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A Comprehensive Environmental and Economic Assessment Method Applied to the Southwest Michigan Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Cropping Experiment Third USDA Symposium on Greenhouse Gases & Carbon Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry March 21-24, Baltimore MD Susan Subak, Ph.D. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • A Comprehensive Environmental and Economic Assessment Method Applied to the Southwest Michigan Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Cropping Experiment

    Third USDA Symposium on Greenhouse Gases & Carbon Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    March 21-24, Baltimore MD

    Susan Subak, Ph.D.

    Institute for the Study of Society and Environment

  • Expanded Assessment for Alternative Practices:

    Environmental Comparison- greenhouse gas emissions - nitrogen loadings chemical applications

    Question: Do herbicides applied for No-Till represent a significant pollution trade-off for greenhouse gas abatement?Does the benefit of nitrogen reduction for low-input agriculture surpass greenhouse gas benefits for No-Till?

    Economic Comparison - direct input cost savings - greenhouse gas reduction value (value of reducing nitrogen and chemicals not assessed) - crop value (price x yield)

  • Kellogg Biological Station Cropping ExperimentsNSF LTER; Michigan State UniversityData logs: 1991-1999Corn/wheat/soybean rotationT1: Conventional TillageT2: No-TillT3: Low Input with Legume CoverT4: Organic with Legume CoverRobertson, G.P., Paul, E.A, Harwood, R.R. Greenhouse Gases in Intensive Agriculture: Contributions of Individual Gases to the Radiative Forcing of the Atmosphere. Science 289(5486): 1922-1925.

  • Greenhouse Gases:From Robertson et al 2000: Soil C CO2 inputs to fertilizer, lime, fuel N2O CH4

    Nitrogen Loadings:Compiled from logbooks from KBS for fertilizer applications

    Toxicity Index:Derived by author based on logbooks from KBS for herbicide and pesticide applications

  • Toxicity Index:

    I = a x b x 1/c x d x 1/e

    a = volume chemical applied (liter/hectare/year)

    b = % active ingredient

    c = lethal concentration half life (LC50) for trout (mg/liter) log 10 scaled 1 to 5

    d = groundwater ubiquity index (GUS) log 10 scaled 1 to 5

    e = water degradation half life (days) log 10 scaled 1 to 5

  • Chart2

    11468Conventional TillageConventional Tillage

    1468No-TillNo-Till

    639Low Input -Legume CoverLow Input -Legume Cover

    410Organic - Legume CoverOrganic - Legume Cover

    Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (kg CO2E/ha/yr)

    Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)

    #REF!

    Toxicity Index (CT = 100)

    Environmental Impact of Practices: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Nutrient Loadings and Toxicity Indices

    Chart3

    56.0525.341.27

    58.118.3570.57

    26.8930.9241.57

    Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2

    Fertilizers

    Fuel

    Herbicides

    ($/ha/yr)

    Direct Input Costs

    Chart1

    Conventional TillageConventional Tillage

    -24.399.55

    17.444.87

    88.746.97

    Direct Input Savings (fertilizer, fuel, herbicides)

    GHG value (CO2-C equivalent at $50/t/c)

    $ / ha / yr

    Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage

    Chart4

    00

    -24.399.55

    17.444.87

    88.746.97

    Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)

    GHG Value

    $/ha

    Incremental Value for Alternative Practices

    Chart5

    5.653.162.12

    5.723.122.37

    4.552.562.69

    corn

    wheat

    soybean

    Tonnes/hectare

    Average Yields

    Chart6

    114

    14

    63

    41

    Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)

    g CO2 / m2 /ha

    Environmental Impact of Practices: Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Chart7

    56.0525.341.27

    58.118.3570.57

    26.8930.9241.57

    Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2

    Fertilizers

    Fuel

    Herbicides

    $ hectare/ year

    Direct Input Costs

    Chart8

    56.0525.341.27

    58.118.3570.57

    26.8930.9241.57

    Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2

    Fertilizers

    Fuel

    Herbicides

    $ hectare / year

    Direct Input Costs

    Chart9

    -24.3917.4488.74

    9.554.876.97

    25-34

    No-Till

    Low Input -Legume Cover

    Organic - Legume Cover

    $ hectare / year

    Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage

    Chart10

    -24.3917.4488.74

    9.554.876.97

    25-34Organic - Legume Cover

    No-Till

    Low Input -Legume Cover

    Organic - Legume Cover

    Chart11

    -24.399.5525

    17.444.87-34

    88.746.97Organic - Legume Cover

    Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)

    GHG Value

    Crop Value

    $ hectare / year

    Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage (Input Savings, Greenhouse Gas Value and Crop Value)

    Chart12

    1146810011468100

    14681151468115

    6398963989

    4101941019

    Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)

    Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)

