Eyewitness Misidentifications and Wrongful Convictions

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Eyewitness Misidentifications and Wrongful Convictions. Brandon L. Garrett Professor of Law University of Virginia School of Law. Brandon L. Garrett Convicting the Innocent Where Criminal Prosecutions Go Wrong (Harvard University Press 2011). A Line-Up. Map of Exonerations in the U.S. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Eyewitness Misidentifications and Wrongful Convictions</p><p>Brandon L. GarrettProfessor of LawUniversity of Virginia School of Law</p></li><li><p>*Brandon L. Garrett </p><p>Convicting the Innocent Where Criminal Prosecutions Go Wrong (Harvard University Press 2011)</p></li><li><p> A Line-Up*</p></li><li><p>*Map of Exonerations in the U.S.</p></li><li><p>*</p><p>Chart1</p><p>190</p><p>184</p><p>52</p><p>40</p><p>Number of Cases</p><p>Evidence Supporting Exonerees Convictions</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Number of CasesColumn3Column1</p><p>Eyewitness - 76% (190)190</p><p>Forensic Evidence - 74% (184)184</p><p>Informant - 21% (52)52</p><p>Confession - 16% (40)40</p><p>To resize chart data range, drag lower right corner of range.</p></li><li><p>Convicting the InnocentResource Websites</p><p>Data webpage home:http://www.law.virginia.edu/html/librarysite/garrett_innocent.htm Interactive resource:http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/Getting_it_Right.php *</p></li><li><p>John Jerome White Trial*</p></li><li><p>Manson v. Brathwaite432 U.S. 98 (1977)Was the procedure unnecessarily suggestive </p><p>Was the identification nevertheless reliable?</p><p>(1) Opportunity to view (2) Degree of attention (3) Accuracy of prior description (4) Level of certainty(5) Length of time between crime and ID*</p></li><li><p>Social Science Research State v. Henderson, 2011 WL 3715028 (N.J. 2011) The research . . . represents the gold standard in terms of the applicability of social science research to the law. Three stages of remembering acquisition, retention, retrievalSystem Variables identification proceduresEstimator Variables (lighting, weapon focus, distance, duration, memory decay, stress, witness characteristics, cross-race)*</p></li><li><p>*False ConfidenceThere is absolutely no question in my mindSteven Avery caseThis is the man or it is his twin brother That is one face I will never forgetThomas Doswell caseA hundred percent sure.Dean Cage caseOne hundred and twenty percent sure.Willie Williams case</p></li><li><p> A Line-Up*</p></li><li><p>*The EyewitnessesI studied 160 exoneree trial transcripts84% involved a rape and testimony of the victim68 were identified by multiple eyewitnesses (36% of 190 cases)48% (92 of all 190 cases) involved a cross-racial identification.In 67 of those cases, white women misidentified black men.12% of the cases (22 of all 190) involved child eyewitnesses</p></li><li><p>*Suggestion and Unreliability78% (124 of 160 cases with transcripts) involved suggestive techniques</p><p>57% (91 of 160 cases with transcripts) involved witnesses who were initially not certain of their identification.</p></li><li><p>*Types of identifications117 exonerees were identified in a photo array60 were identified in a line-up53 were identified in a show-up45 cases involved composite drawings</p></li><li><p>System Variables: Best PracticesBlind identificationsSequential identificationsConfidence statementsInstructionsLineup Composition*</p></li><li><p>Regulating IDs in the CourtroomState v. Henderson, 2011 WL 3715028 (N.J. 2011)Pre-trial hearingsReliability factors grounded in social scienceDetailed jury instructions</p><p>Virginia - Independent source rules Admissibility of expert testimony*</p></li><li><p> A Line-Up*</p></li></ul>

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