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000 LANGUAGE FUNCTION EXPRESS LIKES AND DISLIKES D Express Likes and Dislikes How to Express Likes and Dislikes Tell one thing you like. Example: I like wearing a shirt and tie. Tell why you like it. Example: It makes me look serious. Tell one thing you dislike. Example: I do not like combing my hair. Tell why you dislike it. Example: It takes too long. 1. Talk about the photograph with a partner. Take the role of one of the twins in the photograph. 2. Tell your partner what you like and dislike and why. Switch roles and try expressing likes and dislikes again. Try It Try It © Hampton-Brown LEVEL A

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  • 000Language function EXPRESS LIKES AND DISLIKES DExpress Likes and Dislikes

    How to Express Likes and Dislikes

    Tellonethingyoulike.Example: I like wearing a shirt and tie.

    Tellwhyyoulikeit.Example: It makes me look serious.

    Tellonethingyoudislike.Example: I do not like combing my hair.

    Tellwhyyoudislikeit.Example: It takes too long.

    1. Talkaboutthephotographwithapartner.Taketheroleofoneofthetwinsinthephotograph.

    2. Tellyourpartnerwhatyoulikeanddislikeandwhy.Switchrolesandtryexpressinglikesanddislikesagain.

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  • 000Is the Subject of a Sentence Always a Noun?No, It Can Be a Pronoun.

    Use I when you talk about yourself.

    I am studying about genes.

    Use you when you talk to another person.

    You are writing a report on DNA.

    Use he when you talk about one man or one boy.

    Gregor Mendel was a scientist.Hestudied genetics.

    Use she when you talk about one woman or one girl.

    Mrs. Taylor teaches science.Sheis a great teacher.

    Use it when you talk about one place or thing.

    The classroom is an exciting place. It is a place of learning, too.

    A.Sayeachsentence.Useasubjectpronounfromthechart.

    1. am studying a drawing of a DNA molecule.

    2. The DNA molecule is shaped like a twisted ladder. is made up of genes.

    3. Mrs. Taylor says genes are passed from parents to child. makes the subject interesting.

    4. Roberto is listening carefully. wants to be a scientist.

    5. Maybe are going to be a geneticist, Roberto.

    B.Nowtellapartneraboutascienceclass.Telltwopairsofsentencesabouttheteacheroranotherstudent.Usepronounsfromthechart.

    Try ItTry It

    Subject Pronouns

    Singular

    I

    you

    he, she, it

    Grammar SUBJECTPRONOUNS:I, YOU, HE, ETC. 16

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  • Grammar SUBJECTPRONOUNS:WE, YOU, THEY 17Can a Pronoun Show

    More Than One?Yes, It Can.

    Useweto talk about yourself and another person.

    My brother and I are twins.

    We look like our dad.

    Useyouto talk to one or more persons.

    You look a lot like your sister.

    Are you twins, too?

    Usetheyto talk about more than one person or thing.

    People look twice whentheysee us. They are surprised to see twins.

    A.Sayeachsentencewiththecorrectsubjectpronoun.

    1. Our physical characteristics come from our genes. get one set of genes from each of our parents.

    2. So, we get two sets of genes. give us two options for each characteristic.

    3. For example, get two genes for eye color. Then one gene takes priority over the other.

    4. You and your brother must have the same genes for eye color. both have brown eyes.

    B.Writetwosentencesaboutfamilycharacteristics.Useapluralsubjectpronounineachsentence.

    Try ItTry It

    Subject Pronouns

    Singular Plural

    I we

    you you

    he, she, it they

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  • Are There Different Subject Pronouns for Men and Women?Yes, There Are.

    Useheto talk about a boy or a man.Usesheto talk about a girl or a woman.

    My father has brown eyes.Hepassed that trait on to my sister Kate.

    My sister Jessica has brown eyes, too. She has Moms curly hair, though.

    How do you know whether to useheorshe?Look at an earlier sentence. Find the noun that the pronoun goes with.

