concept 4) IP Addressing & Concepts IPv4 IPv6 Subneting Superneting Variable Length Subnet Scheme (VLSM) And Operation 5) C.D.P 6) IOS Boot up Sequence IOS Upgrading Dual (Booting) 7) IP Routing Static Route RIP (Routing Information Protocol) IGRP (Internet Gateway Routing Protocol) EIGRP (Enhance Internet Gateway Routing Protocol) OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) 8) Switching VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)

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CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) Syllabus1) 2) 3) Introduction OSI (Open System Interconnection) Reference Model Network Devices Types of Communication Cards LAN & WAN Concept

4)

IP Addressing & Concepts IPv4 IPv6

Subneting Superneting Variable Length Subnet Scheme (VLSM) And Operation

5) 6)

C.D.P IOS Boot up Sequence IOS Upgrading Dual (Booting)

7)

IP Routing Static Route RIP (Routing Information Protocol) IGRP (Internet Gateway Routing Protocol) EIGRP (Enhance Internet Gateway Routing Protocol) OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

8)

Switching VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)

9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15)

ACL (Access Control List) WAN (Wide Area Network) Router as a Switch Frame Relay NAT & PAT Private & Public WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) Cabling

1) IntroductionCCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate)CiscoCisco is company name, in course. Company may any, there are many companies i.e. Cisco, Motorola, Simons, Microsoft, but configurations are same. Cisco has 87% shares on infrastructure of IP. It is said that if you send any small information on Internet, this is impossible that this information do not pass through the Cisco Devices. Our purpose is not reading about any product or any company but only with technology.

CertifiedPractically you know what you study.

AssociateThis is a level in this line. Associate is the first level.

NetworkOur whole lab is around the one word i.e. Network. Connectivity of two or more than two devices so that you can communicate with each other, you can exchange the sources or share the information is called networking. It has two parts: 1. Connectivity 2. Communication Medium may any (copper, wire and wave) for the connectivity and communication. Connectivity is due to the Hardware and communication is due to the Software. Example There is a telephone line connected to your home telephone set from PTCL exchange. Is this a network? No, because there is only connectivity but not communication. If an other person talks with you, it is communication. Here the both parts fulfil the definition. Now, you can say the Network.

Q: The signals from telephone exchange are analog signals. If you think that I have digital telephone set in home then why would these signals analog?

Ans:

In old days when a number is dialed then the exchange had a mechanical arm. You can listen the sound of that arm as the sound of typewriter on every digits of your number. But there is no sound now a day, only this process is converted into digital. But the signals pass through media as analog.

Avoid Wrong ConceptIf you use the modem in between the telephone exchange and your computer, then modem converts the analog signals into digital to analog signals, this concept is wrong.

ModemThe basic purpose of modem is modulation and demodulation.

Modulation & DemodulationExample If you take a page and throw away with full capacity then this page (Information) will not travel more. But if you use a stone covered by paper (Information) then this paper will covered long distance with high speed. When this paper reached to other side, unwanted information (Stone) is removed to get information (Paper). Insertion of carrier (Stone) into information for covering long distance is called Modulation. And distraction of carrier unwanted information is called Demodulation.

2) OSI (Open System Interconnection) Reference ModelOSI Reference ModelReferenceThe word reference always between two things, there is no reference of only a single thing. The eyes reference is with eye and the legs reference with leg. This reference means there is any two devices is involved in this reference not one device. OSI Reference Model is not for a single machine, this model is for networks.

OSIOSI stands for Open System Interconnection.

Q: Why is it said as Open System, why not as Close System? Ans:As you know, The connectivity of two or more than two devices so that they can communicate which each other. there is not mentioned that medium would be copper, fiber, microwaves or radio waves for the connectivity. Media may be anything for the connectivity.

The other part of the definition The connectivity of two or more than two devices devices mean it can be a router, switch, computer, modem or any other device. Example Using your Internet, when you send an email or chat with other by MSN Messenger, there is not a condition that those only those people can send emails or chat with each other that had the same machines both sides. Machines may be of any vendor i.e. IBM, Compaq or Dell. You can use any media, any venders computer and any operating system for connectivity and sharing resources. So it is known as Open i.e. open for every one. If the OSI System was as Close System then it means, Internet will use the people that have only Compaq machines. OSI Model is a Layered Approach (Structured Approach), which is made to understand the Internet or network.

Layered Approach OR Structured ApproachIf you understand the human, then you can say this is a human being, which is divided into structure. Like head, eyes, nose, hand mouth etc. Each part of body has its own function.

Q: What is advantage of Layered Approach? Ans:Example: If there is one person is working in a company, that person is marketing manager, technical manager, receptionist and peon also. This single person is responsible for all working of company. After one year, there is a visit of Chief Executive by chance, he asked that person about the dirtiness of office. He replied that I have been involving in technical matter, marketing all day so I have not time. The employee accepts the responsibility of office but he presents logic also. In this situation you cannot blame on the employee. On the other hand if there is division like: there are separate employees on all departments i.e. marketing, technical, receptionist and peon. When Chief Executive came and asked the peon about the dirtiness of office. This is an error by the peon not marketing or technical manager. Company has no business in this whole year this error is by the marketing manager not peon or receptionist or any other person. By using Layered Approach you can find out the errors on accurate location. If there is not layered approach then there is very difficult to find out the errors and also resolving these errors. Example: Using Internet, when you dial to connect to the Internet, messages may show like There is no dial tone, Invalid User Name / Pass Word. If you see the word only as Error then you cannot find out the exact location of error. After seeing messages you will check the appropriate location for resolving the error.

e.g. if you see There is no dial tone then you will check the telephone not correct the password. Net Workers divide the Internet theory to maximum seven layers. They said there are seven layers may not be eight layers but may be six, five. You can remember the seven layers with this line All People Seems to Need Data Processing.

Q: Why do make OSI Model? Ans:OSI Reference Model is made for to the point error detection.

OSI Open System Interconnection Layered Model Ser No 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Layers Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer Physical Layer

You can say this model as Data Flow Chart. The purpose of this model to understand the flow of data on the network, understanding the steps during moving the data in network.

7. Application LayerComputer applications like MS Word, MS Excel etc. If we want to chat on Internet then we run MS Messenger (which is Application), without opening of any application on your computer you cannot make any work. The first step for doing any work, to run application. You send HELLO to other computer there is compulsory that same applications are running on both computers that want to communicate. If there are not running same applications on both computers then this HELLO not to be seen on computer screen.

