Filipino Heritage Language Learners’ Problems

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Filipino Heritage Language Learners Problems. Nenita Pambid Domingo. Filipino Heritage Language Learners Problems (Reading,Writing, Speaking). Markers. Cases. Focus. Aspects (conjugation of verbs). Linkers. Word order. Affixation. Pronunciation & Spelling. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Filipino Heritage Language Learners Problems (Reading,Writing, Speaking)Markers Cases Focus Aspects (conjugation of verbs) Linkers Word order Affixation Pronunciation &amp; Spelling</p></li><li><p>I get confused over which linker I should use. ---Heritage Language Learner</p></li><li><p>Markers</p></li><li><p>Some Characteristics of the Language</p></li><li><p>1. The word order is as follows:</p><p>PREDICATEMARKER(NM)/GMDOERMARKER (GM)/ (NM)OBJECT/SUBJECTAFNaglutoangbabaengmanok.cookedwomanchicken.</p><p>OFNilutongbabaeangmanok.</p><p>cookedbywomanchicken.</p></li><li><p>2. Filipino has 7 Focuses or Subjects all preceded by Nominative Markers (NM)Actor Focus (AF) Object Focus (OF) Benefactive (BF) Locative FOCUS (LF) Directional Focus (DF) Causative Focus (CF) Instrumental Focus (IF)</p></li><li><p>*The *The preferred word order is Niluto ng babae ang manok.</p><p>FOCUSPREDICATENMSUBJECTGMOBJECT/DOERBM (for)BENEFICIARYAFNaglutocookedangbabaewomanngmanokchickenpara saforbata.childOFNilutowas cookedangmanokchickenngbybabaewomanpara saforbata.*child.BFIpinaglutocooked forangbatachildngbybabae.LFPinaglutuanthe place where cooking took placeangkalderopotngbybabae.DFPinuntahanwent toangVonsngbybabaeCFIkinatuwamade happy (was the cause of happiness)angpaglulutong babaeWomans cookingngofbata.IFIpinambiliwas used to buyangperamoneyngbybabae.</p></li><li><p>ANG VS. NGThe Uses of ANG</p></li><li><p>ANG is used to mark the subject/topic/focus of the sentence</p><p>PREDICATENMSUBJECTNaglutoangbabae. cooked.(The)woman</p></li><li><p>ANG is used in an identificational sentence to indicate definiteness.</p><p>NMDOERDEFINITE MARKERVERBAngbabaeangnagluto.</p><p>(It was the)woman(who)cooked.</p></li><li><p>ANG is used to denote in general in a like/dislike sentence.</p><p>PSEUDO VERBDOERNMSUBJECTGustong bataang baboy.Likeby child(in general)pork.</p></li><li><p>ANG is used in formal writing. In conversation, it is replaced by yung, conversational form of the demonstrative pronoun iyon meaning yonder, far from both listener and speaker.</p><p>VERB+PakiSOFTENERPARTICLENMOBJECT/SUBJECTPakiabotngaangmanok.</p><p>Please pass(the)chicken.</p></li><li><p>The Uses of NG</p></li><li><p>NG is used to mark the Direct Object.</p><p>PREDICATESUBJECT/DOERGMDIRECT OBJECTNaglutoang babaengmanok.cooked(The)womanchicken.</p></li><li><p>NG is used to denote possession.</p><p>PREDICATEDOERSUBJECTGMOWNERNiluto ng babaeangmanoknglalake.</p><p>was cookedby (the)woman.(The)chickenofman</p></li><li><p>NG marks the DOER of passive verbs.</p><p>PREDICATEGMDOERSUBJECTNilutongbabaeangmanok.was cookedbywoman(The) chicken.</p></li><li><p>NG is used to denote specifically in a like/dislike sentence.</p><p>PSEUDO VERBDOERGMOBJECTGustong babaengmanok.Likes (d)by woman(specifically)chicken.</p></li><li><p>In a request sentence indicated by paki, ANG and NG are interchangeable:</p><p>VERBSOFTENER PARTICLEMARKERSUBJECT/OBJECTPakiabotngaangmanok.Please pass(the) chicken.Pakiabotngangmanok.Please passchicken.</p></li><li><p>Why the Difficulty?L1 interferes with the learning of target language.There are NO MARKERS in English There are no FOCUSES in English according to one student. ANG, the subject marker is mistaken for THE, which in English would be the same article in front of the DIRECT OBJECT. E.g. Mary cooked the chicken. Possessives are not used as DOERS in English The word order does not change but the markers do, i.e. PREDICATEDOEROBJECTNagluto ang babae ng manok. Niluto ng babae ang manok. As noted in the previous examples, both ANG and NG have several uses and sometimes they are interchangeable. HL have fossilized notions of the language as opposed to FLwho are tabula rasa.</p></li><li><p>Misuse of Markers Provokes Laughter Discouraging Heritage Language Learners</p><p>FOCUS`PREDICATENMSUBJECTGMNOUNAFNaglutoangbabaengmanok.cookedwomanchicken.OFNilutoangmanokngbabae.*was cookedchickenbywomanIf the markers are interchanged:AFNaglutoangmanokngbabae.cooked(The)chicken.womanOFNilutoangbabaengmanok.was cooked(The)womanbychicken.*The preferred WORD ORDER is Niluto ng babae ang manok. Cooked by woman (the) chicken.