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  • FASHION MERCHANDISING B

    STANDARD 7 HISTORY OF FASHION

    STANDARD: Students will understand the basics of the history of fashion.

    Objective 1: Identify early history of clothing

    Objective 2: Identify influential people in fashion history

    Objective 3: Identify specific styles from the 20th century to the present.

  • THE IMPORTANCE OF FASHION

    Economic and political trends, current events, and

    social issues are often reflected in fashion.

    Fashion serves as a historical record of culture

    and lifestyle.

    Personal appearance can identify social position

    and reflect a persons self-image.

  • ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF

    FASHION

    Fashion is one of the worlds largest industries.

    It affects the global economy and local economies.

    Fashion can be a reflection of the economic environment.

    When people are unable to satisfy their basic needs for

    food and shelter, style becomes less important.

  • EARLIEST CLOTHING

    The earliest clothing dates from about 20,000 B.C.

    The earliest clothes were developed primarily for protection

    from the weather and environment.

    The earliest clothes were made of fur, animal skin, leaves, and

    grass.

  • WHY DO PEOPLE WEAR CLOTHES? People have 3 basic clothing needs:

    Physical needs: protection and safety

    Psychological needs: appearance enhancement

    Social needs: affiliation and standards

    Physical Needs

    Psychological

    Needs Social Needs

    WHY CLOTHING?

    identity

    adornment

    cultural identity

    affiliation/fitting in

    standards

    protection

    safety

  • SOURCES OF CLOTHING HISTORY

    The evolution of dress can represent a visual history of a culture.

    Sources of clothing history include:

    Actual

    garmentsOld

    paintings

    Fashion

    publicationsPhotographs

    Written

    Publications

  • FASHION THROUGH THE AGES

    Centuries ago, people dressed according to what society allowed for the

    social classes.

    The wealthy class dictated fashion.

    During the 18th century, political and social shifts contributed to the

    growth and influence of the middle or working class.

    During the Industrial Revolution of the 1800s, garments began being

    mass-produced.

    The invention of photography influenced the spread of styles.

    The fashion magazineVogue was first published in 1892.

  • HISTORICAL TRENDSETTERS

    Elizabeth I

    Louis XIV

    Marie Antoinette

    George Bryan Beau Brummell

    Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis

    The Beatles

  • QUEEN ELIZABETH 1

    QUEEN OF ENGLAND

    Introduced clothing as indicator of social status.

    Her look consisted of:

    Tudor Ruffs large, round collar

    Epaulets shoulder adornments

    Jeweled wigs

    Plucked her head and brows

    Rib-crushing corsets

    Hoop Skirt

  • LOUIS XIV

    KING OF FRANCE He sent life-sized fashion dolls to every European court, so that all of

    Europe would know about Paris fashions.

    The dolls were dressed in the latest styles.

    Tailors copied the clothes, footwear, hats, and accessories on the dolls

    for nobility in other countries.

  • MARIE ANTOINETTE

    QUEEN OF FRANCE She was a trendsetter for ornate styles of the late 18th century.

    She would use paste to whiten and stiffen her hair to extreme heights.

    Her excessive fashion included high headdresses, plumes, and

    voluminous dresses.

  • GEORGE BRYAN BEAU BRUMMEL

    Led the trends for men in early 1800s

    He claimed to take 5 hours to get dressed.

    His style is known as Dandyism which was a style of dress for

    men and a lifestyle that celebrated elegance and refinement.

    Straight posture, well-fitting clothing, and accessories such as a

    top hat, tailcoat, and white gloves were all characteristics of a

    Dandy.

  • JACQUELINE KENNEDY ONASSIS

    Known for her understated elegance.

    1960s First Lady of the United States.

    Trademark pillbox hat

    Trademark suits with three-quarter sleeves

    Today some of her wardrobe is conserved at the John F. Kennedy

    Library and Museum in Boston.

  • THE BEATLES

    Came to America in 1964 as the famous trendsetting British band.

    Mop-top hairstyles

    This fashion challenged the shorthaired, conservative look of the crew

    cut.

    While longer hairstyles became standard for men by the 1970s, they

    were extreme in the early 1960s with the Beatles.

  • THE LATE 1800S

    By the end of the Victorian era of the 1800s, women were wearing

    corsets to shape their bodies into an unnatural S-bend to create a

    more feminine silhouette.

    They wore slim-fitting skirts, long sleeves, and high collars for a look

    that was feminine but stiff.

    The death of Englands Queen Victoria in 1901 marked a fashion

    milestone and the beginning of economic, social, and technological

    changes.

  • THE EARLY 1900S

    In 1909, Vogue features new loose-fitting clothing for women.

    Women stop wearing corsets.

    Skirts get slightly shorter.

    The invention of rayon leads to more functional clothing.

  • THE 1920S Gabrielle Coco Chanel introduces sportswear garments and

    trousers for everyday wear.

    Chanel promotes the style of the flappers.

    Chanel introduces the little black dress.

    The one-hour dress is invented by the Womens Fashion

    Institute.

    Styles are simpler.

  • 1930S 1950S Movie stars set trends for hair, makeup, and clothes.

    Nylon is invented by DuPont.

    To save fabric during wartime, hemlines become shorter.

    Simple styles represent patriotism during wartime.

    American designers become more prominent.

    Womens styles become more traditionally feminine in the 1950s.

    Christian Dior launches a new style in 1947 called the New Look

    The New Look featured long hemlines, narrow shoulders, and tightly fitted

    bodices with long, full, or narrow skirts.

  • 1960SSocial changes, world events, and music affect

    fashion.

    New synthetic fibers are invented.

    Hippie style appears. Hippie style is a fashion consisting of clothing from the Middle & Far East,

    bright colors, peasant embroidery, cheesecloth, and safari hats.

  • 1970S Disco Style consisted of gold lame, leopard print, stretch halter jumpsuits,

    and white clothing that glowed under ultra violet lighting. The movie Saturday Night Fever highlighted the flared trousers, pastel-colored jackets, and platform shoes popular during the disco era.

    Punk Fashion was a style featuring intentionally torn clothing worn by young people. Frayed trousers and Doc Martens were part of the punk style. Pieces of fabrics were held together with safety pins and chains. While torn clothing, frayed edges, and damaged print fabrics are not unusual styles in the 21st century, during the 1970s, the look shocked people.

    Feminist Movement was the organized effort to establish equal social, economic, and political rights and opportunities for women. It influenced womens styles, such as shorter skirts and the pantsuit for the workplace.

  • 1980S Professional women adopt the power look.

    Business-casual attire appears.

    High-quality products become available at moderate prices.

    Stretchy, synthetic athletic wear becomes popular.

  • 1990SAmericans begin dressing less formally.

    Grunge style appears Grunge is a style started by the youth culture in the Pacific Northwest

    region of the United States in the early 1990s; it is messy, uncombed, and

    disheveled

    Fashion industry begins to lose the ability to dictate trends.

  • 2000SMixing color, texture and pattern

    Short layers over long

    End of haute couture influence