Expanded Assessment for Alternative Practices: Environmental Comparison

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A Comprehensive Environmental and Economic Assessment Method Applied to the Southwest Michigan Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Cropping Experiment Third USDA Symposium on Greenhouse Gases & Carbon Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry March 21-24, Baltimore MD Susan Subak, Ph.D. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>A Comprehensive Environmental and Economic Assessment Method Applied to the Southwest Michigan Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Cropping Experiment </p><p>Third USDA Symposium on Greenhouse Gases &amp; Carbon Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry</p><p>March 21-24, Baltimore MD</p><p>Susan Subak, Ph.D.</p><p>Institute for the Study of Society and Environment</p></li><li><p>Expanded Assessment for Alternative Practices:</p><p>Environmental Comparison- greenhouse gas emissions - nitrogen loadings chemical applications</p><p>Question: Do herbicides applied for No-Till represent a significant pollution trade-off for greenhouse gas abatement?Does the benefit of nitrogen reduction for low-input agriculture surpass greenhouse gas benefits for No-Till?</p><p>Economic Comparison - direct input cost savings - greenhouse gas reduction value (value of reducing nitrogen and chemicals not assessed) - crop value (price x yield)</p></li><li><p>Kellogg Biological Station Cropping ExperimentsNSF LTER; Michigan State UniversityData logs: 1991-1999Corn/wheat/soybean rotationT1: Conventional TillageT2: No-TillT3: Low Input with Legume CoverT4: Organic with Legume CoverRobertson, G.P., Paul, E.A, Harwood, R.R. Greenhouse Gases in Intensive Agriculture: Contributions of Individual Gases to the Radiative Forcing of the Atmosphere. Science 289(5486): 1922-1925. </p></li><li><p>Greenhouse Gases:From Robertson et al 2000: Soil C CO2 inputs to fertilizer, lime, fuel N2O CH4</p><p>Nitrogen Loadings:Compiled from logbooks from KBS for fertilizer applications</p><p>Toxicity Index:Derived by author based on logbooks from KBS for herbicide and pesticide applications</p></li><li><p> Toxicity Index:</p><p> I = a x b x 1/c x d x 1/e</p><p>a = volume chemical applied (liter/hectare/year)</p><p>b = % active ingredient</p><p>c = lethal concentration half life (LC50) for trout (mg/liter) log 10 scaled 1 to 5</p><p>d = groundwater ubiquity index (GUS) log 10 scaled 1 to 5</p><p>e = water degradation half life (days) log 10 scaled 1 to 5 </p></li><li><p>Chart2</p><p>11468Conventional TillageConventional Tillage</p><p>1468No-TillNo-Till</p><p>639Low Input -Legume CoverLow Input -Legume Cover</p><p>410Organic - Legume CoverOrganic - Legume Cover</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (kg CO2E/ha/yr)</p><p>Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)</p><p>#REF!</p><p>Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Environmental Impact of Practices: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Nutrient Loadings and Toxicity Indices</p><p>Chart3</p><p>56.0525.341.27</p><p>58.118.3570.57</p><p>26.8930.9241.57</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2</p><p>Fertilizers</p><p>Fuel</p><p>Herbicides</p><p>($/ha/yr)</p><p>Direct Input Costs</p><p>Chart1</p><p>Conventional TillageConventional Tillage</p><p>-24.399.55</p><p>17.444.87</p><p>88.746.97</p><p>Direct Input Savings (fertilizer, fuel, herbicides)</p><p>GHG value (CO2-C equivalent at $50/t/c)</p><p>$ / ha / yr</p><p>Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage</p><p>Chart4</p><p>00</p><p>-24.399.55</p><p>17.444.87</p><p>88.746.97</p><p>Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)</p><p>GHG Value</p><p>$/ha</p><p>Incremental Value for Alternative Practices</p><p>Chart5</p><p>5.653.162.12</p><p>5.723.122.37</p><p>4.552.562.69</p><p>corn</p><p>wheat</p><p>soybean</p><p>Tonnes/hectare</p><p>Average Yields</p><p>Chart6</p><p>114</p><p>14</p><p>63</p><p>41</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)</p><p>g CO2 / m2 /ha</p><p>Environmental Impact of Practices: Greenhouse Gas Emissions</p><p>Chart7</p><p>56.0525.341.27</p><p>58.118.3570.57</p><p>26.8930.9241.57</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2</p><p>Fertilizers</p><p>Fuel</p><p>Herbicides</p><p>$ hectare/ year</p><p>Direct Input Costs</p><p>Chart8</p><p>56.0525.341.27</p><p>58.118.3570.57</p><p>26.8930.9241.57</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2</p><p>Fertilizers</p><p>Fuel</p><p>Herbicides</p><p>$ hectare / year</p><p>Direct Input Costs</p><p>Chart9</p><p>-24.3917.4488.74</p><p>9.554.876.97</p><p>25-34</p><p>No-Till</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>$ hectare / year</p><p>Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage</p><p>Chart10</p><p>-24.3917.4488.74</p><p>9.554.876.97</p><p>25-34Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>No-Till</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>Chart11</p><p>-24.399.5525</p><p>17.444.87-34</p><p>88.746.97Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)</p><p>GHG Value</p><p>Crop Value</p><p>$ hectare / year</p><p>Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage (Input Savings, Greenhouse Gas Value and Crop Value)</p><p>Chart12</p><p>1146810011468100</p><p>14681151468115</p><p>6398963989</p><p>4101941019</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)</p><p>Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)</p><p>Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)</p><p>Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)</p><p>Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Environmental Impact of Practices: GHG Emissions, Nitrogen Loadings, Toxicity Index</p><p>Chart13</p><p>114</p><p>14</p><p>63</p><p>41</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)</p><p>g CO2 e / m2 / year</p><p>Environmental Impact of Practices: Greenhouse Gas Emissions</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Conventional Tillage11468100</p><p>No-Till1468115</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover63989</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover41019</p><p>Incremental Value for Alternative Practices</p><p>FertilizersFuelHerbicidesDirect Input Costs ($/ha/yr)crop valueGHG valueNet Value</p><p>Conventional Tillage$56.05$25.30$41.27$122.62$462.00$0.00$339.38Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)GHG ValueCrop Value</p><p>No-Till$58.10$18.35$70.57$147.01$487.00$9.55$349.54No-Till-$24.39$9.55$25</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover$26.89$30.92$41.57$105.18$428.00$4.87$327.69Low Input -Legume Cover$17.44$4.87-34</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover$29.68$4.20$33.88$766.00$6.97$739.09Organic - Legume Cover$88.74$6.97</p><p>cornwheatsoybean</p><p>Conventional Tillage5.653.162.12</p><p>No-Till5.723.122.37</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover4.552.562.69</p><p>19</p><p>Sheet2</p><p>Sheet3</p></li><li><p>Chart2</p><p>11468Conventional TillageConventional Tillage</p><p>1468No-TillNo-Till</p><p>639Low Input -Legume CoverLow Input -Legume Cover</p><p>410Organic - Legume CoverOrganic - Legume Cover</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (kg CO2E/ha/yr)</p><p>Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)</p><p>#REF!</p><p>Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Environmental Impact of Practices: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Nutrient Loadings and Toxicity Indices</p><p>Chart3</p><p>56.0525.341.27</p><p>58.118.3570.57</p><p>26.8930.9241.57</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2</p><p>Fertilizers</p><p>Fuel</p><p>Herbicides</p><p>($/ha/yr)</p><p>Direct Input Costs</p><p>Chart1</p><p>Conventional TillageConventional Tillage</p><p>-24.399.55</p><p>17.444.87</p><p>88.746.97</p><p>Direct Input Savings (fertilizer, fuel, herbicides)</p><p>GHG value (CO2-C equivalent at $50/t/c)</p><p>$ / ha / yr</p><p>Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage</p><p>Chart4</p><p>00</p><p>-24.399.55</p><p>17.444.87</p><p>88.746.97</p><p>Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)</p><p>GHG