Featured insight heatingwithoutglobalwarming_final

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<ul><li> 1. 2014 Secure Sustainable Together HEATING WITHOUT GLOBAL WARMING Market Developments and Policy Considerations for Renewable Heat FEATURED INSIGHT Anselm Eisentraut and Adam Brown </li> <li> 2. Secure Sustainable Together HEATING WITHOUT GLOBAL WARMING Market Developments and Policy Considerations for Renewable Heat Anselm Eisentraut and Adam Brown This paper reflects the views of the IEA Secretariat but does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the IEAs individual member countries. The paper does not constitute advice on any specific issue or situation. The IEA makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, in respect of the papers content (including its completeness or accuracy) and shall not be responsible 2014 for any use of, or reliance on, the paper. Comments are welcome, directed to anselm.eisentraut@iea.org. </li> <li> 3. INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY The International Energy Agency (IEA), an autonomous agency, was established in November 1974. Its primary mandate was and is two-fold: to promote energy security amongst its member countries through collective response to physical disruptions in oil supply, and provide authoritative research and analysis on ways to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy for its 28 member countries and beyond. The IEA carries out a comprehensive programme of energy co-operation among its member countries, each of which is obliged to hold oil stocks equivalent to 90 days of its net imports. The Agencys aims include the following objectives: n Secure member countries access to reliable and ample supplies of all forms of energy; in particular, through maintaining effective emergency response capabilities in case of oil supply disruptions. n Promote sustainable energy policies that spur economic growth and environmental protection in a global context particularly in terms of reducing greenhouse-gas emissions that contribute to climate change. n Improve transparency of international markets through collection and analysis of energy data. n Support global collaboration on energy technology to secure future energy supplies and mitigate their environmental impact, including through improved energy efficiency and development and deployment of low-carbon technologies. n Find solutions to global energy challenges through engagement and dialogue with non-member countries, industry, international organisations and other stakeholders. IEA member countries: Australia Austria Belgium Canada Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Japan Korea (Republic of) Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Slovak Republic Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States The European Commission also participates in the work of the IEA. OECD/IEA, 2014 International Energy Agency 9 rue de la Fdration 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France www.iea.org Secure Sustainable Together Please note that this publication is subject to specific restrictions that limit its use and distribution. The terms and conditions are available online at http://www.iea.org/termsandconditionsuseandcopyright/ </li> <li> 4. OECD/IEA 2014 Heating without Global Warming Market Developments and Policy Considerations for Renewable Heat Page | 3 Table of contents Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................... 7 Executive summary ................................................................................................................... 8 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 11 The role of heat in todays energy system................................................................................ 12 Definitions ............................................................................................................................... 12 Limitations ....................................................................................................................... 14 World FEH today ...................................................................................................................... 15 FEH in buildings ................................................................................................................ 15 FEH in industry ................................................................................................................. 16 Renewable energy use for heat in buildings and industry .............................................. 19 Renewable energy use for heat in buildings .................................................................... 20 Renewable energy use for heat in industry ..................................................................... 21 Bioenergy use for heat ............................................................................................................ 22 Biomass resources ................................................................................................................... 22 Bioenergy heating technologies .............................................................................................. 23 Biomass use for cooking .................................................................................................. 23 Modern solid biomass heating systems ........................................................................... 24 Biogas systems ................................................................................................................. 26 Liquid biofuels .................................................................................................................. 26 Bioenergy use for heat in buildings ......................................................................................... 26 Biogas ............................................................................................................................... 29 Bioenergy use for heat in industry .......................................................................................... 30 Bioenergy use for heat: Conclusions ....................................................................................... 31 Bioenergy technology development and RD&amp;D needs ................................................... 32 Solar thermal energy ............................................................................................................... 33 Solar radiation ......................................................................................................................... 33 Solar thermal heat technologies ............................................................................................. 33 Nonconcentrating solar technologies ............................................................................. 34 Concentrating solar technologies .................................................................................... 36 Solar thermal energy use for heat in buildings ....................................................................... 37 Solar thermal energy use for heat in industry ......................................................................... 39 Solar thermal energy use for heat: Conclusions ...................................................................... 39 Solar thermal technology development and RD&amp;D needs .............................................. 41 Geothermal energy ................................................................................................................. 42 Geothermal energy sources .................................................................................................... 42 Geothermal heat technologies ................................................................................................ 42 Direct use ......................................................................................................................... 42 Enhanced or engineered geothermal systems ................................................................ 43 </li> <li> 5. Heating without Global Warming OECD/IEA 2014 Market Developments and Policy Considerations for Renewable Heat Page | 4 Geothermal energy use for heat in buildings .......................................................................... 44 Geothermal energy use for heat in industry ........................................................................... 45 Geothermal energy use for heat: Conclusions ........................................................................ 45 Geothermal technology development and RD&amp;D needs ................................................ 46 Other enabling technologies .................................................................................................... 47 Heat pumps ............................................................................................................................. 47 Renewable electricity for heating and cooling purposes ........................................................ 49 District heating ........................................................................................................................ 50 Final energy use of commercial heat ............................................................................... 51 Heat and cold storage .............................................................................................................. 53 Sensible storage ............................................................................................................... 54 Latent heat storage .......................................................................................................... 54 Sorption heat storage ...................................................................................................... 54 Thermochemical heat storage ......................................................................................... 54 Renewable cooling technologies ............................................................................................. 55 Direct cooling systems ..................................................................................................... 55 Indirect cooling systems .................................................................................................. 55 Sorption cooling systems ................................................................................................. 55 Cooling in buildings and industry ............................................................................................ 56 District cooling ................................................................................................................. 56 Integration of heating and cooling in smart energy systems .................................................. 58 Policies for renewable heat ..................................................................................................... 59 Whats different about heat? .................................................................................................. 59 Why should renewable heat be encouraged? ......................................................................... 60 Energy security, and reduced fuel use and costs ............................................................. 60 Reducing emissions .......................................................................................................... 60 Economic benefits ............................................................................................................ 60 Energy access ................................................................................................................... 61 Policy development ................................................................................................................. 62 Economic competitiveness .............................................................................................. 63 Investor risks .................................................................................................................... 64 Institutional barriers and other issues ............................................................................. 65 Sectoral differences ......................................................................................................... 67 Policy implementation ............................................................................................................. 67 Policy best practice .................................................................................................................. 68 Outlook on the future role of renewable heating and cooling .................................................. 69 Mediumterm outlook ............................................................................................................. 69 Regional outlook .............................................................................................................. 70 Longterm scenarios for renewable heating and cooling ........................................................ 71 Buildings sector projections: Overview ........................................................................... 71 Industry sector projections: Overview ............................................................................. 72 </li> <li> 6. OECD/IEA 2014 Heating without Global Warming Market Developments and Policy Considerations for Renewable Heat Page | 5 Cooling demand ............................................................................................................... 73 Renewable energy use for heating and cooling in industry and buildings in the 2DS ..... 73 The role of renewable heat in an integrated energy system........................................... 76 Conclusions and policy recommendations ............................................................................... 79 Recommendations ................................................................................................................... 81 Acronyms, abbreviations and units of measure ....................................................................... 82 References .............................................................................................................................. 84 List...</li></ul>