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FCAT science review


<ul><li> 1. Put the terms in order from BIGGEST to smallest: solar system, galaxy, universe, star, planet, moon UNIVERSE, GALAXY, SOLAR SYSTEM, STAR, PLANET, MOON</li></ul><p> 2. UNIVERSE-Everything that exists. The size of the observable Universe is determinedby the distance light has travelled since the Universe was formed in the Big Bang, 12 - 15 billion years ago. Galaxy-The structure formed by as assembly of thousands of millions of stars together with gas and dust. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, is a spiral galaxy. Galaxies may be described as elliptical, irregular or spiral. Our galaxy is just one among many billions. Solar system-The Sun and the collection of celestial bodies that orbit it. These include the nine planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto) and their 60 moons, the asteroid belt, the comets and the Kuiper belt. Star-Giant ball of gas in space which produces vast amounts of energy through nuclear reactions in its core. There are many different types of stars, which are classified according to their temperatures, colors, ages and compositions.Planet-Large, spherical, rocky or icy body which orbits the Sun or another star. Moon-(1) The Earth's satellite, which orbits at a distance of 384 500 km. Its mass is one-eightieth (1/80) and its gravity one-sixth (1/6) of the Earth's. Surface temperatures range from 80400 K. It has no atmosphere. (2) General name also given to natural satellites, e.g., the moon of Jupiter and Saturn. http://htwins.net/scale/ click to have mind BLOWN http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEM763S1VED_index_0.html 3. What is the most commonly used measurement forlarge distances used by astronomers? What does this term mean? 4. LIGHT YEAR OR PARSEC A light-year, is a unit of length,equal to just under 10 trillion kilometres (101015 metres, or about 6 trillion miles). As defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a light-year is the distance that light travels in a vacuum in one Julian year.[1]The light-year is often used to measure distances to stars and other distances on a galactic scale, especially in non-specialist and popular science publications. The preferred unit in astrometry is the parsec, because it can be more easily derived from, and compared with, observational data. The parsec is defined as the distance at which an object will appear to move one arcsecond of parallax when the observer moves one astronomical unit perpendicular to the line of sight to the observer, and is equal to approximately 3.26 light-years.[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light-year 5. What word best describes the number of galaxies in the Universe? Hundreds, thousands, millions, billions? 6. What word best describes the Number of galaxies in the Universe? B B B Billions!CLICK HERE FOR GREAT SHORT ABOUT THE UNIVERSE 7. What do astronomers call thedistance from our Sun to the Earth? 8. What do astronomers call the distance from our Sunto the Earth? AU astronomical Unit 1 AU = 149,597,870.691 kilometers Definition: An Astronomical Unit is approximately the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun Since an AU is based on radius of a circular orbit, one AU is actually slightly less than the average distance between the Earth and the Sun (approximately 150 million km or 93 million miles). http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/glossary/au.html 9. How do scientists know if astar/planet is moving away from or towards us? 10. How do scientists know if a star/planet is moving away from or towardsus? RED SHIFT 'Red shift' is a key concept for astronomers. The term can be understood literally - the wavelength of the light is stretched, so the light is seen as 'shifted' towards the red part of the spectrum. BLUE SHIFT When a distant object moves toward the observer the lines in its spectrum shift to shorter (bluer) wavelengths. This is because of the apparent compression of the wave of light. As a result of this compression the wavelength shortens and thus shifts towards the blue side of the electromagnetic spectrum. The blueshift of an astronomical object is an indication of the speed at which this object is approaching the observer. Go to http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/cosmic_reference/redsh for more info. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEMLJ0S1VED_index_0.html 11. What causes tides on Earth? 12. What causes tides on Earth? Position of earth, moon , sunhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gftT3wHJGtg Click on the youtube link for more information 13. Draw a spring tide. (include the earth, moon, sun,and tide) 14. Draw a spring tide. (include the earth, moon, sun, andtide) the earth moon and sun are LINED UP! 15. Draw a neap tide. (include the earth, moon, sun, andtide) 16. http://changinautical.blogspot.com/2010/08/spring-and-neap-tides.htmlDraw a neap tide. (include the earth, moon, sun, andtide) the earth, moon, and sun will form a 90 degree angle 17. Name the planets in OUR solar system starting with theSun and travelling further away. My very easy method; just set up nine planets mercury Venus Earth mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto (no longer a planet due to dirty orbit but one day will be a planet again!) 