    Myfatherhas brown eyes.Hepassed that trait on to my sister Kate. noun pronoun

    Jessica has brown eyes, too. She also has Moms curly hair. noun pronoun

    A. Sayeachsentencewiththecorrectsubjectpronoun.Thensaythenounthatthepronoungoeswith.

    1. Mom likes curly hair. calls curly hair a family treasure.

    2. Moms father has curly hair. passed that trait to Mom.

    3. Aunt Kim has red hair. and Dad are both redheads.

    4. Their brother is blond. is the only blond in the family.

    5. My cousin Beth has green eyes and freckles. Maybe someday will have a child with the same traits.

    B. Writeaboutfamilytraits.Addasubjectpronountocompletethesecondsentence.Thenwritetwomorepairsofsentences.

    Mom is a good example of someone with dominant genes. has freckles, and so do I.

    Try ItTry It

    Grammar PRONOUNAGREEMENT:GENDER 18

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  • How Do You Avoid Confusion with Pronouns?Match the Pronoun to the Noun.

    To make your sentences clear, match the pronouns to the nouns.

    Unclear: That microscope is new. He is helpful for research.

    Clear: That microscope is new. It is helpful for research.

    First, find the noun the pronoun goes with. Then ask yourself:

    Is the noun plural or singular? If plural, use they. If singular, ask:Is the noun a man, a woman, or a thing? Use he for a man, she for a woman, and it for a place or thing.

    The pronouns in these sentences are correct. Tell why.

    1. My aunt has long eyelashes. She likes that characteristic. noun pronoun

    2. Uncle Roy is color-blind. He cannot tell red from green. noun pronoun

    3. Chromosomes carry DNA. They are visible with a microscope. noun pronoun

    A.Choosethecorrectpronountocompletethesecondsentence.

    1. This plant has many peas. (He / They) are made up of cells.

    2. Every cell contains DNA. (It / He) is found in the cells nucleus.

    3. Maria puts peas in a blender. (It / She) adds salt and water.

    4. Dan turns the blender on. (She / He) mixes everything completely. Soon the students will see what DNA looks like.

    B.Talkwithapartneraboutascienceexperiment.Thenwritetwopairsofsentences.Useanytwoofthepronounshe,she,it,andthey.Underlinethenouneachpronoungoeswith.

    Try ItTry It

    Grammar PRONOUNAGREEMENT 19

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  • Use Subject PronounsRemember:Thesubjectofasentencecanbeapronoun.Asubject pronouncanbesingularorplural.

    Use I when you talk about yourself.

    Use you to talk to one or more persons.

    Use we to talk about another person and yourself.

    Use he, she, it, and they to talk about other people or things.

    How do you know which pronoun to use? Look at the noun it goes with.

    1. If the noun is a man or boy, use he. If it is a woman or girl, use she.

    2. If the noun is a place or thing, use it. If the noun is plural, use they.

    A. Sayeachsentencewiththecorrectsubjectpronoun.

    1. Family traits are very interesting.(They / I)can be funny, too.

    2. For example, my brother has straight hair. Sometimes(she / he)jokes about my curly hair.

    3. Mom likes my hair.(It / She)points to her curly hair and smiles.

    4. The family resemblance is strong.(It / They)gives me a good feeling.

    B. Edittheparagraph.Fixfourmistakes.Thefirstisdoneforyou.

    My friends all look different. It exhibit family traits. For example, Mike has red hair. She has a sister with brown hair. Al has a cleft chin. He gives him an older look. Al and I have blue eyes. They are not related. My friends and I are different, but our friendship is strong.

    Try ItTry It

    Grammar rEviEw:SUBJECTPRONOUNS 20

    They

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  • 000Language function EXPRESS IDEAS AND FEELINGS EExpress Ideas and Feelings

    How to Express Ideas and Feelings

    Tell what you see.Example: a family celebration

    Tell how you feel.Example: I feel so proud of my mother! We are happy to celebrate her achievement.

