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FASHION MERCHANDISING B
STANDARD 7 HISTORY OF FASHION
STANDARD: Students will understand the basics of the history of fashion.
Objective 1: Identify early history of clothing
Objective 2: Identify influential people in fashion history
Objective 3: Identify specific styles from the 20th century to the present.
THE IMPORTANCE OF FASHION
Economic and political trends, current events, and
social issues are often reflected in fashion.
Fashion serves as a historical record of culture
Personal appearance can identify social position
and reflect a persons self-image.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF
Fashion is one of the worlds largest industries.
It affects the global economy and local economies.
Fashion can be a reflection of the economic environment.
When people are unable to satisfy their basic needs for
food and shelter, style becomes less important.
The earliest clothing dates from about 20,000 B.C.
The earliest clothes were developed primarily for protection
from the weather and environment.
The earliest clothes were made of fur, animal skin, leaves, and
WHY DO PEOPLE WEAR CLOTHES? People have 3 basic clothing needs:
Physical needs: protection and safety
Psychological needs: appearance enhancement
Social needs: affiliation and standards
Needs Social Needs
SOURCES OF CLOTHING HISTORY
The evolution of dress can represent a visual history of a culture.
Sources of clothing history include:
FASHION THROUGH THE AGES
Centuries ago, people dressed according to what society allowed for the
The wealthy class dictated fashion.
During the 18th century, political and social shifts contributed to the
growth and influence of the middle or working class.
During the Industrial Revolution of the 1800s, garments began being
The invention of photography influenced the spread of styles.
The fashion magazineVogue was first published in 1892.
George Bryan Beau Brummell
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
QUEEN ELIZABETH 1
QUEEN OF ENGLAND
Introduced clothing as indicator of social status.
Her look consisted of:
Tudor Ruffs large, round collar
Epaulets shoulder adornments
Plucked her head and brows
KING OF FRANCE He sent life-sized fashion dolls to every European court, so that all of
Europe would know about Paris fashions.
The dolls were dressed in the latest styles.
Tailors copied the clothes, footwear, hats, and accessories on the dolls
for nobility in other countries.
QUEEN OF FRANCE She was a trendsetter for ornate styles of the late 18th century.
She would use paste to whiten and stiffen her hair to extreme heights.
Her excessive fashion included high headdresses, plumes, and
GEORGE BRYAN BEAU BRUMMEL
Led the trends for men in early 1800s
He claimed to take 5 hours to get dressed.
His style is known as Dandyism which was a style of dress for
men and a lifestyle that celebrated elegance and refinement.
Straight posture, well-fitting clothing, and accessories such as a
top hat, tailcoat, and white gloves were all characteristics of a
JACQUELINE KENNEDY ONASSIS
Known for her understated elegance.
1960s First Lady of the United States.
Trademark pillbox hat
Trademark suits with three-quarter sleeves
Today some of her wardrobe is conserved at the John F. Kennedy
Library and Museum in Boston.
Came to America in 1964 as the famous trendsetting British band.
This fashion challenged the shorthaired, conservative look of the crew
While longer hairstyles became standard for men by the 1970s, they
were extreme in the early 1960s with the Beatles.
THE LATE 1800S
By the end of the Victorian era of the 1800s, women were wearing
corsets to shape their bodies into an unnatural S-bend to create a
more feminine silhouette.
They wore slim-fitting skirts, long sleeves, and high collars for a look
that was feminine but stiff.
The death of Englands Queen Victoria in 1901 marked a fashion
milestone and the beginning of economic, social, and technological
THE EARLY 1900S
In 1909, Vogue features new loose-fitting clothing for women.
Women stop wearing corsets.
Skirts get slightly shorter.
The invention of rayon leads to more functional clothing.
THE 1920S Gabrielle Coco Chanel introduces sportswear garments and
trousers for everyday wear.
Chanel promotes the style of the flappers.
Chanel introduces the little black dress.
The one-hour dress is invented by the Womens Fashion
Styles are simpler.
1930S 1950S Movie stars set trends for hair, makeup, and clothes.
Nylon is invented by DuPont.
To save fabric during wartime, hemlines become shorter.
Simple styles represent patriotism during wartime.
American designers become more prominent.
Womens styles become more traditionally feminine in the 1950s.
Christian Dior launches a new style in 1947 called the New Look
The New Look featured long hemlines, narrow shoulders, and tightly fitted
bodices with long, full, or narrow skirts.
1960SSocial changes, world events, and music affect
New synthetic fibers are invented.
Hippie style appears. Hippie style is a fashion consisting of clothing from the Middle & Far East,
bright colors, peasant embroidery, cheesecloth, and safari hats.
1970S Disco Style consisted of gold lame, leopard print, stretch halter jumpsuits,
and white clothing that glowed under ultra violet lighting. The movie Saturday Night Fever highlighted the flared trousers, pastel-colored jackets, and platform shoes popular during the disco era.
Punk Fashion was a style featuring intentionally torn clothing worn by young people. Frayed trousers and Doc Martens were part of the punk style. Pieces of fabrics were held together with safety pins and chains. While torn clothing, frayed edges, and damaged print fabrics are not unusual styles in the 21st century, during the 1970s, the look shocked people.
Feminist Movement was the organized effort to establish equal social, economic, and political rights and opportunities for women. It influenced womens styles, such as shorter skirts and the pantsuit for the workplace.
1980S Professional women adopt the power look.
Business-casual attire appears.
High-quality products become available at moderate prices.
Stretchy, synthetic athletic wear becomes popular.
1990SAmericans begin dressing less formally.
Grunge style appears Grunge is a style started by the youth culture in the Pacific Northwest
region of the United States in the early 1990s; it is messy, uncombed, and
Fashion industry begins to lose the ability to dictate trends.
2000SMixing color, texture and pattern
Short layers over long
End of haute couture influence