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    LIBRARY OF

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    Pfl 2087.A579Copy 1

    V

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    EXERCISES

    LATIN ETYMOLOGY;ADAPTED TO

    ANDREWS AND STODDARD'S

    LATIN GRAMMAR.

    ,0

    E . a\ ANDREWS, LL.D

    BOSTON:PUBLISHED BY CROCKER AND BREWSTER,47 Washington Street.

    1855.

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    Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1855,BY CROCKER AND BREWSTER,

    In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts.

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    A)

    PREFACE

    Among those principles relating to education, which are sanc-tioned alike by reason and experience, few, probably, are betterestablished, than the expediency of fully illustrating generalrules by means of particular examples. To minds of every class,but especially to those of the young, abstract principles, whileunexplained by examples, have a character of vagueness alikeunsatisfactory to the understanding and unfitted to retain theirhold upon the memory. Particular examples, on the contrary,are easily comprehended and remembered, but are of little prac-tical value, till they suggest the general principle, under whichthey are to be arranged.To establish general principles in the student's mind, two

    opposite courses of instruction have been pursued ; the oneknown as the synthetical method, the other as the analytical.By the former, a principle is first enunciated, and subsequentlyillustrated by individual instances. By the latter, the studentis led through single examples, until he arrives at the generalprinciple. The one, therefore, begins, where the other ends,and ends, where the other begins. Each of these methods,it is well known, has its advocates, and this is not less true inregard to instruction in language, than in other departments ofeducation. Without presuming to hazard an opinion respectingthe relative advantages of these two methods, we may perhapsbe permitted to remark, that the synthetical method has some-

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    times suffered from the inadvertence of its professed friends,who have too often rested in the enunciation of principles,without sufficiently providing for their adequate illustration by-means of appropriate exercises.A conviction of this fact led the author of this small work,many years since, to prepare a book of " Latin Exercises," adapt-ed to the illustration of each division of Andrews and Stoddard'sLatin Grammar. That volume was arranged in such a manneras to be used with convenience from the time when the stu-dent commenced the study of the Grammar; and, in connec-tion with the " Questions n- adapted to the same Grammar, wasdesigned so to illustrate its leading principles, as to leave nodoubt concerning their true intent and proper application.It is in such connection that those works have been generallyused in the best schools of New England, and in this way onlycan the true value of either work be fairly estimated.At a later period than the one last referred to, and in further

    prosecution of the author's design, he prepared a small volume,which he called his u First Latin Book," in which, in succes-sive lessons, he presented the rules of the Latin grammar withexercises designed to illustrate and to fix them permanentlyin the student's memory This latter work, which was in-tended more particularly for the use of those academies andhigh schools, in which the study of the Latin language is pur-sued to a limited extent only, and as a necessary part of agood English education, has received the favorable attention ofmany practical teachers, and of several eminent scholars, intowhose hands it has fallen.

    In pursuance of the same purpose, which led to the pre-paration of his Latin Exercises and First Latin Book, theauthor has been induced, by the friendly suggestion of a classi-cal teacher of much experience, to prepare these few pages forthe special accommodation of those students, who make use ofAndrews and Stoddard's Grammar at the commencement oftheir Latin studies. To these, and especially to the youngermembers of the classes, the constant use of a large Jbook ofexercises during the many months in which they are mastering

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    the principles of Latin Etymology, is attended with consider-able inconvenience, while the possession of a small manualwill, it is hoped, facilitate the study of their daily lessons,without reminding them continually how much remains forthem to do. It may be added, that the etymological exercisescontained in the larger work are less copious, and are con-fined to fewer topics, than those which are comprised in thismanual.As this work is designed to be used in connection with the

    study of the etymological part of the Grammar, it has receivedthe name of " Etymological Exercises," though it must be con-fessed, that, in strict propriety, every change in the terminationof a word has ultimate reference to its proposed use in the con-struction of a sentence.