6. Presentation LayerOur language is English and computer learns that language is machine. This layer converts the data from one form to another form. It converts the data into machine language.

5. Session LayerThis layer is most critical and most conceptual. This layer creates virtual session. Virtual Session means to check the availability of other side. Sessions are of two kinds: i. ii. Physical Session (First we go and the checking) Virtual Session (First we checking then going)

Remember the word HELLO is not for our machine but it is another machine.

Example (Physical Session) If you want to go to Lahore from Islamabad, then there are two ways. First is that you reached at Lahore without informing that person. When you asked about that person, you find that person is not available. You will come back by spending patrol, time without any progress. Example (Virtual Session) If you call that person before go to Lahore, if that person is available then I will move, otherwise I will not move. The advantage of this virtual session was, you have saved their resources. Virtual Session provides the information about the other party available or not and also saving the resources. Example This layer normally to be said as G.M. This G.M. wants to move another G.M. of Company for meeting. There are seven gates for going, but only one gate from which G.M can go out. When two computers connected with each other then this is physical layer. Example Using MSN Messenger, you want to chat another person, if that person is available then the other window is opened otherwise a message will display as User is not available

4. Transport LayerIf other machine is available then this layer is responsible to transport the data on network. For the transport of data fragmentation is made. The conversion of data into small pieces is called fragmentation or permutation. E.g. HELLO is converted as: H E L L O

3. Network LayerIts major function is sorting and distribution. For understanding you consider this layer as a Post Office and Router as Post Box. On this layer a device is used called as Router. The pieces of HELLO are sent to a device called Router, which acts as sorting and distribution. In Post Office there is sorting is done, like all mails of Islamabad, Lahore etc. is separated for the distribution to their destinations. In old days when you send a letter to any one, which is called mail. There are two possibilities, the mail reached at exact location or do not reach.

2. Data Link LayerLogical Link Control

Network Data Link Physical

LLC Sub Layer

MAC Sub LayerMedia Access Control

There are two sub layers.

1)

LLC(Logical Link Control)

LLC layer finish hardware and software dependsies. Example If we use Pentium 1 computer and Windows 98 one side and Pentium 4 computer and Windows XP other side then data speed and operating system clash between two computer but that layer finish that problem

2)

MAC(Media Access Control)

There is MAC address exist, MAC address have used many devices like switches and LAN card. As you know that data travel in form of 0 & 1 (these are the voltage level not mathematical and other number ), every device may contain different voltage, its means there is the involvement of voltage. If you have 3 or 5 voltage and its parallel there is line of any high voltage, then it may harm your data. e.g. During watching TV, you some time see lining on your TV set, this is why with any high voltage. Same like above, if there is any data cable contains 3 volts but its parallel a high 5 volts is passing then it is very possible that any bit of your data changes (i.e. 0 to 1). Example During the chatting on messenger a person asked what is your age, he writes answer 25 and sends. During the data traveling its only one bit changes and your information will be changed as 65. In reality no any system is so week, so to resolve this problem a layer is introduced called Data Link Layer. Its main function is the deduction of error.

CRC: (Cyclic Redundancy Code)This algorithm is very important and famous. There may were mistakes take place, so an error deduction algorithm is made. It attaches an algorithm for sending data to the other side as it is.

Example If we have data 25 (5 5) and generators of link side are 5. That generator will divide the 5 / 5 and remainder will 0. When you send 25 on Internet then not only 25 is passing but the footers (tailors) also. Due to some error the word 26 (5 5 1) instead of 25 is changed, on the other machine there will be attached a CRC Algorithm again to check the both checksum. If there is any different then there is any error in that data which you sent. If there is an error then your system (Receiver) will not correct that error but it will say to the sender to correct. Retransmission is faster as compared to error correction. There are two sources for errors: a) b) Errors within the Machine or System (i.e. Computers, Routers, Modems etc) Errors from outside the Machine (i.e. in media when data is sent)

According to the research there is 99% probability of error when data travels on Media. The error in system is very rare, if may occur then system recover or restore from its own cache.

1. Physical Layer:After all the layers exist on a cable is attached to your computer, this cable works on which level is called physical layer. Example If you make a file and give to a peon for send to another place. The peon will move physically for the delivery of that file. The work of peon is to carry the data as it is. Above you sent the word HELLO to other machine, this word travels on all layers by sequence, but if there is an error between the layers then the chances of data to be corrupted.

Q: Where that corrupted data is checked? Ans:There is another Data Link Layer to the other side of Computer. From sender, the algorithm is attached with the data and will re verify by other side. Switch, NIC Card (LAN Card) work on Data Link Layer.

Data EncapsulationApplication Presentation Upper-Layer Data Upper-Layer Data Session

PDUSegment Packet

TCP Header

Transport

IP Header

Data

Network

LLC Header

Data

FCS

Data-LinkData FCS

Frame

MAC Header

0101110101001000010

Physical

Bits

There are all opposite works are done to other side of machine.

Concept1. 2. 3. 4. Protocols Headers Encapsulation Software

1. ProtocolsProtocol is a same set of rules and regulations for the communication between two different machines on the same layer level. Example Company A 1. 2. 3. G.M (Application) Secretary (Session) Peon (Physical) Company B G.M (Application) Secretary (Session) Peon (Physical)

According to rules, is there possible that the G.M of Company A call to the Peon of Company B everyday? By above definition of Protocols, the relation of these companies will as under:

G.M Secretary Peon

G.M Secretary Peon

The main function of Protocols is the communication. By the definition of Network: The connectivity is due to the hardware and the communication is because of the software. Protocols are software. On the Internet or network no any work is done without protocols. If there is no protocol then there is no any communication.

2. HeaderWhen you write HELLO and send, then the data will move to down as Presentation Layer. On this layer the header of presentation layer is attached with the data. On one step down there is another header of session layer is attached with, and so on. Example If I write a letter (Data) and saved in my draws without any receivers address then this letter will not reach on any destination. Because this letter contains no any address and media (LCS or TCS etc). On the other hand if this letter contains the complete address of receiver and also specified the courier then letter will reach at desired location. With out header data cannot move. Header is the method for communication. Header is an overhead. Example There are students in class, there said the students to pass outside the class and passing rate of data is one student per one man. 10 students will pass out in 10 seconds. But if there are 2 bodyguards (as over heads) with these then total 12 students, now these will pass in 12 seconds. This time consuming due to the overhead. When you use overhead on network then it decreases the speed.

