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Slide 2 Fern Life Cycle Slide 3 Alternation of generations Defined: Plants alternate between a diploid organism and a haploid organism Slide 4 Alternation of generations Zygote created from egg & sperm (fertilization begins sporophyte phase) Slide 5 Alternation of generations Zygote divides by mitosis to create adult sporophyte Slide 6 Alternation of generations Haploid spores created by meiosis (beginning of gametophyte stage) Slide 7 Alternation of generations Haploid spores released into air Slide 8 Alternation of generations Female gametophyte creates eggs Male gametophyte creates sperm Spore grows into male or female gametophyte Slide 9 Alternation of generations Sperm & egg create diploid zygote (sporophyte stage restarts) Slide 10 Alternation of generations Cycle repeats Slide 11 Group 2: Seedless, Vascular Plants Evolutionary Advancement: Vascular system aallows nutrient transport to greater heights Live in moist environments SSwimming sperm Structure: RRhizoids = primitive roots LLeaves = fronds Categories: CClub mosses HHorsetails FFerns water glucose Slide 12 Sporophyte phase Dominant stage; Diploid See appendix B in your text book Fern Life Cycle Slide 13 Sporophyte phase Dominant stage; Diploid Fronds house sori (pl.) See appendix B in your text book Fiddlehead Fern Life Cycle Fiddlehead uncurling Frond Slide 14 Sporophyte phase Dominant stage; Diploid Fronds house sori (pl.) Sorus (sing.) = Cluster of sporangia See appendix B in your text book Fern Life Cycle Slide 15 Sporophyte phase Dominant stage; Diploid Fronds house sori (pl.) Sorus (sing.) = Cluster of sporangia Sporangia make spores Spores created by meiosis Spores released into air See appendix B in your text book Fern Life Cycle Slide 16 Sporophyte phase Dominant stage; Diploid Fronds house sori (pl.) Sorus (sing.) = Cluster of sporangia Sporangia make spores Spores created by meiosis Spores released into air See appendix B in your text book Fern Life Cycle Sporangia act like catapults Slide 17 Sporophyte phase Dominant stage; Diploid Fronds house sori (pl.) Sorus (sing.) = Cluster of sporangia Sporangia make spores Spores created by meiosis Spores released into air See appendix B in your text book Fern Life Cycle Sporangia act like catapults Slide 18 Sporophyte phase Dominant stage; Diploid Fronds house sori (pl.) Sorus (sing.) = Cluster of sporangia Sporangia make spores Spores created by meiosis Spores released into air Gametophyte phase Spore grows into prothallus See appendix B in your text book Fern Life Cycle Slide 19 Sporophyte phase Dominant stage; Diploid Fronds house sori (pl.) Sorus (sing.) = Cluster of sporangia Sporangia make spores Spores created by meiosis Spores released into air Gametophyte phase Spore grows into prothallus Prothallus contains: Archegonium: produces female egg Antheridium: produces male sperm Sperm swims to fertilize the egg See appendix B in your text book Fern Life Cycle Slide 20 Sporophyte phase Dominant stage; Diploid Fronds house sori (pl.) Sorus (sing.) = Cluster of sporangia Sporangia make spores Spores created by meiosis Spores released into air Gametophyte phase Spore grows into prothallus Prothallus contains: Archegonium: produces female egg Antheridium: produces male sperm Sperm swims to fertilize the egg Fertilization restarts sporophyte stage See appendix B in your text book Slide 21 Adult Sporophyte (diploid).... 1)Sporophyte creates haploid spores by meiosis. Spores are released from the sori on the back-side of fronds ground Slide 22 .. 2) Haploid spores land in the soil Slide 23 ground 3) From the haploid spores, the prothallus (gametophyte) grows Lets zoom in.. Slide 24 4) Sperm swim through water from the antheridia (XY) to the archegonia (XX) Lets zoom back out zygote Slide 25 ground 5) Diploid sporophyte grows from the prothallus -- prothallus eventually dies sporophyte Slide 26 6) Fiddlehead uncurlsfronds open up ground 7) Cycle repeats -- Haploid spores created and released.... Slide 27 Place the steps of the fern life cycle in order, from the step started for you: __ 1 ___ Spores land on soil. _______ Sporophyte releases spores. _______ Through water, sperm swim from antheridium to archegonium on prothallus. _______ Prothallus grows. _______ Fertilization occurs. _______ Diploid sporophyte begins to grow. 2 3 4 5 6 Slide 28 Plant Life Cycle Comparisons Plant typeGametophyteSporophyteDominant Phase? MossMore familiar, carpet- like plant that produces specialized gametes XX - Archegonium XY Antheridium Stalk with cup at tip, which is where spores are produced. GAMETOPHYTE FernHaploid plant body (prothallus) is size of a finger nail, produces both male and female parts More familiar, leafy plant with clusters of spore producing sacs (sori) SPOROPHYTE ConiferPollen grains are male gametophytes sperm, female gameotphytes are microscopic eggs More familiar- like pine trees, produces male and female cones that produce spores SPOROPHYTE Slide 29 Review 1)What is the major difference between moss and ferns? 2)What are the leaves of ferns called? 3)What is needed for moss and ferns to reproduce? 4)Which stage is the main stage of ferns: sporophyte or gametophyte? 5)What stage is created when sperm and egg fuse: sporophyte or gametophyte? 6)Name the gametophyte of ferns. 7)Which process begins the gametophyte stage? 8)What structure on the fern creates spores?

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