Value</p><p>$/ha</p><p>Incremental Value for Alternative Practices</p><p>Chart5</p><p>5.653.162.12</p><p>5.723.122.37</p><p>4.552.562.69</p><p>corn</p><p>wheat</p><p>soybean</p><p>Tonnes/hectare</p><p>Average Yields</p><p>Chart6</p><p>114</p><p>14</p><p>63</p><p>41</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)</p><p>g CO2 / m2 /ha</p><p>Environmental Impact of Practices: Greenhouse Gas Emissions</p><p>Chart7</p><p>56.0525.341.27</p><p>58.118.3570.57</p><p>26.8930.9241.57</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2</p><p>Fertilizers</p><p>Fuel</p><p>Herbicides</p><p>$ hectare/ year</p><p>Direct Input Costs</p><p>Chart8</p><p>56.0525.341.27</p><p>58.118.3570.57</p><p>26.8930.9241.57</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2</p><p>Fertilizers</p><p>Fuel</p><p>Herbicides</p><p>$ hectare / year</p><p>Direct Input Costs</p><p>Chart9</p><p>-24.3917.4488.74</p><p>9.554.876.97</p><p>25-34</p><p>No-Till</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>$ hectare / year</p><p>Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage</p><p>Chart10</p><p>-24.3917.4488.74</p><p>9.554.876.97</p><p>25-34Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>No-Till</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>Chart11</p><p>-24.399.5525</p><p>17.444.87-34</p><p>88.746.97Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)</p><p>GHG Value</p><p>Crop Value</p><p>$ hectare / year</p><p>Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage (Input Savings, Greenhouse Gas Value and Crop Value)</p><p>Chart12</p><p>1146810011468100</p><p>14681151468115</p><p>6398963989</p><p>4101941019</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)</p><p>Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)</p><p>Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)</p><p>Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)</p><p>Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Environmental Impact of Practices: GHG Emissions, Nitrogen Loadings, Toxicity Index</p><p>Chart13</p><p>11468</p><p>1468</p><p>639</p><p>410</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)</p><p>Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)</p><p>Environmental Impact of Practices: GHG Emissions, Nitrogen Loadings</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Conventional Tillage11468100</p><p>No-Till1468115</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover63989</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover41019</p><p>Incremental Value for Alternative Practices</p><p>FertilizersFuelHerbicidesDirect Input Costs ($/ha/yr)crop valueGHG valueNet Value</p><p>Conventional Tillage$56.05$25.30$41.27$122.62$462.00$0.00$339.38Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)GHG ValueCrop Value</p><p>No-Till$58.10$18.35$70.57$147.01$487.00$9.55$349.54No-Till-$24.39$9.55$25</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover$26.89$30.92$41.57$105.18$428.00$4.87$327.69Low Input -Legume Cover$17.44$4.87-34</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover$29.68$4.20$33.88$766.00$6.97$739.09Organic - Legume Cover$88.74$6.97</p><p>cornwheatsoybean</p><p>Conventional Tillage5.653.162.12</p><p>No-Till5.723.122.37</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover4.552.562.69</p><p>19</p><p>Sheet2</p><p>Sheet3</p></li><li><p>Chart2</p><p>11468Conventional TillageConventional Tillage</p><p>1468No-TillNo-Till</p><p>639Low Input -Legume CoverLow Input -Legume Cover</p><p>410Organic - Legume CoverOrganic - Legume Cover</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (kg CO2E/ha/yr)</p><p>Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)</p><p>#REF!