3. EncapsulationExample If there is a patient and you give a white powder (medicine) to eat, that patient will not take because he does not know about that medicine so he refused. (There is No Communication). If he receives that medicine then it is said communication is done. On the other hand if I put that medicine in a capsule (Encapsulation) and I said eat it, then he will not eat. I write the name of medicine in French on capsule then he will not eat because he does not understand French language. If I wrote in English i.e. Amoxil then he eat immediately because he knows and understand that language. (There is communication is done). For the communication same set of rules and regulations is required. If one machine knows the French then other machine must know that language (Protocol), otherwise communication will not take place. Due to this Protocol (language) forces the patient to take medicine.

4. SoftwareProtocols, headers and encapsulation are software. As you know about Transport Layer, controls the flow of data. Flow control because of the: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Connection Awaiting Connection Less TCP Connection Oriented UDP

Flow ControlExample The water (Data) is coming from hand pump (Sender) to a glass (Receiver), after a short time the glass will full and then it will be overflow (Wastage of Data). If you want to reserve the wastage of data then you will have to apply a phenomenon is called flow control. There are two possibilities to control the flow of data: a) sender) b) receiver) You will stop the working of hand pump (to decrease the speed of Or you will start the usage of the water (to increase the speed of

On the Internet the process of Flow Control is automatic. On the back a process is working called Speed Utilization which means that equalizes the speed of sender and receiver.

Connection OrientedConnection Oriented (Reliable)In this type of communication, an acknowledgment receipt is generated. This is slow but most reliable. Example Slow: the machine will not go ahead whenever he does not understand the data. Reliable: it is 100% sure that if machine receives the information then go ahead, otherwise not.

Connection Oriented: (Unreliable)In this type of communication, only one time connection confirmation then always data will be sent. This type of communication little bit fast than connection oriented reliable.

Connection Less: (Unreliable)In this communication, an acknowledgment receipt is not generated. It is fast but unreliable. Example During the construction of building there are some workers are working. The bricks are coming the worker from floor to other worker on ground. Due to non-acknowledgment, bricks kill the worker on ground but bricks (Data) are coming from floor. Due to the absent of ground worker data is lost.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)TCP is the example of Connection Oriented.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol):UDP is the example of Connection Less.

3) Network DevicesThere is a line of network devices like Hub, Repeater, Generator, Bridges, Switch, Multinet Switch, Routers Derouter, Fixed Firewall etc. these are all devices included in your course. But the devices that are related your course are Hub, Switch and Router.

1) HUB

A central part of any network is known as Hub. There is no any abbreviation used for Hub. Hub is a broadcast device and same data to all ports. Hub works on Physical Layer.

Q: Hub is a Directed or Flooded Broadcast device? Ans:This will depend on the address.

Q: Why is Hub a Broadcast device? Ans:Hub is same as an electric extension wire used in homes. As you know current and water flows where they find the path. As you attach the computers with Hub the current from Hub flows to that all computers.

2) Switch

Switch works on Data Link Layer and has software ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit). It is the combination of software and hardware. The software of Switch is known as Switching Table. There are switches of LAN and also of WAN. Note: Controller for specific work Processor for multiple works Example If there are three devices like A, B and C. A wants to talk with B then data from A reaches to the switch. Data will stay in switch for a moment if Hub was present then the data would not stay. Hub contains IC (Integrated Circuit). initially there is no Switching Table (Software) in ASIC(Application Specific Integrated Circuit) . As you know that if there is no software on device then it is called Hub, so switch acts as Hub initially. So first time the switch will broadcast the data, if the entry of destination is not available in Switching Table. Otherwise if the entry of the destination is available in Switching Table then the switch will do Unicast. Switch will be doing broadcast till the entry of destination and source is not available in the Switching Table. Destination Entry Available then Unicast Destination Entry Not Available then Boradcast

3) Router

Router is layer three device, There are routing table.Router is a unicast device, nonbroadcast device. Router has two ports written as Serial 0, Serial 1. Ethernet or LAN also printed. The word Serial means this port is for WAN and Ethernet means for port of LAN. So Router is a device, which integrates (merge) WAN and LAN. Destination entry available then unicast Destination entry not available then Drops

CardsNIC Card (Network Interface Card)

WIC Card (Wide Interface Card)

VIC Card (Voice Interface Card)

VWIC Card Or WVIC Card (Voice Wide or Wide Voice Interface Card)

Types of communicationThere are three types of communication

1) 2) 3)

Unicast Multicast Broadcast

1) UnicastUnicast means one to one communication. In this kind of communication only one person listen and that person give answer. Traffic always sent to fix destination.

2) MulticastOne to many communication.In case of Multicast there is no specific or fix destination. Destination can be changed. Multicast sent from the source (Spread around the source). One destination (System) can be one and more than one Multicast member at a time Example If we divided a class in two groups one group A and other group B. Teacher talks group A. Multicast means one to any specific group

3) BroadcastOne to all communication or Broadcast means to all devices Example A teacher in class speaks and all the students listen that sound. The bulletin is broadcasting. Broadcast is divided into two categories:

1. 2.

Directed Broadcast Flooded BroadcastIn a room when a teacher said that Roll no 1 hands up, listen that comment all people but replay only Roll no 1, this is specific broadcast.

1.

Directed Broadcast

In class if teacher ask a question from one student then all the students are listening but only that student answers the question to teacher.

2.

Flooded Broadcast

In class of teacher ask a question from all students then all the students answer that question to the teacher. Disadvantages of Broadcast: There is no security in broadcasting because all persons are listening. There is software Cains use the connection Cable Internet, you can listen the chatting on MSN messenger of all your neighbors. This software catches the packets of IP and decodes them, and you can listen the sounds of your neighbors.

LAN (Local Area Network) & WAN (Wide Area Network)Online BankingIn old days, when you have to withdraw or deposit the money you have to go to that specific branch that have your account. In order to maintain the balance of each account holder, the manual books are maintained. With the passage of time up gradation is made with the computer system. This increases the volume of computers in every branch for data maintaining using LAN. All the branches of all banks are connected each other with antennas. These antennas are point to point but not broadcast because to avoid the risk of security. Example

ATM MachineATM Machine is the example of online banking, using this machine you can withdraw money from any ATM of any bank. During defining the definitions of LAN WAN, there must not be criteria Distance.

LANComputers are connected using the LAN Standard Cable / LAN Standard Port.

WANComputers are connected using the WAN Standard Cable / WAN Standard Port.