    Tell why.Example: She wanted a college degree for ten years,

    and now she has one.

    1. Talk about what you see in the photograph.

    2. If you were the mother, how would you feel? Why would you feel that way? Show how you would look and what actions you would do.

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  • 000What Adds Action to a Sentence?An Action Verb

    An action verb tells what the subject does. Some action verbs tell about an action that you cannot see.

    Customs connect societies and families.

    A meal brings people together.

    Make sure the action verb agrees with its subject. Add -s if the subject tells about one place, one thing, or one other person.

    Today, many families share meals only some of the time.

    A busy schedule often gets in the way.

    Some teenagers like family meals. Others avoid them.

    My friend Kim eats dinner with her family every night.

    A.Sayeachsentenceandaddanactionverb.

    1. This research report about the benefits of family meals.

    2. Children better food habits.

    3. Teenagers more time with their families.

    4. Family members healthier foods.

    5. A family meal also family members.

    B.Nowtellapartnermoreaboutthingsthatfamilymembersdotogether.Writeyourtwobestsentenceswithactionverbs.

    Try ItTry It

    Grammar ACTION VERBS 21

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  • How Do You Know When the Action Happens?Look at the Verb.

    An action verb tells what the subject does. The tense of a verb tells when the action happens.

    EarlierPast Future

    Now Later

    Present Tenselaughlaughs

    Use the present tense to talk about actions that happen now or that happen on a regular basis.

    Miguel describes his day at dinner. Ana adds a story of her own.

    We all laugh at their comments again and again.

    A.Findthepresenttenseactionverbsinthesentences.Thensaythesentencesagain,usingdifferentverbs.

    1. My family enjoys its mealtimes together.

    2. Miguel talks about his play rehearsals.

    3. Ana reminds us about her soccer game.

    4. I describe my plans for the science fair.

    5. My parents often have comments about current events.

    B.Whatdoyouliketotalkaboutatdinner?Writetwosentenceswithactionverbsinthepresenttense.

    Try ItTry It

    Grammar ACTION VERBS IN THE PRESENT TENSE 22

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  • Which Action Verbs End in -s?The Ones That Go with He, She, or It

    An action verb in the present tense tells about something that happens now or on a regular basis.

    Add -s to the action verb if the subject tells about one place, one thing, or one other person.

    Paul often cooks on Mondays. He also shops.

    His food brings us to the table. It never fails!

    If the verb ends in sh, ch, ss, s, x, or z, add -es.

    Liz teaches us how to cook. She also tosses the salad.

    Do not add -s to the action verb if the subject is I, you, we, they, or a plural noun.

    I chop vegetables. You pour the water. We work well together.

    My parents wash the dishes with us. They enjoy this special time.

    A. Sayeachsentencewiththecorrectpresenttenseverb.

    1. Many people (watch / watches) TV while they eat.

    2. Stan often (take / takes) his breakfast with him.

    3. Alicia usually (leave / leaves) for chorus practice at dinnertime.

    4. Our busy family (search / searches) for time to eat together.

    5. Researchers (suggest / suggests) that families eat one meal together each day.

    B. Tellapartneraboutafamilymeal.Writeyourtwobestsentenceswithpresenttenseverbs.

    Try ItTry It

    Grammar SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT: -S 23

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  • Grammar HELPING VERBS: CAN, COULD, MAY, MIGHT 24What Kinds of Verbs Are

    Can, Could, May, and Might?They Are Helping Verbs.

    An action verb can have two parts: a helping verb and a main verb. The main verb shows the action.

    I make a good meal now. I can make a good meal.

    Some helping verbs change the meaning of the action verb.

    1. Use can or could to tell about an ability.

    Sylvia can use chopsticks. She could teach you.

    2. Use may, might, or could to tell about a possibility.

    Leo may join us for dinner tonight. He might come tomorrow, too.

    He could eat with us every night next week!

    Can, could, may, and might stay the same with all subjects. Do not add -s.

