evolution of populations chapter 16

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Evolution of Populations Chapter 16. Dr. Donna Howell Biology I Blacksburg High School. Genes and Variation. In the 1930s, experts finally connected the work of Gregor Mendel and Charles Darwin. They realized for the first time that changes in genes produced variation in offspring. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Radiant Spectacle

Evolution of PopulationsChapter 16 Dr. Donna HowellBiology IBlacksburg High School

1Genes and VariationIn the 1930s, experts finally connected the work of Gregor Mendel and Charles Darwin.They realized for the first time that changes in genes produced variation in offspring.They then said that natural selection works on this variation.

Variation and Gene PoolsOne way scientists study genetic variation is through the study of populations both animal and human.Because members of a population interbreed, they share a common group of genes called a gene pool.The relative frequency of an allele is the number of times that the allele occurs in a gene pool.

Variation and Gene PoolsGene pools are important in the field of evolution because evolution is the change in relative frequency of alleles in a population.

Sources of Genetic VariationOne major source of genetic variation is mutations in DNA.These can occur due to mistakes in DNA replication or due to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, etc.Can affect an organisms fitness.

Sources of Genetic VariationAnother source of genetic variation is the shuffling of genes.This occurs during the production of eggs and sperm.The 23 pairs of chromosomes can produce 8.4 million different genetic combinations.

Single-Gene and Polygenic TraitsThe number of phenotypes produced for a given trait depends on how many genes control the trait.Some traits are controlled by a single gene. Others are controlled by two or more genes.

Single-Gene and Polygenic TraitsAn example of a single-gene trait is the gene that codes for the widows peak in your hair.An example of a polygenic trait is skin color in humans.Because multiple genes code for this, there is a very wide range of possible skin colors.

Natural Selection on Single-Gene TraitsNatural selection doesnt act on genes it acts on whole organisms because either the organism lives or dies with all of its genes.Natural selection on single-gene traits results in changes in allele frequencies and thus evolution.

Natural Selection on Single-Gene TraitsAn example is the population of lizards to the right. Mutations have occurred that produced red and black lizards.The red ones are more visible to predators, so disappear.The black ones can get warmer in the sun, eat more, and thus survive.

Natural Selection on Polygenic TraitsWhen there is more than one gene that controls a trait, natural selection is more complex.Can affect in three ways:

Directional selectionStabilizing selectionDisruptive selection

Natural Selection on Polygenic TraitsDirectional selection is when individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at the middle or other end of the curve.Example: a food shortage causes the supply of small seeds to run low, and beak sizes get bigger as a result because only big seeds left.

Natural Selection on Polygenic TraitsStabilizing selection is when individuals near the center of a curve have higher fitness that those at either end.Example: human babies born at average mass are more likely to survive than babies born either much smaller or much larger than average.

Natural Selection on Polygenic TraitsDisruptive selection is when individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middleExample: average-sized seeds become less common, and larger and smaller seeds become more common.

Genetic DriftGenetic drift is a random change in allele frequency due to a smaller population.Can occur when a small group of individuals colonizes a new habitat.The founder effect occurs when a small subgroup of a population migrates away from the rest.

Genetic EquilibriumGenetic equilibrium is when allele frequencies in a population remain constant.If allele frequencies remain constant, evolution does not occur.The Hardy-Weinberg Principle says that allele frequencies will remain constant unless something causes it to change.

Genetic EquilibriumFive conditions are required for genetic equilibrium to take place:

Random matingPopulation must be largeNo movement into or out of populationNo mutationsNo natural selection

Genetic EquilibriumFive conditions are required for genetic equilibrium to take place:

Random matingPopulation must be largeNo movement into or out of populationNo mutationsNo natural selection

SpeciationNatural selection can lead to new allele frequencies in a population.But how does this lead to the formation of whole new species?The formation of new species is called speciation.

Speciation Reproductive IsolationAs new species evolve, populations exhibit reproductive isolation.

Speciation Reproductive IsolationOne way reproductive isolation can occur is through behavioral isolation.Ex: different courtship rituals or mating songs

Speciation Reproductive IsolationAnother way reproductive isolation can occur is geographic isolation.Ex: get stuck on two different sides of a river

Speciation Reproductive IsolationAnother way reproductive isolation can occur is by temporal (time) isolation.Ex: reproduce at different times of year

Speciation of Darwins FinchesDarwin studied a group of finches in the Galapagos, and documented the process of speciation.

Speciation of Darwins FinchesDarwin found that speciation occurred by:Founding of new populationGeographic isolationChanges in gene poolReproductive isolationEcological competition

1. Founders ArriveTo begin, a few species of finches either flew or were blown to another island. They survived and reproduced.

2. Geographic IsolationLater, some birds crossed to another island and stayed there. They survived and reproduced and no longer shared the same gene pool with birds on the original island.

3. Gene Pool ChangesOver time, populations on the different islands became adapted to their local environments.Natural selection caused beaks to change according to what birds ate.

4. Reproductive IsolationOnce the gene pool changes, different species can no longer mate with one another and produce offspring.Example: mate at different times of the year, different courtship rituals, etc.

5. Ecological CompetitionNow that different species are living together, they must compete for available food (seeds). Their beaks will evolve to eat whatever kinds of food they can find.

The End