Standard of WAN CableIt must be a 1/2-inch thick and having 60 pins end of the cable. Example In a bank there is an antenna with a black cable (WAN Cable). This cable is directly attached with router i.e. in serial port of the router.

Q: Provide some examples of LANs switch and WANs switch? Ans:The WAN and LAN both have their own switches separately. The examples of WAN Switches are follows:

Ethernet

Supports to LAN (Supports to WAN) (Supports to WAN) (Support to WAN)

X.25: Running on Mobilink ATM: Running on PTCL Frame Relay: Running on remaining Lahore.

4) IP Addressing & ConceptIP AddressingQ: Ans: What is IP AddressingThe Internet is a collection of networks whose users communicate with each other. Each communication carries the address of the source and destination networks and the particular machine within the network associated with the user or host computer at each end. This address is called the IP Address (Internet Protocol address). This 32-bit IP address has two parts: one part identifies the network (with the network number) and the other part identifies the specific machine or host within the network (with the host number). An organization can use some of the bits in the machine or host part of the address to identify a specific subnet. Effectively, the IP address then contains three parts: the network number, the subnet number, and the machine number. The 32-bit IP address is often depicted as a dot address (also called dotted decimal notation) - that is, four groups (or octet) of decimal numbers separated by periods. Here's an example: Decimal Digit : 1-9

130.5.5.25Each of the decimal numbers represents a string of eight binary digits. Thus, the above IP address really is this string of 0s and 1s: Binary Digit :0-1

10000010. 00000101. 00000101. 00011001As you can see, we inserted periods between each eight-digit sequence just as we did for the decimal version of the IP address. Obviously, the decimal version of the IP address is easier to read and that's the form most commonly used. We can purchase an IP Address from IANA (Internet Assigning Number Authority)

MAC AddressHardware Address Physical Address None configurable Address Layer 2 address Hardcode Address 48 Bit Address

IP AddressSoftware Address Logical Address Configurable Address Layer 3 Address 32 Bit Address Remember that 95% communication on MAC base and 5% IP base, because LAN communication faster than WAN. LAN mostly devices have MAC Address and WAN work on IP Address. MAC developed core relation with IP, only one time IP called then every time MAC called.

Data Link Physical

MAC AddressMedia Access Control

Network Data Link PhysicalQ What is IP addressing Scheme? Ans: 1) Flat Addressing Scheme

IP AddressInternet Protocol

Example In America use flat addressing scheme. White house # 1 then # 2 and so on . But in your mind no # 1 address in America ,every no different than other.

2)

Hierarchal Addressing Scheme

Example In Pakistan use hierarchal scheme. Block Z have many time use, but every time Block Z hierarchy are different. If we go to Block Z first of all we know about what is your Province, City, Area and then Block.

IP Address ClassesIP addresses can be one of several classes, each determining how many bits represent the network number and how many represent the host number. The most common class used by large organizations (Class A) allows 8 bits for the network number and 24 for the host number.Class A Class B Class C Class D Class E 1 127 128 191 192 223 224 239 240 255 (Network 127 is reserved for loopback and internal testing) Leading bit pattern 0 00000000.00000000.00000000.00000000Network . Host . Host . Host

Leading bit pattern 10 Leading bit pattern 110

10000000 .00000000.00000000.00000000Network . Network . Host . Host

11000000.00000000.00000000.00000000Network . Network . Network . Host

(Reserved for multicast) (Reserved for experimental, used for research)

Network portion is globally unique and host portion locally unique. A Class 00000000=0 01111111=127 Default Route Loopback Testing

B Class

10000000=128 10111111=191 11000000=192 11011111=223 11000000=224 11011111=239 11000000=240 11011111=255

C Class

D Class

E Class

ClassClass A

No of Network

No of Host/Network No of Host/Class

2

8-1

2 24

27x

27Class B

2 24 2 16 2 14x

2 16-2 2 14

2 16 28 2 21x

Class C

2 24-3 221

28

Private Address SpaceClass A Class B Class C 10.0.0.0 172.16.0.0 192.168.0.0 to to to 10.255.255.255 172.31.255.255 192.168.255.255

Default Subnet MasksClass A 255.0.0.0 Class B 255.255.0.0 Class C 255.255.255.0

This in you mind if recognized that what is your class then we see only first octets (Octal is 8 word combination) of the IP Address 192.168.1.1 (also called doted decimal notation)

Formula (Decimal to Binary and Binary to Decimal)Conversion in Binary FormIP Address in decimal form 192 First Octet 128 1 . 64 . 1 . 64 . 0 . 64 . 0 . 64 . 0

. 168 . 30 . 2416 . 8 . 0 0 16 . 8 . 0 1 16 . 8 . 0 0 16 . 8 . 1 1 4 . 0 4 . 0 4 . 0 4 . 0 2 . 1 0 0 2 . 1 0 0 2 . 1 0 0 2 . 1 0 0 = = = = 192 168 30 24

32 . 0 32 . 1 32 . 1 32 . 0

Second Octet 128 1 Third Octet 128 0

Fourth Octet 128 0

Conversion in Decimal Form

IP Address in binary form 11001100 First Octet 128 1 . 64 . 1 . 64 . 0 . 64 . 0 . 64 . 0 32 . 0 32 . 0 32 . 1 32 . 0

. 00011110 . 00111111 . 000111004 . 1 4 . 1 2 . 1 0 0 2 . 1 1 0 2 . 1 1 1 2 . 1 0 0 = = = = 204 30 63 28

16 . 8 . 0 1 16 . 8 . 1 1

Second Octet 128 0 Third Octet 128 0

16 . 8 . 4 . 1 1 1 16 . 8 . 1 1 4 . 1

Fourth Octet 128 0

SubnetingQ What is subnetting? Subnetting is the process of breaking down an IP network into smaller sub-networks (Network with in network) called "subnets." Each subnet is a non-physical description (or ID) for a physical sub-network (usually a switched network of host containing a single router in a multi-router network).

Subnet Mask NotationThere are two forms of subnet notation, standard notation and CIDR (Classless Internet Domain Routing) notation. Both versions of notation use a base address (or network Address) to define the starting point of the network, such as 192.168.1.0. This means that the network begins at 192.168.1.0 and the first possible host IP address on this subnet would be 192.168.1.1. In standard subnet mask notation, a four octet numeric value is used as with the base address , for example 255.255.255.0. The standard mask can be calculated by creating four binary values for each octet, and assigning the binary digit of .1. to the network potion, and assigning the binary digit of .0. to the network potion. In the example above this value would be 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000. In combination with the base address you have a subnet definition, in this case the subnet in standard notation would be 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0. In CIDR notation, the number of 1.s in the binary version of the mask are counted from the left, and that number is appended to the end of the base address following a slash (/). In the example here the subnet would be listed in CIDR notation as 192.168.1.0/24.

