evolution pre ap biology spring 2013. what is evolution? definition (memorize this!!) : –gradual...

Download Evolution Pre AP Biology Spring 2013. What is Evolution? Definition (memorize this!!) : –Gradual change in the genetic makeup of a species over a long

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  • EvolutionPre AP BiologySpring 2013

  • What is Evolution?Definition (memorize this!!) :Gradual change in the genetic makeup of a species over a long period of timeNotice the terms gradual change and time. These changes are difficult for us to understand because they occur across many generations and therefore cannot usually be observed in our lifetime. Most changes occurred before recorded history.

  • What evolution is notEvolution is not we came from monkeys. Evolution is not how life began on earth. Evolution is not the Big Bang theory. Evolution does not say that God doesnt exist. Evolution is not just a theory without any proof.

  • Questions we cant answer in science class:Does God exist?Did God create the Universe, the world, and/or us?What is a soul?Who goes to heaven?What happens after we die?None of these questions can be answered using the scientific method and so they fall outside the realm of science. That doesnt mean they arent good questions or that they arent worth asking, but they wont be answered in this class.

  • Im not telling you what to believeYou will not be tested on whether you think the theory of evolution is right or wrong You will be expected to know:the definition of evolutionDetails about Darwin and his findingsThe proof that we have of evolution (5 major categories of proof and examples of each)Natural selection and how it works as a mechanism for evolution.

  • Charles DarwinDarwin was always interested in the natural world. He came from a wealthy family and was expected to be a doctor. He went to college to study medicine and hated ithe dropped out.In 1827 he went to Cambridge to study theology and become a minister.Still, he was more interested in the natural world. Charles Darwin Born 1809Died 1882

  • Charles DarwinDarwin was always interested in the natural world. He came from a wealthy family and was expected to be a doctor. He went to college to study medicine and hated ithe dropped out.In 1827 he went to Cambridge to study theology and become a minister.Still, he was more interested in the natural world. Charles Darwin Born 1809Died 1882

  • The voyage that changed everythingAt the age of 22, Darwin was hired to be a naturalist on board a survey voyage. The ship was the HMS Beagle. The Beagle was a survey ship that was sent to collect information about the coastline of South America.

  • The voyage that changed everythingAt the age of 22, Darwin was hired to be a naturalist on board a survey voyage. The ship was the HMS Beagle. The Beagle was a survey ship that was sent to collect information about the coastline of South America.

  • Are we there yet? Reading to pass the time:On the voyage he read a book by a geologist (Charles Lyells Principles of Geology)The book theorized that the surface of the earth changed slowly over many years.Using this information, not only did Darwin realize that the earth must be very old, but he became convinced that the same thing (gradual change) happened to species.

  • Are we there yet? Reading to pass the time:On the voyage he read a book by a geologist (Charles Lyells Principles of Geology)The book theorized that the surface of the earth changed slowly over many years.Using this information, not only did Darwin realize that the earth must be very old, but he became convinced that the same thing (gradual change) happened to species.

  • What he observed on the voyageThe animals and plants in South America looked more like each other than the plants and animals in similar climates in other parts of the world.S. A. fossils looked like current S. A. plants and animals.Plants and animals found on islands close to South America (Galapagos Islands) were similar to the ones on the mainland.

  • Galapagos Islands

  • After the voyageDarwin returned from the voyage and studied his notes along with other scientists essays. Published his observations in a book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859.The book had 2 major points:Organisms have changed over time (Darwin called this descent with modification. We call it evolution)Organisms change because of natural selection.

  • After the voyageDarwin returned from the voyage and studied his notes along with other scientists essays. Published his observations in a book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection in 1859.The book had 2 major points:Organisms have changed over time (Darwin called this descent with modification. We call it evolution)Organisms change because of natural selection.

  • Natural SelectionDarwin studied Artificial Selection We have bred animals and plants to suit purposeswe select the traits we like.

