Feasibility Study for a Large Scale Regional Anaerobic Digestion Study for a Large Scale Regional Anaerobic Digestion Facility ... • AD is a series of processes in which microorganisms break ... • Nottinghamshire based CSTR

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  • Feasibility Study for a Large Scale Regional Anaerobic Digestion Facility

    Cenex and The Business Advice Team limited

  • Introduction

    Peter Speers

    Cenex

  • Introduction

    Aim:

    Undertake a feasibility study into the development of a large scale AD facility utilising commercial and industrial food waste sources in the region to produce biomethane for use in transport logistics

    Deliverables:

    An evidenced Business Case for the development of such a facility in the East Midlands as a result of key stakeholder engagement and research

    A detailed understanding of the AD supply chain and logistics operators across the region

    A dissemination event to raise the awareness of potential regional stakeholders to the associated opportunity

  • Rationale for Anaerobic Digestion (AD)

    AD is a series of processes in which microorganisms break

    down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen

    providing volume and mass reduction of the input material

    The process produces: i) a methane and CO2 rich biogas

    which can be upgraded to biomethane and used as a vehicle which can be upgraded to biomethane and used as a vehicle

    fuel reducing dependency of fossil fuels, and ii) a nutrient rich

    digestate that can be used as a fertiliser

    AD reduces the reliance on landfill and hence the emission of

    landfill gas into the atmosphere

    Biomethane produced from AD has the lowest GHG

    emissions of any biofuel. In transport applications biomethane

    burns more cleanly than other fuels, improving air quality with

    lower NOx and particulate emissions

  • Need to consider the whole system: inputs, process, outputs,

    logistics

    Food waste as input

    40-50kT AD facility

    Biomethane as output transport

    Biomethane as a vehicle fuel

    Biomethane as output transport

    Digestate as output

    Biogasmax

  • Biomethane as a vehicle fuel

    Inputs

    - food waste

    - other waste

    - other inputs

    Pretreatmentand

    digestion

    Outputs

    - gas

    - digestate

    Use

  • Proposed AD System

    Food waste as input

    40-50kT AD facility

    Biomethane as output transport

    Digestate as output

  • East Midlands focus

    Matt Symonds

    Business Advice Team Limited

  • Business Support

    For the supply chain:

    Grants to develop products, systems and capability: GBI, GRD

    Training: Train to Gain (funding and advice)

    Sector Skills Council (SSC) Energy and Utility

    For the project: For the project:

    Technology Strategy Board BERR need appropriate

    competition call

    Environmental Transformation Fund (ETF) BERR/Defra Low

    Carbon Energy Demonstration

    Framework Programme 7 Energy Call May 2009

    European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)

  • Logistics

    Hardstaff Haulage identified as potential end user due to:

    knowledge and uptake of biomethane vehicle technology,

    location of operation and interest in AD

    Contacted transport intermediaries (FTA, RHA, CILT) to

    ascertain key players in the region poor responseascertain key players in the region poor response

    In total 19 logistics operators (including Hardstaff) were

    identified across the region database created

    All operators consulted as to uptake of biomethane 3 yes

    (one of which was Hardstaff), 8 no, 8 no response

    Logistics strategy developed by Hardstaff

  • Waste Providers

    Interested in commercial and industrial food waste providers

    in the region

    Food Processing Faraday Partnership (FPFP) investigated

    cutting out food waste in the East Midlands Food Industry

    Worked in collaboration with FPFP to identify large waste

    providers around M1 / A14 corridor logistics consideration

    Range of sources: 1 to 24kT per annum, eggs, dairy,

    vegetable and fruit, snacks

    Selected sources greater than 6kT logistics consideration

    eight key sources - majority located Leicester or Mansfield

    Majority have waste management contracts in place, but

    these are short term

    Contacted waste management companies to gauge interest

    in project and potential for chanelling of waste to AD; Biffa,

    Veolia, Wastecycle, Sita, Lindum

  • An anaerobic digestion facility for the East Midlands

    Steve Carroll

    Cenex

  • Main control parameters Temp Organic loading rate

    Process options TemperatureMesophilic / Thermophilic

    AD BasicsAD BasicsAD BasicsAD Basics

    Organic loading rate pH C:N ratio Multi stage / single stage

    Methanogenesis Acidogenesis Hydrolysis Breaking down solid complex organic matter to soluble matter Fermentation to volatile fatty acids and alcohols Methane production

  • AD reactor designs

    Suspended growth digester (STR, CSTR) 5 20 % TS Content

    High solids digester (Plug flow

    Supported growth digester (AF, Fluidised beds) 1-2 % TS Content

    High solids digester (Plug flow type) 30 55% TS Content

  • East Midlands food waste

    143 kT per annum industrial food waste in the East Midlands (FPFP data)

