Everything you need to know about

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<ol><li> 1. VHDX details and file format Mahesh Mankar www.ryussi.com .vhdx </li><li> 2. Hyper-V VM Hyper-V VM consists following files Configuration file VMGUID.xml Running memory file VMGUID.bin Virtual disk file(s) VMNAME.vhdx </li><li> 3. VM files VMGUID.xml Consists all configuration of VM in xml format ... Win8Virtual Machines ... 00-15-5D-01-08-76 ... D:Win8.vhdx ... 1 ... VMGUID.bin Created when machine is running, consiste memory map. Used for save/pause the VM. </li><li> 4. What is vhdx vhdx is a file format used by Hyper-V ( Server 2012) (Earlier with server 2008, it was .vhd) This is the file formate used by hypervisor (Windows Hyper-V) and Windows Azure to create virtual disk drive for virtual machines. </li><li> 5. History The .vhd format was created by Connectix for Connectix Virtual PC product Acquired by Microsoft in 2003 Supported by Microsoft Virtual PC Microsoft Virtual Server Hyper-V Oracle VirtualBox Sun xVM VMware ESX VMware Workstation Citrix XenServer .vhdx over .vhd From Windows 8 &amp; Server 2012 Microsoft modified vhd format to vhdx </li><li> 6. Types Fixed size This type of disk are created with the specified size. Space is allocated at the time of creation This gives higher performance 500 GB - actual FixedDisk.vhdx (500 GB) </li><li> 7. Types Dynamic expanding Dynamically growing. Space is allocated as required This gives better space management but slower in performance 500 GB - logical DynamicDisk.vhdx (500 GB) 50 GB -actual </li><li> 8. Types Differencing It freezes the parent disk and creates delta disk Used for snapshot purpose FixedDisk.vhdx (100 GB) 100 GB DiffDiskA.avhdx (10 GB) 10 GB DiffDiskAA.avhdx (5 GB) 5 GB DiffDiskB.vhdx (20 GB) 20 GB Parent Parent Child Child Child </li><li> 9. Features Maximum size supported is 64 TB. With VHD it is 2 TB Block size is 4k Improved performance Larger logical sector sizes for a virtual disk up to 4 KB Large block sizes for a virtual disk up to 256 MB that enables tuning block size to match the IO Updated metadata structures To prevent data loss during power failures </li><li> 10. .vhdx file layout .vhdx file logical layout </li><li> 11. .vhdx file layout .vhdx file layout </li><li> 12. .vhdx file layout Header 1MB -This is first object of file contains following sections File type identifier Contains a short, fixed signature to identify the file as a VHDX Two headers Acts as a root of the VHDX data structure tree, providing version information, the location and size of the log, and some basic file metadata Only one header is active at a time VHDX_HEADER Signature(UINT32) Checksum(UINT32) SequenceNumber(UINT64) FileWriteGuid(GUID) DataWriteGuid(GUID) LogGuid(GUID) LogVersion(UINT16) Version(UINT16) LogLength(UINT32) LogOffset(UINT64) Reserved[4016](UINT8) Two region table Lists regions, which are virtually contiguous, variable-size, MB aligned pieces of data within the file Header Layout text File Identifier Header 1 Header 2 Region Table 1 0 KB 64 KB 128 KB 192 KB 256 KB 1MB Reserved 320 KB Region Table 2 </li><li> 13. .vhdx file layout Log The log is a single circular buffer stored contiguously at a location that is specified in the VHDX header Consists of variable-sized log entries to be written after unexpected system failure event Blocks Payload blocks contain virtual disk payload data. Sector bitmap blocks contain parts of the sector bitmap BAT BAT is a region consisting of a single array of 64-bit values, with an entry for each block that determines the state and file offset of that block Metadata Region MetaData table - Mapping to MetaData items MetaData items - User metadata and system metadata </li><li> 14. API for vhdx C++ API is available to create update .vhdx file. Virtdisk.h, Virtdisk.dll, Virtdisk.lib Supported from windows 7 onward Available calls for .vhdx AddVirtualDiskParent AttachVirtualDisk BreakMirrorVirtualDisk CompactVirtualDisk CreateVirtualDisk DeleteVirtualDiskMetadata DetachVirtualDisk EnumerateVirtualDiskMetadata ExpandVirtualDisk GetStorageDependencyInformation GetVirtualDiskInformation GetVirtualDiskMetadata GetVirtualDiskOperationProgress GetVirtualDiskPhysicalPath MergeVirtualDisk MirrorVirtualDisk OpenVirtualDisk ResizeVirtualDisk SetVirtualDiskInformation SetVirtualDiskMetadata </li><li> 15. VDS - Virtual Disk Service Manages a wide range of storage configurations From single disk to external storage arrays Exposes an API (Windows Storage Management API) </li><li> 16. Usability Create new disk Delete disk Expand disk Compact disk Mirror disk Attach disk </li><li> 17. Comparison Comparison with other virtual disk format VIRTUAL DISK TYPE VHD VHDX VMDK VDI BUILT BY Microsoft Microsoft VMware Sun Microsystems MAX SIZE 2TB 64TB 62TB (2TB before Sep- 2013) 2TB TYPE - FIXED Yes Yes Yes Yes TYPE - DYNAMIC Yes Yes Yes Yes TYPE - DIFFERENCING/DELTA Yes Yes Yes No MULTIPART No No Yes No </li><li> 18. Get vhdx file information (GetVirtualDiskInformation) Expand size (ResizeVirtualDisk) Example </li><li> 19. Example </li><li> 20. Thanks Have Questions ? Feel free to reach out to us at info@ryussi.com ! </li></ol>

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