</p></li><li><p>AffixesCompound the problem because there are several affixes used just to make a word an ACTOR FOCUS verb. Um-, mag-, ma-, magpa-, mang-, makapag-, maki-, maka-, magka-, mapa-</p><p>There are more affixes used for the passive verbs because this is the normal way of speaking in our language, with the predicate before the subject. </p></li><li><p>To Illustrate:</p><p>Naglutoang babae.The woman cooked.Nagpalutoang babae.The woman asked someone to cook.Nakilutoang babae.The woman cooked in someone elses kitchen.Papaglutuinang babae.Make the woman cook.Nakapaglutoang babae.The woman was able to cook.Nakalutoang babae.The woman was able to cook..Pakilutoang babae.Please cook the woman.Nalutoang babae.The woman was cooked.Napalutoang babae.The woman cooked accidentally.Ipalutoang babae.Ask someone to cook the woman.Ipinaglutoang babae.Someone cooked for the woman.Ipanglutoang babae.Use the woman for cooking.Palutuinang babae.Ask the woman to cook.Lutuinang babae.Cook the womanIlutoang babae.Cook the woman.</p></li><li><p>RemedyConstant repetition and correction Immersion Worksheets on these structures More practice in 4 modalities Student has to take charge of her/his own learning; the teacher facilitates and guides lwng</p></li><li><p>References:Aspillera, Paraluman S. Basic Tagalog for Foreigners and Non-Tagalogs. (Boston, Rutland, Vermont, Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing), 1993. Ramos, Teresita V. Conversational Tagalog, A Functional-Situational Approach. (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press), 1985.__________&amp; Maria Lourdes S. Bautista. Handbook of Tagalog Verbs Inflections, Modes, and Aspects. (UH), 1986.Santiago, Alfonso O. at Norma G. Tiangco. Makabagong Balarilang Filipino. (Manila, Philippines: Rex Book Store), 1991.</p><p>Heritage Learners interchange the Nominative Marker ANG and the Genitive Marker NG. In their mind, ANG is THE. It is not. It just marks the SUBJECT in a sentence no matter what FOCUS.The Heritage Learner has latent vocabulary, but they fail to perceive the finer points of the language like the MARKERS.Foreign Language Learners are tabula rasa. They stick to the rules given them. They have no other recourse. The GRAMMAR RULES are their way of navigating in their use of the new language, plus, their first language, which is most of the time English. Both HL and FL think in terms of from where they are coming from, which is the English language. This is their launching point in learning the Filipino language. Before I go any further, let me point out some characteristics of the language.The general word order is PREDICATE/SUBJECT. This is the constant; but the marker for the DOER in an ACTOR Focus is ANG and for the rest of the Focuses whiche use PASSIVE verbs, the marker for the DOER is NG.</p><p>The WORD ORDER is PREDICATE/SUBJECT/ DIRECT OBJECT/ BENEFICIARY in an ACTOR FOCUS Sentence.In an Object Focus sentence, the Word Order is PREDICATE/DOER/SUBJECT.Actor Focus- the DOER of the action is in FOCUS.Object Focus- the Direct OBJECT is in focus.Benefactive Focus- the BENEFICIARY is in focus.Locative Focus- the LOCATION or the place of action is in focus.Directional Focus- the DIRECTION is in focusCausative Focus- the REASON is in focus.Instrumental Focus- the INSTRUMENT with wchich the action will be performed is in focus.</p><p>For this presentation, we will only illustrate the use of the Nominative Marker used for common nouns in the singular form. Nagluto ang babae. Cooked (the) woman.ANG is used to mark the subject/topic/focus of the sentence Ang babae angnagluto.It was the woman(who)cooked.ANG is used in an identificational sentence to indicate definiteness.</p><p>Gusto ng bata ang baboy.Like I____pork (in general).ANG is used to denote in general in a like &amp; dislike sentence.</p><p>Pakiabot ngaang manok.ANG is used in formal writing. In conversation, it is replaced by yung, conversational form of the demonstrative pronoun iyon meaning yonder.Please pass(the)chicken.</p><p>Nagluto ang babae ng manok.cooked(The)woman_____chicken.NG is used to mark the direct object.Nagluto ang babae ng manok ng lalake.cooked(The) woman ____chickenof man.NG is used to denote possession.Niluto ng babae ang manok.was cookedby woman(The) chicken.NG marks the DOER of passive verbs.Gusto ng babae ng manok.Likes (d)by woman__ chicken.NG is used to denote specifically in a like/dislike sentence. </p><p>Niluto ng babae ang manok.was cookedby woman(The) chicken.NG marks the DOER of passive verbs.</p><p>Gusto ng babae ng manok.Likes (d)by woman__ chicken.NG is used to denote specifically in a like/dislike sentence. </p><p>nga ANG manok. Please pass(the)chicken.Pakiabot ngaNGmanok.Please pass____chicken</p><p>Knowing the FOCUS of the different verbs helps in determining the correct marker. Unfortunately, the VERBAL AFFIXES are numerous. For instance, the root word or base word luto changes in meaning and FOCUS with the use of the different verbal affixes to form the verb to convey different meanings that one wants to communicate.Naglutoang babae.The woman cooked.Pakiluto ang babae.Please cook the woman.</p></li></ul>

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