    Anna cooks well. She can bake, too. She may cook for us tonight.

    A. Sayeachsentence.Addthehelpingverbcan,could,may,ormight.Morethanoneanswerispossible.

    1. Some teens are embarrassed by their families. They avoid situations like the one in the anecdote.

    2. I keep my familys mealtime traditions private.

    3. My familys traditions make guests uncomfortable.

    4. However, my mother entertain guests every night!

    B. Nowwritearesponsetotheselection.Writethreesentences.Usecan,could,may,ormight.

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  • Use Action Verbs in the Present TenseRemember:Averbmustagreewithitssubject.

    Which subjects use -s on the action verb?

    I love my family.

    You talk about your family.

    The stories inspire us.

    They ask a question.

    He loves his family.

    She talks about her family.

    The writer inspires others.

    Stan asks a question.

    Why dont these verbs change?

    She may write a story.

    He could help with the story.

    It might impress readers.

    A. Sayeachsentencewiththecorrectpresenttenseverb.

    1. Family relationships (affect / affects) us.

    2. One brother (criticize / criticizes) another brother.

    3. Mean behavior (create / can create) distrust.

    4. A good family relationship (teach / teaches) trust.

    B. Edittheparagraph.Fixfourmistakes.Thefirstisdoneforyou.

    Time with my family is important, but I prefers quality over quantity. Our parents works long hours. Still, Mom watch a little TV with us, or Dad checks our homework. On weekends, we cans spend more time together.

    Try ItTry It

    Grammar review: ACTION VERBS IN THE PRESENT TENSE 25

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  • 000Language function EXPRESS NEEDS AND INTENTIONS FExpress Needs and Intentions

    How to Express Needs and Intentions

    Use words like must and need to tell what you need. Example: I must get better grades.

    Be specific about your need.Example: I need to raise my test scores.

    Use words like plan to and will to tell your intentions.Example: I plan to study harder.

    I will get a tutor to help me.

    1. With a partner, talk about what you see in the photograph.

    2. Role-play a conversation between the teacher and student in this photograph. Use words likeneed, must, plan to,andwill to express what the student needs and how the teacher intends to help.

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  • 000What Forms of Be Are Used in the Present?Am, Is, and Are

    Use the form of the verb be that matches the subject.

    Sandra is the author of Only Daughter.

    Her brothers laugh at her plans for college. But they are foolish.

    Her description of them is funny.

    We are only at the beginning of the story.

    I am curious to know how it will endbut I think I can guess.

    Use not after the verbs am, is, and are to make a sentence negative. The short form of is not is isnt. The short form of are not is arent.

    1. Sandras story is not over. 2. Her hopes are not foolish.

    Sandras story isnt over. Her hopes arent foolish.

    A. Say each sentence with the correct verb form.

    1. Sandra (is / are) the only daughter in her family.

    2. Sandras brothers (is / are) amused by her plans for college.

    3. Like them, I (am / is) a reader of magazines.

    4. Her father (am / is) hopeful Sandra will find a husband at college.

    5. Sandra (isnt / arent) on a search for a husband.

    B. What might you say to Sandra? Talk with a partner. Together, write three sentences. Use am, is, or are.

    Try ItTry It

    Grammar FORMSOFBEINTHEPRESENTTENSE 26

    Present Tense Forms of Be

    I am

    he, she, or it is

    we, you, or they are

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  • How Do You Show That an Action Is in Process?Use Am, Is, or Are plus the -ing Form of the Verb.

    The present progressive form of the verb ends in -ing.

    Use am, is, or are plus a main verb with -ing to show that an action is in the process of happening. The helping verb must agree with the subject.

    You are wondering whats so funny, arent you?

    I am thinking about Sandras story.

    Her father is calling her a son!

    Her brothers and father are ignoring her.

    The story is sad, but it is entertaining, too.