    52 kT readily available from top eight industrial food waste providers

    Consistent loading rate

    Good C:N ratio

    No value in feathers and eggshells

    Fried waste high energy content

    Ready meals depackaging / fat

  • Estimated gas production

    Removal of eggshells and feathers would give 20.6% TS and 3.24 m Nm3

  • AD Technology suitability to food waste

  • East Midlands food waste technology providers

    Nine companies

    Three responses

    Confirmed gas yields and TS content

    Detail technology options and economic data

  • East Midlands food waste Digestate options

    Clean digestate due to source segregation of waste

    Typically 4 5% DM content suitable for use as fertiliser (N,K,P)

    Spreading Spreading Spreading Spreading digestate as 4digestate as 4digestate as 4digestate as 4----5% DM fertiliser5% DM fertiliser5% DM fertiliser5% DM fertiliser

    Storage / NVZ Labour intensive Low demand in Notts

    SeparatingSeparatingSeparatingSeparatingdigestate into cake digestate into cake digestate into cake digestate into cake

    and liquorand liquorand liquorand liquor

    High demand ~35% DM fertiliser

    Further aerobic treatment plant for liquor and disposal to sewer

    Supply for irrigation

  • AD plant scenarios for digestion of food waste

    Scenario 1Scenario 1Scenario 1Scenario 1 Nottinghamshire based CSTR AD

    facility Supplement market for CNG/CBG Food waste providers along M1/A14

    corridor Digestate separation with liquor Digestate separation with liquor

    treatment and discharge to sewer

    Scenario 2Scenario 2Scenario 2Scenario 2 Nottinghamshire based high solids digester food waste Supplement with MSW / Energy crops / manure / garden waste Suited to where there is no market for liquid fertiliser and no

    discharge consent then treatment systems can be installed to reduce or eliminate disposal needs using flocculants.

  • AD plant scenarios for digestion of food waste

    Scenario 3Scenario 3Scenario 3Scenario 3 Lincolnshire based CSTR AD facility Higher agriculture demand for a

    liquid fertiliser Increased feed stock transportation

    costs Reduce / eliminate digestate disposal Reduce / eliminate digestate disposal

    cost

  • Conclusion

    Peter Speers

    Cenex

  • Implementation plan for a regional AD facility

    Create partnerships

    Build business plan and business model

    Choose location

    Choose production technology

    Choose distribution technology Choose distribution technology

    Obtain planning permission

    Construct facility

    Start production

    Start distribution

  • Business model for a large scale regional AD Facility

    Activities Products Distribution Customers

    Partners Customers

    Feedstock sorting and pre-treatment

    AD

    Upgrading

    Biogas

    BiomethaneDigestate

    On-site distribution

    Shipping and distribution

    Private fleets

    Public fleetsCustomers for digestate

    Cost Revenue

  • Economic model of AD points to note1. inputs

    Much food waste is seasonal, but

    Some food waste is more consistent and predictable eg,

    slaughterhouse waste

    Other food waste is the result of accident and is highly

    unpredictable eg, milk waste.unpredictable eg, milk waste.

    If have guaranteed market for outputs (eg, electricity or

    vehicle fuel) have to maintain outputs even if inputs are

    variable

    Study findings are that inputs can be guaranteed

  • Economic model of AD points to note2. gate fees

    Current 'ball park' figure for gate fees for AD is 30-60/tonne

    (WRAP)

    Figures found by study range from 30/tonne for food waste,

    5/tonne for milk waste

    Anecdotally, European experience is that increased Anecdotally, European experience is that increased

    competition for carbon-rich substrates creates market

    pressures which lower and ultimately reverse gate fees.

    Need further investigation to verify if this is actually the case

    Building business case on rising gate fees therefore may not

    be realistic. Needs further investigation

  • Economic model of AD points to note3. outputs

    Economic model of existing (non-vehicle fuel) plants good if

    double ROCs and gate fees kept at 30-50/tonne

    Biomethane as vehicle fuel most favourable economics of all

    providing local demand is stimulated

    Uncertainly of long-term future of ROCs, but also of diesel Uncertainly of long-term future of ROCs, but also of diesel

    price

    Finding a local market for digestate is crucial

  • Summary

    The challenge is capturing all of this [waste] as it is going

    indifferent directions. No waste management company has

    all, or even most of it. Secondly, the major retailers are

    pushing this agenda, and once they decide to go in a given

    direction, you will lose their inputs for several years to

    come. If there is to be an East Midlands project, then it come. If there is to be an East Midlands project, then it

    needs to move quickly and also communicate its potential to

    the large food waste producers.

    Keith Riley, Managing Director of Veolia Environmental Services

    (UK) plc reported:

  • Business model for a large scale regional AD Facility

    Activities Products Distribution Customers

    Partners Customers

    Feedstock sorting and pre-treatment

    AD

    Upgrading

    Biogas

    BiomethaneDigestate

    On-site distribution

    Shipping and distribution

    Private fleets

    Public fleetsCustomers for digestate

    Cost Revenue

  • Thank you for your attention

    www.cenex.co.uk

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