Figure 27-02a Figure 27-05c Figure 27-05b

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p> Slide 2 Slide 3 Slide 4 Slide 5 Figure 27-02a Slide 6 Figure 27-05c Slide 7 Figure 27-05b Slide 8 Figure 27-09c Slide 9 The Penis Parts of the penis glans penis = head of the penis penile shaft = body of the penis corona glandis = rounded ridge at back end of the glans penis penile prepuce (foreskin) = not present in circumcised men; small glands under the foreskin secrete oil which when mixed with skin cells produces smegma Slide 10 The Penis Retraction of the foreskin to remove smegma with soap and water is important to prevent bacterial infection. Penile shaft contains three cylindrical spongy tissue masses, two of which are the corpus cavernosa on the top of the shaft and the third is the corpus spongiosum on the bottom of the shaft (through which the urethra runs). Slide 11 The Penis Length of non-erect (flaccid) penis is usually between 8.5 to 10.5 cm (3.3 to 4.1 inches) with an average of 9.5 cm (3.7 inches) The average length of an erect penis is 16 cm (6.3 inches) with a range of 12 cm to 23.5 cm (4.7 to 9.2 inches). Average circumference of an erect penis at its thickest point is 13.2 cm (5.2 inches) There is no correlation between skeletal system make-up and penis size. A smaller non-erect penis will enlarge more during erection than a larger non-erect penis. Slide 12 Figure 27-13 Slide 13 Figure 27-20a Slide 14 The Clitoris The clitoris lies at the junction of the upper of the two labia minora above the urethral opening. The average length is about 2.5 cm (1 inch) with an average diameter of inch. There is much individual variation with regard to size and shape. Slide 15 The Clitoris The clitoral shaft (similar to the penile shaft) contains a pair of corpora cavernosa spongy tissue cylinders. There is no corpus spongiosum in the clitoris. This tissue is the labia minora in females (same embryological origin as the corpus spongiosum in the penis). The clitoral glans (head or tip) is covered by the clitoral prepuce (similar to the foreskin of the penis). Slide 16 The Clitoris The clitoris is rich in deep pressure and temperature receptors with only few touch receptors. Plays an important role in sexual arousal. During the plateau phase the deep pressure receptors are important for detecting stimulation of the retracted clitoris through the clitoral hood and mons. Slide 17 Slide 18 Slide 19 Slide 20 Slide 21 Slide 22 Slide 23 Figure 27-09c Slide 24 The Penis Parts of the penis glans penis = head of the penis penile shaft = body of the penis corona glandis = rounded ridge at back end of the glans penis penile prepuce (foreskin) = not present in circumcised men; small glands under the foreskin secrete oil which when mixed with skin cells produces smegma Slide 25 The Penis Retraction of the foreskin to remove smegma with soap and water is important to prevent bacterial infection. Penile shaft contains three cylindrical spongy tissue masses, two of which are the corpus cavernosa on the top of the shaft and the third is the corpus spongiosum on the bottom of the shaft (through which the urethra runs). Slide 26 The Penis Length of non-erect (flaccid) penis is usually between 8.5 to 10.5 cm (3.3 to 4.1 inches) with an average of 9.5 cm (3.7 inches) The average length of an erect penis is 16 cm (6.3 inches) with a range of 12 cm to 23.5 cm (4.7 to 9.2 inches). Average circumference of an erect penis at its thickest point is 13.2 cm (5.2 inches) There is no correlation between skeletal system make-up and penis size. A smaller non-erect penis will enlarge more during erection than a larger non-erect penis. Slide 27 Figure 27-13 Slide 28 Figure 27-20a Slide 29 The Clitoris The clitoris lies at the junction of the upper of the two labia minora above the urethral opening. The average length is about 2.5 cm (1 inch) with an average diameter of inch. There is much individual variation with regard to size and shape. Slide 30 The Clitoris The clitoral shaft (similar to the penile shaft) contains a pair of corpora cavernosa spongy tissue cylinders. There is no corpus spongiosum in the clitoris. This tissue is the labia minora in females (same embryological origin as the corpus spongiosum in the penis). The clitoral glans (head or tip) is covered by the clitoral prepuce (similar to the foreskin of the penis). Slide 31 The Clitoris The clitoris is rich in deep pressure and temperature receptors with only few touch receptors. Plays an important role in sexual arousal. During the plateau phase the deep pressure receptors are important for detecting stimulation of the retracted clitoris through the clitoral hood and mons. Slide 32 Slide 33 Slide 34 Slide 35 Slide 36 Slide 37 Slide 38 Slide 39 Slide 40 Slide 41 Slide 42 Slide 43 Slide 44 Slide 45 Slide 46 Infertility Rates and Womans Age in American Women AgeInfertility Rate 21-244.1% 25 to 295.5% 30 to 349.4% 35 to 3919.7% Due to increase in chromosomal abnormalities due to eggs arrested in Prophase I of Meiosis I Slide 47 Menopause In vertebrates, only human females (African Elephants, Pilot Whales &amp; Chimpanzees) live a significant portion of their lives postreproductively Average age of Menopause in U.S. = 52 years old Normal age range for menopause is 45 to 55 Nulliparous women tend to have an earlier menopause than women who were pregnant Use of the pill tends to delay menopause Slide 48 Slide 49 Stages of Menopause 1. Perimenopause begins several years before menopause, when the ovaries gradually produce less estrogen. Perimenopause lasts up until menopause, the point when the ovaries stop releasing eggs. In the last one to two years of perimenopause, the decrease in estrogen accelerates. At this stage, many women experience menopause symptoms. 2. Menopause is the point when a woman has her last menstrual period. At this stage, the ovaries have stopped releasing eggs and producing most of their estrogen. Menopause is diagnosed when a woman has gone without a period for 12 consecutive months. 3. Postmenopause is the time after menopause. During this stage, menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes ease for most women. However, health risks related to the loss of estrogen increase as the woman ages. Slide 50 Slide 51 Symptoms of Peri/Menopause Irregular Menstrual Periods Hot Flashes Night Sweats Disturbed Sleep Patterns Vaginal Dryness Shrinkage of Genital Tissue Dry Skin Frequent Minor Vaginal Infections Slide 52 Menopause Characteristics Menopausal Symptoms Decrease in estrogen from ovaries Significant decrease in progesterone once she stops ovulating During perimenopause = anovular cycles with menstruation but no ovulation Increased blood levels of LH and FSH due to loss of negative feedback (4 10 X) Slide 53 Slide 54 Slide 55</p>

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