When is Subnetting Used?Subnets are created to limit the scope of broadcast traffic, to apply network security measures, to separate network segments by function, and/or to assist in resolving network congestion problems.., A subnet is usually composed of a network router, a switch or hub, and at least one host

Compromise in the host portion and addition in the network portion is called subnetting Logically dividing the networks . Example A latter posted which address is that IMTIAZ AHMED Corvit 14/C Gulbarg III. A post man takes latter and gives to IMTIAZ AHMED, letter reach the correct destination (This is one IP Address and communication with default subnet mask.)Letter Name : Imtiaz Ahmed Address: Corvit 14/C Gulbarg III

Corvit

IMTIAZ AHMED

But two same name person IMTIAZ AHMED leave or work in corvit then latter could not reach correct destination and data will loss.Letter Name : Imtiaz Ahmed Address: Corvit 14/C Gulbarg III

Corvit

IMTIAZ AHMED

IMTIAZ AHMED

There should be some addition here for save data. Then address is that IMTIAZ AHMED Training Section Corvit 14/C Gulbarg III A post man takes letter and going to Corvit then Training Section and gives letter IMTIAZ AHMED, letter reaches the correct destination (This is one IP Address and communication with Customize subnet mask.)Letter Name : Imtiaz Ahmed Address: Corvit Tranning Section 14/C Gulbarg III

Corvit

IMTIAZ AHMED

IMTIAZ AHMED

How much bits subneting?Judgment of bits tableBits 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Formula Total Subnets 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Customize Subnet Mast tableClass 1st bit 2nd bit 3rd bit 4th bit 5th bit 6th bit 7th bit 8th bit

A B C Result

/8 /16 /24 0

/9 /17 /25 128

/10 /18 /26 192

/11 /19 /27 224

/12 /20 /28 240

/13 /21 /29 248

/14 /22 /30 252

/15 /23 /31 254

Binary Value Customized Subnet Mast 00000000 10000000 11000000 11100000 11110000 11111000 11111100 11111110

Each IP pool in exclaimed three things 1) 2) 3) Net ID Broadcast ID Mask

Network ID or Net IDAnd Operation 0 AND 0 = 0 0 AND 1 = 0 1 AND 0 = 0 1 AND 1 = 1 IP Address IP Address Subnet Mask Network ID Network ID 192 11000000 . 11111111 . 11000000 . 192 . . 168 10101000 11111111 10101000 168 . . . . . 100 01100100 11111111 01100100 100 . . . . . 10 00001010 00000000 00000000 0

Note: It is remember thatIP Address Net ID 192.1.1.100/24 192.1.1.0 (Net ID always even) (Broadcast ID always odd)

Broadcat ID 192.168.1.255 Mask 255.255.255.0

1) Example of SubnettingChiniot Local Router

Lahore Remote Router

Karachi Remote Router

IP Address Available 192.168.1.0

Q: If we have two remote site then judge that how many bits Subnetting and how many subnets available?Ans: Remember that these things.

1) 2) 3) 4)

What is your class Address How many networks bits How many remote brunches Default subnet Mask

Class C 24 2 255 .255 .255 .0 11111111 .11111111 .11111111 .0

0000000

That Bit Subnet (Subnetting)

5)

How many bits barrows

1

We have two remote sits then we see that table for subnetting and chose bits. Bits 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Formula Total Subnets 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256

2

1

22 23 24 25 26

6)

1 Bit subnetting & 2 Subnets Available

192. 168. 1.=0

000000000 10000000

=128

OR Farmula called Block Size 256128=128 =0 =128

27 28

7)

Customize Subnet Mask

255

.255 .255 .128

8)Net ID

Address and Range192.168.1.0 192.168.1.1 To 192.168.1.126 192.168.1.127 192.168.1.128 192.168.1.129 To 192.168.1.254 192.168.1.255 Total Address 126 Total Address 126

Valid Range

Broad Cast ID Net ID Valid Range

Broad Cast ID

9)C Result

Subnet Mask Selection/24 0 /25 128 /26 192 /27 224 /28 240 /29 248 /30 252 /31 254

/25 & Subnets Mask is 128

10) How many hosts (28-1 =27) Total Hosts(128-2) Usable Hosts(126)

2) Example of SubnettingChiniot Local Router

Lahore

Vehari

Karachi

Sargodha

Isalamabad

Faisalabad

Jhang

Peshawar

IP Address Available 10.0.0.0

Q: If we have two remote site then judge that how many bits Subnetting and how many subnets available?Ans: Remember that these things.

1) 2) 3) 4)

What is your class Address How many networks bits How many remote brunches Default subnet Mask

Class A 8 8 255 .0 .0 .0 11111111 .000 00000 .00000000 .

00000000

5)

How many bits barrows

3

These Bits Subnet (Subnetting)

We have two remote labs then we see that table for subnetting and chose bits. Bits 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Formula Total Subnets 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 3 Bit subnetting & 8 Subnets Available

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

6)

Possible combination10. 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 =0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 =32 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 =64 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 =96 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 =128 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 =160 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 =192 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 =224

0.

0

OR Farmula called Block Size 256-224=32 =0 =32 =64 =96 =128 =160 =192 =224

7)

Customize Subnet Mask

255

.224 .0

.0

8)Net ID

Address and Range10.0.0.0 10.1.0.0

Valid Range

To 10. 30.0.0 Broad Cast ID Net ID Valid Range 10. 31.255.255 10. 32.0.0 10. 33.0.0 To 10. 62.0.0 10. 63.255.255 10. 64.0.0 10. 65.0.0 To 10. 94.0.0 10. 95.255.255 10. 96.0.0 10. 97.0.0 To 10. 126.0.0 10. 127.255.255 10. 128.0.0 10. 129.0.0 To 10. 158.0.0 10. 159.0.0 10. 160.0.0 10. 161.0.0 To 10. 190.0.0 10. 191.0.0 10. 192.0.0 10. 193.0.0 To 10. 222.0.0 10. 223.0.0 10. 224.0.0 10. 225.0.0 To 10. 254.0.0 10. 255.0.0

Total Address 2097150

Total Address 2097150

Broad Cast ID Net ID Valid Range

Total Address 2097150

Broad Cast ID Net ID Valid Range

Total Address 2097150

Broad Cast ID Net ID Valid Range

Total Address 2097150

Broad Cast ID Net ID Valid Range

Total Address 2097150

Broad Cast ID Net ID Valid Range

Total Address 2097150

Broad Cast ID Net ID Valid Range

Total Address 2097150

Broad Cast ID

9)A Result

Subnet Mask Selection/8 0 /9 128 /10 192 /11 224 /12 240 /13 248 /14 252 /15 254

/11 & Subnets Mask is 224

10) How many hosts (224-3 =221) Total Hosts(2097152-2) Usable Hosts(2097150)

3) Example of SubnettingTotal Remote Brunches are 2048IP Address Available 172.10.0.0

Q: If we have 2048 remote site then judge that how many bits Subnetting and how many subnets available?Ans: Remember that these things.