</p><p>Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Environmental Impact of Practices: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Nutrient Loadings and Toxicity Indices</p><p>Chart3</p><p>56.0525.341.27</p><p>58.118.3570.57</p><p>26.8930.9241.57</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2</p><p>Fertilizers</p><p>Fuel</p><p>Herbicides</p><p>($/ha/yr)</p><p>Direct Input Costs</p><p>Chart1</p><p>Conventional TillageConventional Tillage</p><p>-24.399.55</p><p>17.444.87</p><p>88.746.97</p><p>Direct Input Savings (fertilizer, fuel, herbicides)</p><p>GHG value (CO2-C equivalent at $50/t/c)</p><p>$ / ha / yr</p><p>Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage</p><p>Chart4</p><p>00</p><p>-24.399.55</p><p>17.444.87</p><p>88.746.97</p><p>Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)</p><p>GHG Value</p><p>$/ha</p><p>Incremental Value for Alternative Practices</p><p>Chart5</p><p>5.653.162.12</p><p>5.723.122.37</p><p>4.552.562.69</p><p>corn</p><p>wheat</p><p>soybean</p><p>Tonnes/hectare</p><p>Average Yields</p><p>Chart6</p><p>114</p><p>14</p><p>63</p><p>41</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)</p><p>g CO2 / m2 /ha</p><p>Environmental Impact of Practices: Greenhouse Gas Emissions</p><p>Chart7</p><p>56.0525.341.27</p><p>58.118.3570.57</p><p>26.8930.9241.57</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2</p><p>Fertilizers</p><p>Fuel</p><p>Herbicides</p><p>$ hectare/ year</p><p>Direct Input Costs</p><p>Chart8</p><p>56.0525.341.27</p><p>58.118.3570.57</p><p>26.8930.9241.57</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2</p><p>Fertilizers</p><p>Fuel</p><p>Herbicides</p><p>$ hectare / year</p><p>Direct Input Costs</p><p>Chart9</p><p>-24.3917.4488.74</p><p>9.554.876.97</p><p>25-34</p><p>No-Till</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>$ hectare / year</p><p>Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage</p><p>Chart10</p><p>-24.3917.4488.74</p><p>9.554.876.97</p><p>25-34Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>No-Till</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>Chart11</p><p>-24.399.5525</p><p>17.444.87-34</p><p>88.746.97Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)</p><p>GHG Value</p><p>Crop Value</p><p>$ hectare / year</p><p>Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage (Input Savings, Greenhouse Gas Value and Crop Value)</p><p>Chart12</p><p>1146810011468100</p><p>14681151468115</p><p>6398963989</p><p>4101941019</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)</p><p>Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)</p><p>Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)</p><p>Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)</p><p>Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Environmental Impact of Practices: GHG Emissions, Nitrogen Loadings, Toxicity Index</p><p>Chart13</p><p>11468100</p><p>1468115</p><p>63989</p><p>41019</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)</p><p>Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)</p><p>Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Environmental Impact of Practices: GHG Emissions, Nitrogen Loadings and Toxicity Index</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (g CO2e/m2/yr)Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Conventional Tillage11468100</p><p>No-Till1468115</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover63989</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover41019</p><p>Incremental Value for Alternative Practices</p><p>FertilizersFuelHerbicidesDirect Input Costs ($/ha/yr)crop valueGHG valueNet Value</p><p>Conventional Tillage$56.05$25.30$41.27$122.62$462.00$0.00$339.38Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)GHG ValueCrop Value</p><p>No-Till$58.10$18.35$70.57$147.01$487.00$9.55$349.54No-Till-$24.39$9.55$25</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover$26.89$30.92$41.57$105.18$428.00$4.87$327.69Low Input -Legume Cover$17.44$4.87-34</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover$29.68$4.20$33.88$766.00$6.97$739.09Organic - Legume Cover$88.74$6.97</p><p>cornwheatsoybean</p><p>Conventional Tillage5.653.162.12</p><p>No-Till5.723.122.37</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover4.552.562.69</p><p>19</p><p>Sheet2</p><p>Sheet3</p></li><li><p>Chart2</p><p>11468Conventional TillageConventional Tillage</p><p>1468No-TillNo-Till</p><p>639Low Input -Legume CoverLow Input -Legume Cover</p><p>410Organic - Legume CoverOrganic - Legume Cover</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (kg CO2E/ha/yr)</p><p>Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)</p><p>#REF!