evaluation of oxygen transmission rate of packaging films on growth

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  • EVALUATION OF OXYGEN TRANSMISSION RATE OF PACKAGING FILMS ON

    GROWTH OF CLOSTRIDIUM SPOROGENES AND MEDIA OXIDATION REDUCTION POTENTIAL IN PACKAGED SEAFOOD SIMULATING MEDIA

    By

    JAYASHREE GNANARAJ

    A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

    OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ENGINEERING

    UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

    2003

  • Copyright 2003

    by

    Jayashree Gnanaraj

  • This thesis is dedicated to my parents and my brother who have always supported and encouraged me from near and afar.

  • iv

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    I am grateful to Dr. Bruce A. Welt, my advisor, supervisor and mentor who taught

    me more than I hoped to learn here at graduate school, without whose support this

    research work would not have been possible. His work has been my inspiration. This

    work has been a product of his patience and endurance. He has inspired me to be a better

    researcher and also a better person. He understood my problems and helped me to

    succeed inspite of them. My success is and will be a reflection of his outstanding abilities

    as a teacher. Nothing short of this will be adequate to express my gratitude to him.

    I would like to thank Dr. Art A. Teixeira and Dr. Hordur G. Kristinsson for

    agreeing to serve on my committee, guiding me and always ready to help. I would like to

    thank Dr. Steven Otwell for his suggestions. I would like to thank National Fisheries

    Institute and Florida Sea Grant for financial assistance without which this project would

    not have been completed.

    This paper is also result of enduring support and love and cooperation of my

    parents, Mrs. and Mr. Gnanaraj. I would like to thank my brother Sriram for being there

    for me. My family members have given me strength for what I started. I am indebted to

    them for being there as unshakeable pillars of support.

    This thesis is incomplete without acknowledging my friends in Gainesville. Special

    thanks go to Bob, Billy, Dhuruva, Ralph, Teresa and Vivek. Most of all I would like to

    thank the faculty and staff in Department of Agriculture and Biological Engineering.

  • v

    TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................................................................. iv

    LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................ vii

    LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................x

    ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... xi

    CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................1

    FDA Alert .....................................................................................................................1 Food-Borne Botulism ...................................................................................................2

    Significance of Clostridium botulinum ..........................................................2 Conducive conditions for growth of C. botulinum ........................................3

    Reduced Oxygen Packaging .........................................................................................3 Packaging of Horticultural Products ..............................................................4 Packaging of Flesh Foods ..............................................................................5

    Dynamic nature of atmosphere in ROP packaged flesh foods .....................................5 Research Hypothesis.....................................................................................................6

    2 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON FILM

    PERMEABILITY.........................................................................................................8

    Materials and Method ...................................................................................................9 Results and Discussion ...............................................................................................13

    3 EFFECT OF FILM OTR, PACKAGE AREA AND TEMPERATURE ON

    CLOSTRIDIUM SPOROGENES SPORE OUTGROWTH........................................18

    Materials and Method .................................................................................................20 Results and Discussion ...............................................................................................25

    4 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK ...................................................................34

    Conclusion ..................................................................................................................34 Future Work................................................................................................................35

  • vi

    APPENDIX A OXYGEN TRANSMISSION RATE OF PACKAGING FILMS AT DIFFERENT

    TEMPERATURES AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY..................................................36

    B DIGITAL PICTURES OF SPORE OUTGROWTH IN DIFFERENT FILMS AND BAG SIZES.......................................................................................................39

    C OXIDATION REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITHOUT PH COMPENSATION...150

    LIST OF REFERENCES.................................................................................................152

    BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ...........................................................................................155

  • vii

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table page 2-1 Film description........................................................................................................10

    2-2 Oxygen transmission rates of different films measured at different temperature and relative humidity................................................................................................13

    2-3 Comparison of measured oxygen transmission rates with value reported by manufacturer.............................................................................................................13

    2-4 Ea and k0 values for Arrhenius relationship between OTR and temperature for the packaging films at 0% RH .......................................................................................16

    2-5 Ea and k0 values for Arrhenius relationship between OTR and temperature for the packaging films at 50% RH .....................................................................................16

    3-1 OTR of film used in this study .................................................................................21

    3-2 Spore outgrowth over time in regular media for various film types at various temperatures .............................................................................................................26

    3-3 Spore outgrowth over time in anaerobic media for various film types at various temperatures .............................................................................................................28

    3-4 Oxidation reduction potential of highly reduced anaerobic media in bags of various film types at different temperatures.............................................................30

    A-1 OTR of packaging films at 0% RH ..........................................................................37

    A-2 OTR of packaging films at 50% RH ........................................................................38

    B-1 Growth table for C60 8X8 at 15C Anaerobic Media ..............................................40

    B-2 Growth table for AET 8x8 at 15C Anaerobic Media..............................................44

    B-3 Growth table for BDF 8x8 at 15C Anaerobic Media..............................................47

    B-4 Growth table for C60 18X14 at 15C Anaerobic Media ..........................................51

    B-5 Growth table for AET 18X14 at 15C Anaerobic Media.........................................55

  • viii

    B-6 Growth table for BDF 18X14 at 15C Anaerobic Media.........................................59

    B-7 Growth table for C60 8X8 at 23C Anaerobic Media ..............................................62

    B-8 Growth table for AET 8x8 at 23C Anaerobic Media..............................................63

    B-10 Growth table for C60 18x14 at 23C Anaerobic Media...........................................65

    B-11 Growth table for AET 18x14 at 23C Anaerobic Media..........................................66

    B-12 Growth table for BDF 18x14 at 23C Anaerobic Media..........................................67

    B-13 Growth table for C60 8x8 at 30C Anaerobic Media...............................................68

    B-14 Growth table for AET 8x8 at 30C Anaerobic Media..............................................69

    B-15 Growth table for BDF 8x8 at 30C Anaerobic Media..............................................70

    B-16 Growth table for C60 18x14 at 30C Anaerobic Media...........................................71

    B-17 Growth table for AET 18x14 at 35C Anaerobic Media..........................................72

    B-18 Growth table for BDF 18x14 at 35C Anaerobic Media..........................................73

    B-19 Growth table for C60 8x8 at 35C Anaerobic Media...............................................74

    B-20 Growth table for AET 8x8 at 35C Anaerobic Media...............................

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