1) 2) 3)Bits 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

What is your class Address How many networks bits How many remote brunches Formula Total Subnets 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512 1024 2048 00000

Class B 16 2048

4)

2 2

1

Default subnet Mask .255 .0

255 .0

223

11111111 .11111111 .00000000 .000

24 25 26 27 28 29 2 10 2 11

5)

How many bits barrows

11

We have two remote labs then we see that table for subnetting and chose bits.

These Bits Subnet (Subnetting)

11 Bit subnetting & 2048 Subnets Available

6)

Possible combination172. 10. 0.00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000001 00000001 00000001

.000000000 00100000 01000000 01100000 10000000 =0. 0 =0. 32 =0. 64 =0. 96 =0. 128

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 =0. 160 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 =0. 192 11100000 00000000 00100000 01000000 =0. 224 =1. 0 =1. 32 =1. 64

OR Farmula called Block Size 256-224=32=0. 0 =0. 32 =0. 64 =0. 96 =0. 128 =0. 160 =0. 192 =0. 224 =1. 0 =1. 32 =1. 64

7)

Customize Subnet Mask

255

.225 .255 .224

8)Net ID

Address and Range172.10.0.0 172.10.1.0 To 172. 10.30.0 172. 10.31.255 172. 10.32.0 172. 10.33.0 To 172. 10.62.0 172. 10.63.255 Total Address 30 Total Address 30

Valid Range

Broad Cast ID Net ID Valid Range

Broad Cast ID

9)B Result B Result

Subnet Mask Selection/16 0 /24 0 /17 128 /25 128 /18 192 /26 192 /19 224 /27 224 /20 240 /28 240 /21 248 /29 248 /22 252 /30 252 /23 254 /31 254

/27 & Subnets Mask is 255.224

10) How many hosts (216-11 =25) Total Hosts(32) Usable Hosts(30)

VLSM(Verable Length Subnet Mask)

Q:

What Is VLSM and Why Is It Used?

A Waste of Space

Q:

When to Use VLSM?

A variable length subnet mask is a means of allocating IP addressing resources to subnets according to their individual need rather than some general network-wide rule. So therefore the network/host division can occur at any bit boundary in the address. Because the normal class distinctions are ignored, the new system was called classless routing. This led to the original system being called, by back-formation, classful routing. Classless routing came into use in the mid 1990s due to the inefficiences of the classful system.

Networking SchemeMumbai 192.168.10.64/27

28

WAN 192.168.10.129 and 130

192.168.10.128/30

2 2

WAN 192.198.10.133 and 134

2

192.168.10.132/30WAN 192.198.10.137 and 138

192.168.10.136/30

62

12

28Singapore 192.168.10.112/28

Bangalore 192.168.10.0/26 Sydney 192.168.10.96/28

Example of VLSMAddress 192.168.1.0.

Subnets 2 2 2 2

Hosts 60 32 15 7

64

64

64

64

62 192.168.1.0/26 TO 192.168.1.63/2 6

62 192.168.1.0/26 TO 192.168.1.63/2 6

7) IP RoutingEncapsulation Topic

We can encapsulate interface not router. There are five statuses. Hardware Part Indicate Serial 0/0 is up, Int in up, Int in down Int in down Int in administratively down Software Part Indicate line protocol is up line protocol is down line protocol is up line protocol is down line protocol is down (Communication will accord) (No Communication accord) (No Communication accord) (No Communication accord) (No Communication accord)

ProtocolA uniform set of rules that enable two devices to connect and transmit data to one another. Protocols determine how data are transmitted between computing devices and over networks. They define issues such as error control and data compression methods. The protocol determines the following: type of error checking to be used, data compression method (if any), how the sending device will indicate that it has finished a message and how the receiving device will indicate that it has received the message. Also called protocol is a language.

Encapsulation ProtocolBy default encapsulation protocol is HDLC(High level Data Link). We can change protocol but that is in your mind if we want to communication between two routers then both protocols is same.

A>Enable A#Configure Terminal A(config)#Interface Serial 0/0 A(config-if)#Encapsulation PPP A(config-if)# Exit A(config)#Exit A#Show Enterface Serial 0 Then we will see Int in up ,line protocol is down OR A#Ping 10.0.0.1!!!!!

(5 Packets Send ICL Protocol)

Success rate is 0 percent (0/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 ms There is no communication accord; if we want communication begun between router then we follow these commands.

A>Enable A#Configure Terminal A(config)#Interface Serial 0/0 A(config-if)#No Encapsulation A(config-if)# Exit A(config)#Exit A#Show Interface Serial 0/0 Then we will see Int in up ,line protocol is up OR A#Ping 10.0.0.1!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 ms There is communication started.

If we want to administratively down the interface link (Some times administrator himself down the interface that is called administratively shutdown).For that particular work we need these commands. A>Enable A#Configure Terminal A(config)#Interface Serial 0/0 A(config-if)#Shutdown A(config-if)# Exit A(config)#Exit A#Show Interface Serial 0 Then we will see Serial 0 is administratively down, line protocol is down OR A#ping 10.0.0.1!!!!!

Success rate is 0 percent (0/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 ms There is no communication accord, if we want communication begun between router then we go to A>Enable A#Configure Terminal A(config)#Interface Serial 0/0 A(config-if)#No Shutdown A(config-if)# Exit A(config)#Exit A#Show Interface Serial 0/0 Then we will see Int in up ,line protocol is up OR

A#Ping 10.0.0.1!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 ms There is communication started.

