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  • FCAT Prep. Teaching Presentation

    Mock FCAT 2.0

  • A chemical change is a change in which a substance turns into a completely different

    substance that can't be reversed

    • Chemical change is any change that results in the formation of new chemical substances. At the molecular level, chemical change involves making or breaking of bonds between atoms.

    These changes are chemical: • iron rusting (iron oxide forms) • gasoline burning (water vapor and carbon

    dioxide form) • eggs cooking (fluid protein molecules uncoil

    and crosslink to form a network) • bread rising (yeast converts carbohydrates

    into carbon dioxide gas) • milk souring (sour-tasting lactic acid is

    produced) • Sun tanning (vitamin D and melanin is

    produced)

    • Physical change rearranges molecules but doesn't affect their internal structures.

    Some examples of physical change are: • whipping egg whites (air is forced into the

    fluid, but no new substance is produced) • magnetizing a compass needle (there is

    realignment of groups ("domains") of iron atoms, but no real change within the iron atoms themselves).

    • boiling water (water molecules are forced away from each other when the liquid changes to vapor, but the molecules are still H2O.)

    • dissolving sugar in water (sugar molecules are dispersed within the water, but the individual sugar molecules are unchanged.)

    • dicing potatoes (cutting usually separates molecules without changing them.)

  • 1) Ethan is observing chemical and physical properties of a substance. He heats a substance and observes that the substance turns from a brown solid to a black powder. He refers to several chemistry journals that claim this represents a chemical reaction. From his observation and research, he concludes that the substance goes through a chemical change when heated.

    How can Ethan best defend his conclusion?

    A. by demonstrating that the substance will eventually melt if the temperature

    continues to increase

    B. by verifying that the substance is now made up of different molecules than

    before it was heated

    C. by verifying that the substance is made up of only one type of element

    D. by demonstrating that the substance is less dense after it is heated

  • B

  • Constant Speed / Distance and Time

    • Constant speed is movement at a fixed (constant) distance per unit of time.

    Reading a graph.

    Formulas

  • 2) Mr. Roberts drives his car away from his house at a constant speed. Which of the following graphs best shows the relationship between the distance traveled and the time spent driving?

  • H

  • The Rock Cycle

    http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=mLUYm9iwuRDgjM&tbnid=LXwjRGNbJqNKwM:&ved=0CAgQjRwwAA&url=http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/rock.html&ei=Q9RaUYrFCYWI8QSF-4D4CQ&psig=AFQjCNFvUwxt2QslsRwqcnR5j_Z2Q3LRAg&ust=1364993475212239 http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=mLUYm9iwuRDgjM&tbnid=LXwjRGNbJqNKwM:&ved=0CAgQjRwwAA&url=http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/rock.html&ei=Q9RaUYrFCYWI8QSF-4D4CQ&psig=AFQjCNFvUwxt2QslsRwqcnR5j_Z2Q3LRAg&ust=1364993475212239

  • At which point in the cycle shown above would the process of breaking down

    rocks occur?

    A. J

    B. K

    C. L

    D. M

  • D

  • Since these two forces are equal and in opposite directions,

    they balance each other.

    • It is said to be at equilibrium.

    • When all the forces acting upon an object balance

    each other, the object will be at equilibrium; it will not

    accelerate.

    Balanced & Unbalanced Forces

    Newton's first law of motion

    *An object at rest stays at rest &

    an object in motion stays in motion

    unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

  • 4) An object moves through space with balanced forces acting on it. Which statement best describes the speed and direction of the object as long as the forces acting on it remain balanced?

    F. The speed and direction of the object will both change. G. The speed and direction of the object will remain constant. H. The speed will change, but the direction will remain constant. I. The speed will remain constant, but the direction will change.

  • G

  • It is important to design an experiment that can be replicated because:

    1. Doing multiple trials helps provide assurance that the results are correct

    2. it also allows you to get an average

    3. Observed results are less likely to be affected by random chance.

    Why is it important to design experiments that can be replicated?

  • 5) A scientist performs an experiment and asks other scientists around the world to replicate it. Why would other scientists most likely try to perform the same experiment?

    A. to find out if weather of various regions of the world would affect the results B. to see if the experiment would be less expensive in another part of the world C. to confirm the results of the experiment conducted by the scientist D. to verify that the hypothesis of the experiment is a scientific law

  • C

  • Niche in a community?

    • Scavengers are animals that find dead animals or plants and eat them. While they eat them, they break them into small bits.

    • Examples are: flies, wasps and cockroaches are scavengers. Earthworms are also scavengers, but they only break down plants.

    • Decomposers and scavengers break down dead plants and animals.

    • They also break down the waste (poop) of other organisms.

    • Decomposers are very important for any ecosystem. If they weren't in the ecosystem, the plants would not get essential nutrients, and dead matter and waste would pile up.

    There are two kinds of decomposers: scavengers and decomposers.

    Once a scavenger is done, the decomposers take over, and finish the job. • Many kinds of decomposers are

    microscopic, meaning that they can't be seen without a microscope. Others, like fungi, can be seen.

    http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/marssim/simhtml/organisms/fly.html http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/marssim/simhtml/organisms/wasp.html http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/marssim/simhtml/organisms/cockroach.html http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/marssim/simhtml/organisms/worm.html http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/marssim/simhtml/info/Whats-a-plant.html

  • 6) Food webs show feeding relationships among different types of organisms. Those organisms each have a specific niche. Which of the following best describes a function of decomposers in food webs?

    F. to recycle nutrients into soil G. to convert solar energy into food H. to provide food for secondary consumers I. to compete with secondary consumers for oxygen

  • F

  • Earth’s oceans:

    • is the liquid water component of the Earth. It includes the oceans, seas, lakes, ponds, rivers and streams. The hydrosphere covers about 70% of the surface of the Earth and is the home for many plants and animals.

  • 7) The interaction between the cryosphere and hydrosphere can have an impact on Earth’s oceans. Which of the following is an example of an interaction between the cryosphere and hydrosphere?

    A. evaporation of water from oceans at the equator B. release of fresh water into ocean water as icebergs melt C. decomposition of organic matter at the bottom of oceans D. release of large amounts of salt from icebergs into the ocean

  • B

  • Every Changing Science

    • Accepted theories are the best explanations available so far for how the world works. They have been thoroughly tested, are supported by multiple lines of evidence, and have proved useful in generating explanations and opening up new areas for research. However, science is always a work in progress, and even theories change.

    http://undsci.berkeley.edu/glossary/glossary_popup.php?word=theory http://undsci.berkeley.edu/glossary/glossary_popup.php?word=test http://undsci.berkeley.edu/glossary/glossary_popup.php?word=line+of+evidence http://undsci.berkeley.edu/glossary/glossary_popup.php?word=science

  • 8) Scientific knowledge may change as new evidence or information is discovered. Which of the following would NOT be a result of new scientific research and information?

    F. Binomial nomenclature is assigned to a recently identified plant species. G. An endangered monkey species is put in a reserve for protection from extinction. H. A newly discovered chemical element will be added to the periodic table of the elements. I. A nonnative plant species will begin to reproduce rapidly after being introduced into a swamp ecosystem.

  • I

  • 9) Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), and Francium (Fr) are in the same column in the periodic table. Why are these elements in the same column in the periodic table?

    A. They are the same size. B. They react with each other. C. They have similar properties. D. They have the same number of pr