    In the exercises on the verbs contained in the first part of thiswork, it would have been easy to substitute nouns as nomina-tives, instead of the perpetual " he, she, it " and " they ;" but itwould have been a departure from the general plan of the work,and would have tended to confound unnecessarily the depart-ments of etymology and syntax. In its present form the nomi-natives ego, tu, nos7 vos, ille} Mi, etc., as in the verbal para-digms, are considered as implied in the forms of the verbs,and, consequently, in preparing the lessons they can be entirelyomitted.To the exercises are subjoined an English- Latin and a Latin-

    English Vocabulary, containing such words in each language,as the student will have occasion to employ in preparing hisexercises. Many of the Latin words in these Vocabularies areirregular, but as their irregularities are explained under theappropriate heads in the Grammar, such explanations havebeen generally omitted in the Vocabularies, lest they shouldseem to diminish the motives of the student to a faithful studyof every part of his Grammar. In his Vocabulary, for exam-ple, the student will find that sto is a neuter verb of the firstconjugation; but if a knowledge of this fact should lead him,without further search, to form for it a regular perfect, he maychance to find that other members of his class have surpassed

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    6him in diligence. By the use of the Vocabularies the teacherwill find it easy, on occasion, to prepare other exersises, and todiversify their character to almost any extent.The designed connection of these Exercises with the Gram-mar, and the mode in which they were intended to be used,will sufficiently appear by means of the directions and thegrammatical references embodied in the work.

    E. A. A.New Britain, Conn., Oct. 1855.

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    ETYMOLOGICAL EXERCISES.

    Part I.NOUNS.Grammar 26.Directions.In regard to each of the following English sen-

    tences the teacher will ask, 1st. What words in this sentenceare nouns ? 2d. Why is this word (naming it) a noun ? Theanswer to the second question will be found in the definition of anoun contained in the 26th Section of the Grammar.

    Dido founded Carthage.Neptune is the god of the sea.Care follows wealth.Hope cheers the husbandmen.Virtue is its own reward.CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS.

    Directions.The questions in regard to each Latin word inthe following table are, 1st. What kind of noun is it ? 2d. Why-is it a proper, a common, a collective, an abstract, or a materialnoun ? The respective definitions of each of these classes ofnouns will afford the proper answer to the second question.

    Roma, Rome. Necessitas, necessity.Aurum, gold. Sicilia, Sicily.Fluvius, a river. Formido, fear.Nox, night. Ignavia, sloth.Gladius, a sword. Athenae, Athens.Apenninus, the Apennines. Senatus. the Senate.Poema, a poem. JEs, brass.

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    Panis, bread.Glacies, ice.Fides, faith.Oleum, oil.Caseus, cheese.Pietas, piety.Horatius, Horace.Triticum, wheat.Justitia, justice.Vinum, urine.Marcus. Marcus.

    Panis, a loaf.Oceanus, the ocean.Aqua, water.Concilium, an assembly.Caseus, a cheese.Mel, honey.Magister, a master.Plebs, the common people.jEtas, an age.Malum, an evil.Tiberis, the Tiber.

    GENDER OF NOUNS.Grammar 27.

    Directions.The questions in regard to each of the follow-ing nouns are, first, " Is its gender natural or grammatical V*Secondly, " Why V The answers to these questions will befound in this section of the Grammar.

    Diana, /., Diana.Clypeus, m. t a shield.An ram, n., gold.Puer, m., a boy.Glacies,f. ce.Poema, n., a poem.Pater, m., a father.Caseus, m., cheese.

    Romulus, m., Romulus.Puella,/., a girl.Nox, /, night.Panis, m., bread.Fluvius, m., a river.Flumen, ., a river.Filia, f, a daughter.Sicilia, /, Sicily.

    Grammar H 2830.Directions.The questions in regard to each of the follow-

    ing nouns are, 1st. " What is its gender ?" 2d. "Why?" Thegeneral rules of gender in these sections will suggest the properanswers.

    Horatius, Horace.Mater, a mother.Hispania, Spain.Conjux, a spouse.Pirus, a pear-tree.Tiberis, the Tiber.^Egyptus, Egypt.JNemo, nobody.

    Helena, Helen.Roma, Rome.Auster, the South-wind.Parens, a parent.Aprilis, April.Nardus, spikenard.Rhodus, Rhodes.Aper, a wild-boar.

    DECLENSIONS.Grammar 38.

    Directi