If we can not understand the problem completely or new on the job. Then we type the 4 commands. These commands will magically work and all problems will solve if physical Layer error not exist. Because that error is router internal error. 1) 2) 3) 4) A(config-if)# No Shutdown A(config-if)# No Encapsulation A(config-if)# Keepalive A(config-if)# Clock Rate 64000

One important point keep in your mind clock rate always configure in DCE end. Because when we connect to two routers then which cable work is one side DTE and second side DCE. If we configure Clock rate 64000 command then IOS(Internetworking Operating System) message that This is DET end and not configure that command and Some IOS (Internetworking Operating System) accept that Clock rate 64000 command on DTE end but no work at all.

IP Routing TopicPurpose Completion of routing table (every intelligent device have table, Router Routing table Switch Switching table).Routing table complete called convergence A # Show IP Route That command show ip routing table. C C 1.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial 0 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

C word mentions that system directly connected to network. A pin point is that there is only show network IDs not display IP address. There is two ways to complete routing table. 1) 2) Static Routing Protocol Dynamic Routing Protocol

1)

Static Method (Static Routing Protocol)

We will define one static route define. Entry will be mentioned character S in routing table 10.0.0.1Serial 0/0 Serial 0/0

20.0.0.1 B

A 192.168.0.1Fasteathernet 0/0

192.168.1.1Fasteathernet 0/0

Method:Missing Ether net Missing Subnet Mask Missing Router

A(config)# ip route

20.0.0.1

255.0.0.0Missing Subnet Mask

10.0.0.0Missing Router

Missing Ether net

A(config)# ip route 192.168.1.1 A# show ip route C S S C

255.255.255.0

20.0.0.0

1.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial 0 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 192.168.0.0/24 [1/0] via 10.0.0.1 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

This is Static route, but only method not practical in these days. If 100 network then we add separate 100 entries that is not possible now a days and in routing table entry show with S character.

1)

Dynamic Method

That is method of latest technology. There are if we complete the routing table then we will define the routing protocol. These are given below 1) 2) 3) 4) RIP IGRP EIGRP OSPF (Routing Information protocol) (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) (Open Shortest Path First)

PropertiesProtocol RIP IGRP EIGRP OSPF

Protocol Category AD(Administrative Distance)

Distance Vector 120

Distance Vector 100

Hybrid 90/170

Link State 110

Meaning: This is preference criteria (if we two protocol configure then which protocol shows in the routing table) Presentation In R I D O Routing table Meaning: Display in Routing Table Composite Composite 1) Band Width 1) Band Width Cost Matric Hop Count 2) Delay 2) Delay 1 3) Reliability 3) Reliability Band width 4) Loading 4) Loading 5) MTN 5) MTN Meaning: Decision Criteria Configuration

1)

RIP (Routing Information protocol) Configuration10.0.0.1Serial 0/0 Serial 0/0

In this protocol we directly connected network advertised 10.0.0.2 B 192.168.0.1Fasteathernet 0/0

A 192.168.1.1Fasteathernet 0/0

A> Enable A# Configuration Terminal A(config)# Router RIP A(config-router)# Network 10.0.0.1 A(config-router)# Network 192.168.0.1 A(config-router)# Exit A(config)# Exit A# Show IP Route C C R!!!!!

10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 192.168.0.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 192.168.1.0/24 [120/1] via 10.0.0.2, 00:00:15, Serial0/0

A# Ping 10.0.0.2 Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 Second Router B> Enable B# Configuration Terminal B(config)# Router RIP B(config-router)# Network 10.0.0.2 B(config-router)# Network 192.168.1.1 B(config-router)# Exit B(config)# Exit B#Show IP Route C R C 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 192.168.0.0/24 [120/1] via 10.0.0.1, 00:00:02, Serial0/0 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

B# ping 10.0.0.1!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 R character is representing RIP protocol entry. We can check IP protocol B# Show IP Protocols Routing Protocol is rip

3)

IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) Configuration10.0.0.1Serial 0/0 Serial 0/0

10.0.0.2 B

A 192.168.0.1Fasteathernet 0/0

192.168.1.1Fasteathernet 0/0

A> Enable A# Configuration Terminal A(config)# Router IGRP 1

( Autnums System Number)Same Aadministrative policies Under having same routing policies

A(config-router)# Network 10.0.0.1 A(config-router)# Network 192.168.0.1 A(config-router)# Exit A(config)# Exit A# Show IP Route C I C 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial 0/0 192.168.0.0 [100/10476] via 10.0.0.2, Serial 10/0 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

A# Ping 10.0.0.2!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 Second Router B> Enable B # Configuration Terminal B(config)# Router IGRP 1 B(config-router)# Network 10.0.0.2 B(config-router)# Network 192.168.1.1 B(config-router)# Exit B(config)# Exit B# Show IP Route C R C 1.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial 0 192.168.0.0 [100/10476] via 10.0.0.1, Serial 10/0 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

( Autnums System Number)Same Aadministrative policies Under having same routing policies

B# Ping 10.0.0.1!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56

I character is representing IGRP protocol entry

3)

EIGRP(Enhance Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)Configuration10.0.0.1Serial 0/0 Serial 0/0

10.0.0.2 B

A 192.168.0.1Fasteathernet 0/0

192.168.1.1Fasteathernet 0/0

A> Enable A# Configuration Terminal A(config)# Router EIGRP 1 A(config-router)# Network 10.0.0.1 A(config-router)# Network 192.168.0.1 A(config-router)# Exit A(config)# Exit A# Show IP Route C C D!!!!!

( Autnums System Number)Same Aadministrative policies Under having same routing policies

10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 192.168.0.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 192.168.1.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10.0.0.2, 00:00:05, Serial0/0

A# Ping 10.0.0.2 Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 Second Router B> Enable B # Configuration Terminal B(config)# Router EIGRP 1 B(config-router)# Network 10.0.0.2 Bconfig-router)# Network 192.168.1.1 B(config-router)# Exit B(config)# Exit B# Show IP Route C D C!!!!!

( Autnums System Number)Same Aadministrative policies Under having same routing policies

10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 192.168.0.0/24 [90/2172416] via 10.0.0.1, 00:01:42, Serial0/0 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

B# Ping 10.0.0.1 Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 D character is representing IGRP protocol entry

4)

OSPF(Open Shortest Path First)Configuration

What was the requirement of OSPF?