18. What determines the gravity of a star, moon, or planet? ITS MASS AND RADIUS MORE mass and LESS Radius = more gravity The biggest factor for gravity is MASS TWO OBJECTS IN SPACE ARE affected by theirMASS and DISTANCE. 19. What is ABSOLUTE magnitude(brightness)? How bright a star would appear if it were viewedat a standard distance of 10 parsecs. (1 parsec = 3.26 light years)Think about it like this if you have a super bright flashlight that is far away and a not so bright flashlight that is IN YOUR FACE. The not so bright light appears brighter. (apparent magnitude) To have an ABSOLUTELY fair and accurate test of brightness, you would need to put both flash lights the SAME distance away (absolute brightness) 20. What is APPARENT magnitude(brightness)? How bright a star APPEARS FROM HERE (Earth) Think about it like this if you have a super bright flashlight that is far away and a not so bright flashlight that is IN YOUR FACE. The not so bright light appears brighter. (apparent magnitude) To have an ABSOLUTELY fair and accurate test of brightness, you would need to put both flash lights the SAME distance away (absolute brightness) 21. What is theHertzsprung Russell diagram and what does it tell astronomers? Hertzsprung-Russell (HR)diagram A diagram in which the luminosities (brightness)of stars are plotted against their colors or spectral types. Stars do not occupy all regions of the H-R diagram but form various sequences, the most important being the main sequence, the giant branch and the horizontal branch. IN other words it tells you what kind of star you are looking at, how hot it is and how bright it is. 22. What is the difference between a rotation and arevolution when talking about a planet? ROTATION- spin on axis = day REVOLUTION- trip around a star(sun) or planet= yearhttp://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/6hrevolution.html http://www.google.com/imgres?q=revolution+astronomy&amp;hl=en&amp;safe=active&amp;sa=X&amp;rls=com.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&amp;biw=1280&amp;bih=820&amp;tbm=isch&amp;prmd=imvns&amp;tbnid=rOaHF70s7214sM:&amp;imgrefurl=http://www.mrcrandall.com/terms/revolve.htm&amp;docid=5otqT4vHE1oRM&amp;imgurl=http://www.mrcrandall.com/terms/revolve_files/image003.png&amp;w=727&amp;h=222&amp;ei=C9uCT9z3LMyEtgec0MWXBg&amp;zoom=1&amp;iact=hc&amp;vpx=618&amp;vpy=185&amp;dur=3453&amp;hovh=124&amp;hovw=407&amp;tx=201&amp;ty=95&amp;sig=114896936411332690632&amp;page=1&amp;tbnh=57&amp;tbnw=186&amp;start=0&amp;ndsp=25&amp;ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0,i:75 23. Define geocentric. Is this correct? EARTH = center of solar system/universe. This isNOT TRUE! It was an early attempt to explain how the stars and planets moved. WRONG! FAIL!!! 24. What causes seasons on Earth? AXIAL TILT and REVOLUTION around sun. We now know that Earth orbits the sun elliptically and, at the sametime, spins on an axis that is tilted relative to its plane of orbit. This means that different hemispheres are exposed to different amounts of sunlight throughout the year. Because the sun is our source of light, energy and heat, the changing intensity and concentration of its rays give rise to the seasons of winter, spring, summer and fall. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3077384Click here for short video on seasons 25. Define Heliocentric. Is this correct? SUN= center of solar system. Ding ding! CORRECT!Helios=sun Centric= centered 26. Draw a neap tide. (include the earth, moon, sun, andtide) http://changinautical.blogspot.com/2010/08/spring-and-neap-tides.htmlLOOK how the sun, earth, and moons form a 90 degree angle during a NEAP TIDE http://changinautical.blogspot.com/2010/08/spring-and-neap-tides.html 27. Each galaxy contains (general number) of stars. B B B BILLIONS! Wow! That is a LOT! Andremember there are B B B Billions of Galaxies and EACH one has BILLIONS of stars.Click for AWESOME Animaniacs Universe so 28. Test answers TEACHERS ONLY Click link above for answer key Click link above for answer key(do 29. What are the main Parts of an experiment?Independent Variable This is the part of your experiment that you will test (change) to answer your hypothesis. In the example above, the independent variable would be the different colors of the light bulbs. A GOOD experiment should have only ONE VARIABLE. Dependent Variable This is what occurs in response to the changing independent variable. In our example the Dependent Variable is how much the grass seeds grow. Control The control should be the part of the experiment where you do not include the Independent Variable. In our example, grass seed that is growing under the white (uncolored) bulb would be your control. The control lets you compare your results in the experiment. http://www.sciencebob.com/sciencefair/scientificmethod.php 30. What are the 3 MAIN states of matter?Solid- TIGHTLY PACKED SLOW MOVING. DEFINITE SHAPE DEFINITE VOLUME Liquid- Move more quickly with more space than a solid. No definite shape, DEFINITE volume. GAS- Fast moving lots of space between atoms. NO definite shape, NO definite volume. 