ferns & fern allies

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  • 1.PRIMITIVE VASCULAR PLANTS Ferns and Fern Allies

2. Adaptations to life on land vascular tissue specialized tissues for transport xylem e.g. tracheid Tracheophyta phloem complex organization possess true plant organs (basic structure and function) 3. root stem leaf (cuticle) alternation of generations sporophyte dominant (gametophyte independent in primitive forms, dependent on sphyte in advanced forms) embryophyte condition gametes and embryo protected (no need for envl water) 4. Psilophytes (Whisk Ferns) 5. whisk ferns first vascular plants (earliest to evolve accdg to the fossil record extinct or not extinct) no specialized organs no differentiation between root and shoot small and creeping sporophyll specialized leaves containing sporangia motile sperm swims in water e.g. Psilotum 6. Lycophytes (Club Mosses) 7. club mosses true roots, stems and leaves (small and scale- like, arranged spirally) sporophyll specialized leaves containing sporangia water required for reproduction e.g. Lycopodium (ground pine) Selaginella 8. Sphenophytes (Horse Tails) 9. horsetails leaves arranged in whorls (small & simple) on the stem (siliceous) motile sperm must swim in water e.g. Equisetum (scouring rush) 10. Pterophytes (Ferns) 11. vascular tissue well-developed w/ xylem & phloem thrive in predominantly damp or seasonally wet habitats sporophyte dominant, gametophyte inconspicuous structure of the sporophyte: leafy frond bearing sori (sorus) ctg. spores fiddlehead with circinate vernation 12. rhizome (underground stem) structure of the gametophyte heart-shaped prothallus rhizoids antheridia & archegonia reproduction requires water e.g. Pteris, Adiantum, Christella

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