    Toxicity Index (CT = 100)

    Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)

    Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)

    Toxicity Index (CT = 100)

    Environmental Impact of Practices: GHG Emissions, Nitrogen Loadings, Toxicity Index

    Chart13

    114

    14

    63

    41

    Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)

    g CO2 e / m2 / year

    Environmental Impact of Practices: Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Sheet1

    Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)Toxicity Index (CT = 100)

    Conventional Tillage11468100

    No-Till1468115

    Low Input -Legume Cover63989

    Organic - Legume Cover41019

    Incremental Value for Alternative Practices

    FertilizersFuelHerbicidesDirect Input Costs ($/ha/yr)crop valueGHG valueNet Value

    Conventional Tillage$56.05$25.30$41.27$122.62$462.00$0.00$339.38Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)GHG ValueCrop Value

    No-Till$58.10$18.35$70.57$147.01$487.00$9.55$349.54No-Till-$24.39$9.55$25

    Low Input -Legume Cover$26.89$30.92$41.57$105.18$428.00$4.87$327.69Low Input -Legume Cover$17.44$4.87-34

    Organic - Legume Cover$29.68$4.20$33.88$766.00$6.97$739.09Organic - Legume Cover$88.74$6.97

    cornwheatsoybean

    Conventional Tillage5.653.162.12

    No-Till5.723.122.37

    Low Input -Legume Cover4.552.562.69

    19

    Sheet2

    Sheet3

  • Chart2

    11468Conventional TillageConventional Tillage

    1468No-TillNo-Till

    639Low Input -Legume CoverLow Input -Legume Cover

    410Organic - Legume CoverOrganic - Legume Cover

    Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (kg CO2E/ha/yr)

    Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)

    #REF!

    Toxicity Index (CT = 100)

    Environmental Impact of Practices: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Nutrient Loadings and Toxicity Indices

    Chart3

    56.0525.341.27

    58.118.3570.57

    26.8930.9241.57

    Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2

    Fertilizers

    Fuel

    Herbicides

    ($/ha/yr)

    Direct Input Costs

    Chart1

    Conventional TillageConventional Tillage

    -24.399.55

    17.444.87

    88.746.97

    Direct Input Savings (fertilizer, fuel, herbicides)

    GHG value (CO2-C equivalent at $50/t/c)

    $ / ha / yr

    Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage

    Chart4

    00

    -24.399.55

    17.444.87

    88.746.97

    Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)

    GHG Value

    $/ha

    Incremental Value for Alternative Practices

    Chart5

    5.653.162.12

    5.723.122.37

    4.552.562.69

    corn

    wheat

    soybean

    Tonnes/hectare

    Average Yields

    Chart6

    114

    14

    63

    41

    Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)

    g CO2 / m2 /ha

    Environmental Impact of Practices: Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Chart7

    56.0525.341.27

    58.118.3570.57

    26.8930.9241.57

    Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2

    Fertilizers

    Fuel

    Herbicides

    $ hectare/ year

    Direct Input Costs

    Chart8

    56.0525.341.27

    58.118.3570.57

    26.8930.9241.57

    Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2

    Fertilizers

    Fuel

    Herbicides

    $ hectare / year

    Direct Input Costs

    Chart9

    -24.3917.4488.74

    9.554.876.97

    25-34

    No-Till

    Low Input -Legume Cover

    Organic - Legume Cover

    $ hectare / year

    Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage

    Chart10

    -24.3917.4488.74

    9.554.876.97

    25-34Organic - Legume Cover

    No-Till

    Low Input -Legume Cover

    Organic - Legume Cover

    Chart11

    -24.399.5525

    17.444.87-34

    88.746.97Organic - Legume Cover

    Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)

    GHG Value

    Crop Value

    $ hectare / year

    Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage (Input Savings, Greenhouse Gas Value and Crop Value)

    Chart12

    1146810011468100

    14681151468115

    6398963989

    4101941019

    Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)

    Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)

    Toxicity Index (CT = 100)

    Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)

    Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)

    Toxicity Index (CT = 100)

    Environmental Impact of Practices: GHG Emissions, Nitrogen Loadings, Toxicity Index

    Chart13

    11468

    1468

    639

    410

    Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)

    Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)

    Environmental Impact of Practices: GHG Emissions, Nitrogen Loadings

    Sheet1

    Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)Toxicity Index (CT = 100)

    Conventional Tillage11468100

    No-Till1468115

    Low Input -Legume Cover63989

    Organic - Legume Cover41019

    Incremental Value for Alternative Practices

    FertilizersFuelHerbicidesDirect Input Costs ($/ha/yr)crop valueGHG valueNet Value

    Conventional Tillage$56.05$25.30$41.27$122.62$462.00$0.00$339.38Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)GHG ValueCrop Value

    No-Till$58.10$18.35$70.57$1

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