    A. This text tells about the story and one students reaction to it. Read it aloud using the correct verb.

    Sandra (is studying / are studying) hard in school. She (is trying / are trying) to win her fathers approval. The boys, however, (is laughing / are laughing) at their sister.

    I certainly (is enjoying / am enjoying) Sandras story. Other readers (is waiting / are waiting) for her future stories, too.

    B. What else is happening in this story? Write two more sentences with present progressive verbs.

    Sandras father is talking about his family.

    Try ItTry It

    Grammar PRESENTPROGRESSIVEVERBFORMS 27

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  • What Forms of Have Are Used in the Present?Have and Has

    Use the form of the verb have that matches the subject.

    I have great respect for Sandra.

    She has a successful career as a writer.

    And, she has a new book out!

    I have an interest in reading that book.

    You have a copy, dont you?

    If not, they have it at the library, Im sure.

    A. Say each sentence with the correct form of have.

    1. Sandra (have / has) a story for her father that is written in Spanish.

    2. At the end of the story, he (have / has) a smile on his face.

    3. Soon, all the relatives (have / has) copies of the story.

    4. Now I (have / has) a story for you.

    5. You probably (have / has) talent as a writer, too.

    B. Talk with a partner about Only Daughter. Use have or has in these sentences. Then add two more sentences.

    Only Daughter great power. Few stories that kind of effect on readers.

    Try ItTry It

    Grammar PRESENTTENSEOFHAVE 28

    Present Tense Forms of Have

    I have

    he, she, or it has

    we, you, or they have

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  • What Forms of Do Are Used in the Present?Do and Does

    Use the form of do that matches the subject. You can use do as a main verb or as a helping verb .

    Coach Lee does a great job with our team.

    You do excellent work as our manager, too.

    We do practice very hard for our games.

    Parents do a lot of yelling, however.

    Sometimes they do cause problems for our team spirit.

    The short form of does not is doesnt. The short form of do not is dont.

    1. She does not listen to them.

    She doesnt listen to them.

    2. We do not pay attention.

    We dont pay attention.

    A. Say each sentence with the correct form of do.

    1. Coach Lee (do / does) her best for the players.

    2. We (do / does) appreciate her hard work.

    3. Sometimes a parent (dont / doesnt) feel the same way.

    4. I (do / does) some yelling at gamesbut cheers, not insults.

    5. Referees (dont / doesnt) like insults.

    B. Now talk with a partner about how fans act at sports events. Write your three best sentences with forms of do.

    Try ItTry It

    GrammarPRESENTTENSEOFDO 29

    Present Tense Forms of Do

    I do

    he, she, or it does

    we, you, or they do

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  • Use Verbs to Talk About the PresentRemember: The verbs be, have, and do each have more than one form in the present. Use the form that goes with the subject.

    A. Say each sentence with the correct verb form.

    1. Parents (have / has) a strong influence on their children.

    2. For example, Dad (do / does) excellent work at his job.

    3. The managers (is / are) considering a promotion for him.

    4. We (dont / doesnt) complain that he is gone a lot.

    5. Dads example (is / are) making us better people.

    B. Edit the paragraph. Fix five mistakes. The first is done for you.

    Try ItTry It

    Grammar rEVIEW:PRESENTTENSEVERBS 30

    Forms of Be

    I am

    he, she, or it is

    we, you, or they are

    Forms of Have

    I have

    he, she, or it has

    we, you, or they have

    Forms of Do

    I do

    he, she, or it does

    we, you, or they do

    Of course, Mom do influence us, too. She always helps people in need. For example, today she is volunteering at a thrift store. The customers there has a great friend in her. Next week Mom are managing a community food drive. Sometimes we all does a work project at the homeless shelter. I is learning kindness from Moms example.

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    hs.tr.A.2.LF.00D.pdfhs.tr.A.2.G.016-020.pdfhs.tr.A.2.LF.00E.pdfhs.tr.A.2.G.021-025.pdfhs.tr.A.2.LF.00F.pdfhs.tr.A.2.G.029.pdf