31. What THREE parts make up an atom? What are their charges? Proton= + Neutron= nochargeElectron= - charge 32. How are elements grouped in the periodic table of elements? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_tableThe periodic table is a tabular display of thechemical elements, organized on the basis of their properties. Elements are presented in increasing atomic number. While rectangular in general outline, gaps are included in the rows or periods to keep elements with similar properties together, such as the halogens and the noble gases, in columns or groups, forming distinct rectangular areas or blocks. Click here for short video on the periodic table 33. Define atomic number. The atomic number is equal to the number ofprotons in an atom's nucleus. The atomic number determines which element an atom is. For example, any atom that contains exactly 47 protons in its nucleus is an atom of silver. http://education.jlab.org/glossary/atomicnumber.html 34. What is a MIXTURE?TWO or more substances not chemically bonded. ThinkChex MIX (I dont like the burnt toast thingys, so I take them out!) Mixtures can be either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous mixture is a type of mixture in which the composition is uniform(SAME). A heterogeneous mixture is a type of mixture in which the components can easily be identified, as there are two or more phases present. Air is a homogeneous mixture of the gaseous substances nitrogen, oxygen, and smaller amounts of other substances. Salt, sugar, and many other substances dissolve in water to form homogeneous mixtures. A homogeneous mixture in which there is both a solute and solvent present is also a solution. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mixture 35. What is the Law of Conservation of Mass? The Law of Conservation of Mass datesfrom Antoine Lavoisier's 1789 discovery that mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions. In other words, the mass of any one element at the beginning of a reaction will equal the mass of that element at the end of the reaction. If we account for all reactants and products in a chemical reaction, the total mass will be the same at any point in time in any closed system. Lavoisier's finding laid the foundation for modern chemistry and revolutionized science.http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/the-conservation-of-mass-17395478http://www.rjdposters.com/Store/DrawProducts.aspx? Action=GetDetails&amp;ProductID=621&amp;ParentID=&amp;PageID=75 36. What is a chemical change?A chemical changemakes a substance that wasn't there before. There may be clues that a chemical reaction took place, such as light, heat, color change, gas production, odor, or sound. http://chemistry.about.com/od/lecturenotesl3/a/chemphyschanges.htm 37. How does a living system (like a pond) follow the law of conservation of mass? Ecosystems can be thought of as a battleground forelements, in which species that are more efficient competitors can often exclude inferior competitors. Though most ecosystems contain so many individual reactions, it would be impossible to identify them all, each of these reactions must obey the Law of Conservation of Mass the entire ecosystem must also follow this same constraint. Though no real ecosystem is a truly closed system, we use the same conservation law by accounting for all inputs and all outputs.When a forest is cut (and especially if trees are burned to clear land for agriculture), this stored carbon reenters the atmosphere as CO2. Mass balance ensures that the carbon formerly locked up in biomass must go somewhere; it must reenter some other compartment of some ecosystem. Mass balance properties can be applied over many scales of organization, including the individual organism, the watershed, or even a whole city http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/the-conservation-of-mass-17395478SHORT STORY: Critters areborn, critters die, critters eat, critters are eaten. There will be a natural balance that keeps predators and prey balanced and the pond healthy. 38. Give an example of the effect of temperature for a solid dissolving into a liquid. Solid into liquid: likesugar into iced tea. Hotter temp= more solubility 39. Give an example of the effect of temp for a gas dissolving into a liquid. Gas into liquid: bubbles in soda and O2 in livebait bucket COLDER temp = more solubility warm soda=flat soda warm bait bucket=dead bait 40. What are some properties of acids and bases? 41. What is the pH scale? What do the numbers mean? The pH scale measures how acidic or basic a substance is. ThepH scale ranges from 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is neutral. A pH less than 7 is acidic. A pH greater than 7 is basic. The pH scale is logarithmic and as a result, each whole pH value below 7 is ten times more acidic than the next higher value. For example, pH 4 is ten times m...</p>