When we configure RIP IGRP EIGRP or other protocols then these protocol run all interfaces of the router but OSPF is that protocol run only one interface if we run. OSPF is very secure protocol. If we use RIP protocol then main disadvantage is that after 30 second put routing table and send for updates(Live environment that is very big disadvantage of that protocol because there normally data size consist on 1000 MB and particular work waste 2 and 3 second every updates.). In world 85 % use OSPF 13 % BGP and 2% other. OSPF can be configuring single interface, single link, single network and single subnets. OSPF have powered by dint of WILDCARD MASK What is WILDCARD MASK?Which of the following network commands , following the 'router ospf 1' command, tells the router to start using OSPF on interfaces whose ip addresses are 10.1.1.1, 10.1.100.1, and 10.1.120.1? A) network 10.1.1.0 255.0.0.0 area 0 B) network 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.0 area 0 C) network 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 area 0 D) network 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.255 area 0

WILDCARD MASK Concept. Normally we listen about WILDCARD MASK that reverse of SUBNET MASK. But this is wrong concept. 255.255.255.0 0 .0 .0 .255 As a rule wrong because this is valid WILDCARD MASK

Definition of Subnet Mask Subnet Mask is continue stream of 0s or 1s. But Wildcard Mask is not same type.

Calculation of Multiple IP Wildcard Mask In Decimal Form 192 . 168. 1. 1 192 . 168. 2. 1 192 . 168. 3. 1 192 . 168. 4. 1 ________________ 0 . 0. 7. 0 ________________ Rule 0 Must Match 1 Dont Care 192 .168 . 1 . 1 Wildcard Mask 0.0.7.0 In Binary Form 11000000.10101000.00000001.00000001 11000000.10101000.00000010.00000001 11000000.10101000.00000011.00000001 11000000.10101000.00000100.00000001 ___________________________________ 00000000.00000000.00000111.00000000 ___________________________________

Single IP Wildcard Mask 192 .168 . 1 . 1 Wildcard Mask 0.0.0.0

1) OSPF Single Area Configuration

10.0.0.1Serial 0/0 Serial 0/0

10.0.0.2 B

A 192.168.0.1Fasteathernet 0/0

192.168.1.1Fasteathernet 0

A> Enable A# Configuration Terminal A(config)# Router OSPF 1 (Range 1 to 65335) A(config-router)# Network 10.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 A(config-router)# Network 192.168.0.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 A(config-router)# Exit A(config)# Exit A# Show IP Route C C O 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 192.168.0.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 192.168.1.0/24 [110/65] via 10.0.0.2, 00:00:14, Serial0/0

A# Ping 10.0.0.2!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 Second Router B> Enable B# Configuration Terminal B(config)#Router OSPF 1 (Range 1 to 65335) B(config-router)# Network 10.0.0.2 0.0.0.0 area 0 B(config-router)# Network 192.168.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 B(config-router)# Exit B(config)# Exit B# Show IP Route C O C!!!!!

10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 192.168.0.0/24 [110/65] via 10.0.0.1, 00:00:25, Serial0/0 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

B# Ping 10.0.0.1 Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 O Character is representing OSPF protocol entry

2) OSPF Multiple Area configuration

10.0.0.1 Serial 0/0

FastEathernet0/0 192.168.0.1

10.0.0.2 Serial 0/0

ASerial 0/1 20.0.0.1

B172.16.0.1 FastEathernet 0/0

FastEathernet 0/0 192.168.1.1

CSerial 0/1 20.0.0.2

A> Enable A# Configuration Terminal A(config)# Router OSPF 1 (Range 1 to 65335) A(config-router)# Network 10.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 A(config-router)# Network 20.0.0.1 0.0.0.0 area 1 A(config-router)# Network 192.168.0.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 A(config-router)# Exit A(config)# Exit A# Show IP Route

C C O C O

10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 20.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/1 172.16.0.0/16 [110/65] via 20.0.0.2, 00:00:20, Serial0/1 192.168.0.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 192.168.1.0/24 [110/65] via 10.0.0.2, 00:02:03, Serial0/0

A# Ping 10.0.0.2!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 A# Ping 20.0.0.2!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56

Second RouterB> Enable B # Configuration Terminal B(config)# Router OSPF 1 (Range 1 to 65335) B (config-router)# Network 10.0.0.2 0.0.0.0 area 0 B (config-router)# Network 192.168.1.1 0.0.0.0 area 0 B (config-router)# Exit B(config)# Exit B # Show IP Route C O O 10.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/0 IA 20.0.0.0/8 [110/128] via 10.0.0.1, 00:03:02, Serial0/0 IA 172.16.0.0/16 [110/129] via 10.0.0.1, 00:03:02, Serial0/0

O C

192.168.0.0/24 [110/65] via 10.0.0.1, 00:03:02, Serial0/0 192.168.1.0/24 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0

B# Ping 10.0.0.1!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 B# Ping 20.0.0.1!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56

Third RouterC> Enable C # Configuration Terminal C(config)# Router OSPF 1 (Range 1 to 65335) C (config-router)# Network 20.0.0.2 0.0.0.0 area 1 C (config-router)# Network 172.16.0.1 0.0.0.0 area 1 C (config-router)# Exit C(config)# Exit C # Show IP Route O C C O O IA 10.0.0.0/8 [110/128] via 20.0.0.1, 00:22:49, Serial0/1 20.0.0.0/8 is directly connected, Serial0/1 172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, FastEthernet0/0 IA 192.168.0.0/24 [110/65] via 20.0.0.1, 00:22:49, Serial0/1 IA 192.168.1.0/24 [110/129] via 20.0.0.1, 00:22:49, Serial0/1

C# Ping 10.0.0.1!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 C# Ping 10.0.0.2!!!!!

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max=32/38/56 O A1 character is representing multiple area configuration OSPF protocol entry

What is the difference between Broad cast & flooded cast?Flooded cast can be also multicast.

If we finish all the ip routing the we will type that command C(config)#No IP Routing C(config)#No OSPF 1

Difference between Distance Vector & Link StateDistance VectorRIP(Routing Information Protocol) ver 1 IGRP(Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

Link StateOSPF(Open Shortest Path First)ISIS(Intermediate System to Intermediate System)

1) Neighbor to Neighbor (Slow) 2) Complete Routing table exchange No Hallow Packet Sent Slow Convergence Small Network 3) Calssfull(Sent only Net IDs) No Support of Subnatting 4) Routing Loops is exist

1) Information in Flooded (Fast) 2) Only Incremental & Decremental Updates Hallow Packets Sent Band Width Fast Convergence Big Network 3) Classless(Sent Net IDs & Subnet Mask) Support of Subnatting 4) Routing Loops is not exist