</p><p>Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Environmental Impact of Practices: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Nutrient Loadings and Toxicity Indices</p><p>Chart3</p><p>56.0525.341.27</p><p>58.118.3570.57</p><p>26.8930.9241.57</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2</p><p>Fertilizers</p><p>Fuel</p><p>Herbicides</p><p>($/ha/yr)</p><p>Direct Input Costs</p><p>Chart1</p><p>Conventional TillageConventional Tillage</p><p>-24.399.55</p><p>17.444.87</p><p>88.746.97</p><p>Direct Input Savings (fertilizer, fuel, herbicides)</p><p>GHG value (CO2-C equivalent at $50/t/c)</p><p>$ / ha / yr</p><p>Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage</p><p>Chart4</p><p>00</p><p>-24.399.55</p><p>17.444.87</p><p>88.746.97</p><p>Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)</p><p>GHG Value</p><p>$/ha</p><p>Incremental Value for Alternative Practices</p><p>Chart5</p><p>5.653.162.12</p><p>5.723.122.37</p><p>4.552.562.69</p><p>corn</p><p>wheat</p><p>soybean</p><p>Tonnes/hectare</p><p>Average Yields</p><p>Chart6</p><p>11468100</p><p>1468115</p><p>63989</p><p>41019</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (kg CO2e/ha/yr)</p><p>Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)</p><p>Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Environmental Impact of Practices: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Nutrient Loadings, and Toxicity Indices</p><p>Chart7</p><p>56.0525.341.27</p><p>58.118.3570.57</p><p>26.8930.9241.57</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2</p><p>Fertilizers</p><p>Fuel</p><p>Herbicides</p><p>$ hectare/ year</p><p>Direct Input Costs</p><p>Chart8</p><p>56.0525.341.27</p><p>58.118.3570.57</p><p>26.8930.9241.57</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover29.684.2</p><p>Fertilizers</p><p>Fuel</p><p>Herbicides</p><p>$ hectare / year</p><p>Direct Input Costs</p><p>Chart9</p><p>-24.3917.4488.74</p><p>9.554.876.97</p><p>25-34</p><p>No-Till</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>$ hectare / year</p><p>Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage</p><p>Chart10</p><p>-24.3917.4488.74</p><p>9.554.876.97</p><p>25-34Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>No-Till</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>Chart11</p><p>-24.399.5525</p><p>17.444.87-34</p><p>88.746.97Organic - Legume Cover</p><p>Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)</p><p>GHG Value</p><p>Crop Value</p><p>$ hectare / year</p><p>Incremental Value Compared with Conventional Tillage (Input Savings, Greenhouse Gas Value and Crop Value)</p><p>Sheet1</p><p>Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions (kg CO2e/ha/yr)Net Nitrogen Loadings (kg N/ha/yr)Toxicity Index (CT = 100)</p><p>Conventional Tillage11468100</p><p>No-Till1468115</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover63989</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover41019</p><p>Incremental Value for Alternative Practices</p><p>FertilizersFuelHerbicidesDirect Input Costs ($/ha/yr)crop valueGHG valueNet Value</p><p>Conventional Tillage$56.05$25.30$41.27$122.62$462.00$0.00$339.38Direct Input Costs ($/ha/yr)GHG ValueCrop Value</p><p>No-Till$58.10$18.35$70.57$147.01$487.00$9.55$349.54No-Till-$24.39$9.55$25</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover$26.89$30.92$41.57$105.18$428.00$4.87$327.69Low Input -Legume Cover$17.44$4.87-34</p><p>Organic - Legume Cover$29.68$4.20$33.88$766.00$6.97$739.09Organic - Legume Cover$88.74$6.97</p><p>cornwheatsoybean</p><p>Conventional Tillage5.653.162.12</p><p>No-Till5.723.122.37</p><p>Low Input -Legume Cover4.552.562.69</p><p>19</p><p>Sheet2</p><p>Sheet3</p></li><li><p>Chart2</p><p>11468Conventional TillageConventional Tillage</p><p>1468No-TillNo-Till</p><p>639Low Input -Legume CoverLow Input -Legume Cover</p><p>410Organic - Legume CoverOrganic - Legume...</p></li></ul>