  • Natural SelectionNatural selection is also called survival of the fittest. Natural Selection says that individuals that have physical or behavioral traits that better suit their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than those that do not have such traits.In order to work the following conditions have to be met: Harsh environmentMore offspring than can surviveVariation within the offspring

  • Proof of EvolutionFive major points that we use to support the theory of evolution:Fossil Record Homologous StructuresVestigial OrgansAmino Acid sequencesEmbryology

  • Fossil RecordEvolution can be seen in the fossil record.Darwin predicted and we have found thousands of transitional forms that link ancestors and current organisms. Examples: page 284 and 285 in your bookAlso horse transitional forms

  • Fossil RecordArchaeopteryxSignificant because it shows the transition from reptile to bird.

  • Fossil RecordArchaeopteryxSignificant because it shows the transition from reptile to bird.

  • Tiktaalik

  • Homologous StructuresStructures that are similar in more than one species Used to support a common ancestry.Example: Common mammal forearm / leg / flipper. See page 286 in your book

  • Vestigial StructuresOrgans or structures that are reduced in size and seem to have little or no function.Vestigial structures are considered to be evidence of an organisms evolutionary pastex: Whales pelvic bone, blind salamander eye socket, our appendix, our wisdom teeth.

  • Snake Feet

  • Amino Acid sequences. Look at page 287 for an example,Species descended from a recent common ancestor have fewer amino acid differences between their proteins than do species that have a common ancestor further back in time.

  • Amino Acid SequenceWe can take amino acid sequence differences and graph them to create a phylogenic tree. A phylogenetic tree shows relationships and common ancestory using some trait (in this case, amino acid sequences.)

  • Terminal = a taxonomic group; These usually represent living species, genes, or proteins that are still around today.Branches = the lines in a phylogenetic tree that connect terminals to nodes or one node to anotherNodes = points in a tree where branches intersect; they the represent ancestors of all escend from them. MRCA (most recent common ancestor) = the latest ancestor shared by a group of terminals; Clades = natural groups of organisms

  • Tree of LifeTree of life video

    David M. Hillis, Derrick Zwickl, and Robin Gutell, University of Texas.

  • EmbryologyAll vertebrate embryos have similar structures. All have a tail, buds that become limbs and pharyngeal pouches. We lose the tail. Mammals, birds and reptiles lose the pharyngeal pouchesin fish and amphibians they become gills

  • Study of Natural SelectionFind a group of 2 or 3. There is not enough supplies for anyone to work on their own. ALL of you need your own data table, a ruler, and a pencil.For your group, someone should obtain a deck of cards and a calculator from the front of room.

  • Study of Natural SelectionThe cards represent the population and the number on the card represents the height (in feet) of the individuals.Jot this down in the top margin of your paper so you dont forget: Aces = 1 foot, King=13 feet, Queen=12 feet, Jack=11 feet and all the others = number on card

  • Sampling dateSample #Height of organisms (in feet)Average height of sample123456

    2001123XXXXXXX2001 Avg.:

    2005123XXXXXXX2005 Avg.:

    2009123XXXXXXX2009 Avg:

    2013123XXXXXXX2013 Avg:

  • 2001 ProcedureSample #1 Shuffle the cards. Draw 6 cards from the deck. Record the number show on each card on the data table as height of organisms. Calculate the average to fill in last columnReturn the 6 cards to the deck and shuffleRepeat these steps 1-3 for days two and three. (samples 2 and 3)

  • Sampling dateSample #Height of organisms (in feet)Average height of sample123456

    2001123XXXXXXX2001 Avg.:

    2005123XXXXXXX2005 Avg.:

    2009123XXXXXXX2009 Avg:

    2013123XXXXXXX2013 Avg:

  • 2005 ProcedureDuring the years from 2001 to 2005 all the vegetation below the height of 5 feet has been devoured by caterpillars. Remove all the cards with numbers lower than 5 (Ace 4). set these cards aside and shuffle remaining cards. Sample #1 - Draw 6 cards from the deck. Record the number show on each card on the data table as height of organisms. Calculate the average to fill in last columnReturn the 6 cards to the deck and shuffleRepeat these steps 1-3 for days two and three.

  • Sampling dateSample #Height of organisms (in feet)Average height of sample123456

    2001123XXXXXXX2001 Avg.:

    2005123XXXXXXX2005 Avg.:

    2009123XXXXXXX2009 Avg:

    2013123XXXXXXX2013 Avg:

  • 2009 ProcedureDuring the years from 2005-2009 all the vegetation below the height of 7 feet ha

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